LISTING
Part 1
Part 2



Part 1
[NEOORN-L]
USFWS seeks information for potential listing of  foreign species on Endangered Species List
(part 1 of 2)
-
Under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. can list foreign species (NOT non-native species that are in the U.S., but species that are in their native ranges).

Because of the distribution of some of these species, I am copying this message to NEOORN. If any of you are on lists relevant to the distribution of species outside the Western Hemisphere, please forward this message.

This notice covers 73 species and it is very long. I've deleted non-essential information and the literature list. Please e-mail me if you want the full notice. I am also splitting the list itself and the information upon which the USFWS based its decisions into two messages.

This message covers
-  Previously listed as "Warranted but precluded"; now "Listing not warranted"  (18 species)
- "Proposals for listing will be published" (5 species)

The next message will cover "Listing is warranted but precluded" by actions needed for higher-priority species (51 species).'

Details are below. In a nutshell, all species are listed by IUCN, and so the Public Employees for Public Responsibility has petitioned for their inclusion on the U.S. Endangered Species list. The petition was first filed in 1997, and the USFWS has now conducted a second review mandated by the status it assigned to these species in response to that 1997 petition.

The USFWS (Office of Scientific Authority) is seeking further information on any of these species, but information on the five for which listing proposals will be prepared is probably of most value.

The information requested is as follows:

Request for Information

We request you submit any further information on the taxa named in
this notice as soon as possible or whenever it becomes available. We
especially seek information: (1) Indicating that we should remove a
taxon from warranted or warranted-but-precluded status; (2) indicating
that we should add a taxon to a list of candidate taxa; (3) documenting
threats to any of the included taxa; (4) describing the immediacy or
magnitude of threats facing these taxa; (5) pointing out taxonomic or
nomenclatural changes for any of the taxa; (6) suggesting appropriate
common names; or (7) noting any mistakes, such as errors in the
indicated historical ranges.

However, you can submit any other information that you feel should be considered.

Ellen
 

--
PLEASE NOTE NEW EMAIL ADDRESS
ellen.paul@verizon.net

Ellen Paul
Executive Director
The Ornithological Council
Mailto:ellen.paul@verizon.net
Ornithological Council Website:  http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET
"Providing Scientific Information about Birds"
 
 

Previously listed as warranted but precluded; now removed from listing as warranted  (17 species)

Considered extinct when the initial warranted-but-precluded finding was made and should not have been included on the list at that time:
Colombian grebe (Podiceps andinus) -
Bar-winged rail (Nesocolpeus poecilopterus)
Grey-headed blackbird (Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus)
Moorea reed-warbler (Acrocephalus caffer longirostris)
Ua Pu flycatcher (Pomarea mendozae mira)

Believed extinct:
Kalinowski's tinamou (Nothoprocta kalinowskii)
Beck's petrel (Pseudobulweria becki)
Utila chachalaca (Ortalis vetula deschauenseei)
Stresemann's bristlefront (Merulaxis stresemanni)
Bananal tyrannulet (Serpophaga araguayae)
Long-legged thicketbird (Trichocichla rufa)

Not taxonomically distinct
Beck's petrel (Pseudobulweria becki)
Italian grey partridge (Perdix perdix italica)
Hairy hermit (Glaucis hirsuta)
Niceforo's wren (Thryothorus nicefori)
Tumaco seedeater (Sporophila insulata)

Best scientific and commercial data indicate that it does not qualify ast threatend or endangered
Lanyu scops owl (Otus elegans botelensis)
Grey-winged cotinga (Tijuca condita)

Proposals for listing will be prepared and published (5 species)
Giant ibis (Pseudibis gigantean)
Black stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae)
Gurney's pitta (Pitta gurneyi)
Socorro mockingbird (Mimodes graysoni)
Caerulean paradise-flycatcher (Eutrichomyias rowleyi)
 
 

[Federal Register: May 21, 2004 (Volume 69, Number 99)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Page 29353-29378]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]

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Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of
Findings on Resubmitted Petitions for Foreign Species; Annual
Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Fish and Wildlife Service
50 CFR Part 17

Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of
Findings on Resubmitted Petitions for Foreign Species; Annual
Description of Progress on Listing Actions

AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior.

ACTION: Notice of review.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: In this document, we announce our annual petition findings for
foreign species, as required under section 4(b)(3)(C)(i) of the
Endangered Species Act of 1972, as amended. When, in response to a
petition, we find that listing a species is warranted but precluded, we
must complete a new status review each year until we publish a proposed
rule or make a determination that listing is not warranted. These
subsequent status reviews and the accompanying 12-month findings are
referred to as ``resubmitted'' petition findings.
    Information contained in this document describes our review of the
current status of 73 foreign taxa that were the subjects of warranted-
but-precluded findings. Based on our review, we find that 51 species
continue to warrant listing, but that their listing remains precluded
by higher-priority listing actions. Seventeen species no longer warrant
listing under the Endangered Species Act and, therefore, have been
removed from the warranted-but-precluded list. We will promptly publish
listing proposals for five of the species.
    We request additional status information for these species as well
as information on taxa that we should include in future updates of this
list. We will consider this information in preparing listing documents
and future resubmitted petition findings. This information will also
help us in monitoring the status of the taxa and in conserving them.

DATES: We will accept comments on these resubmitted petition findings
at any time.

ADDRESSES: Submit any comments, information, and questions by mail to
the Chief, Division of Scientific Authority, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 750, Arlington, VA 22203; or by
fax to 703-358-2276; or by e-mail to ScientificAuthority@fws.gov.
Comments and supporting information will be available for public
inspection, by appointment, Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.
at the above address.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert R. Gabel at the above address,
or by telephone, 703-358-1708; fax, 703-358-2276; or e-mail,
ScientificAuthority@fws.gov.
 

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C.
1531 et seq.), provides two mechanisms for considering species for
listing. First, we can identify and propose for listing those species
that are endangered or threatened based on the factors contained in
section 4(a)(1). We implement this through the candidate program.
Candidate taxa are those taxa for which we have on file sufficient
information on biological vulnerability and threats to support a
proposal to list as endangered or threatened, but for which preparation
and publication of a proposed rule is precluded by higher-priority
listing actions. None of the species covered by this notice were
assessed through the candidate program. Second, the Act allows the
public to petition us to add species to the List of Endangered and
Threatened Wildlife and Plants (List). Under section 4(b)(3)(A), when
we receive such a petition, we must determine within 90 days, to the
maximum extent practicable, whether the petition presents substantial
information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted (90-
day finding). If we make a positive 90-day finding, under section
4(b)(3)(B) we must make one of three possible findings within 12 months
of the receipt of the petition (12-month finding).
    The first possible 12-month finding is that listing is not
warranted, in which case we need not take any further action on the
petition. The second possibility is that we may find that listing is
warranted, in which case we must promptly publish a proposed rule to
list the species. Once we publish a proposed rule for a species,
section 4(b)(5) and (6) govern further procedures, regardless of
whether or not we issued the proposal in response to a petition. The
third possibility is that we may find that listing is warranted but
precluded. Such a finding means that immediate publication of a
proposed rule to list the species is precluded by higher-priority
listing proposals, and that we are making expeditious progress to add
and remove species from the List, as appropriate.
    Pursuant to section 4(b)(3)(C)(i) of the Act, when, in response to
a petition, we find that listing a species is warranted but precluded,
we must make a new 12-month finding each year until we publish a
proposed rule or make a determination that listing is not warranted.
These subsequent 12-month findings are referred to as ``resubmitted''
petition findings. This notice constitutes publication of our
resubmitted petition findings for all foreign species that are
currently the subject of an outstanding petition.
    Section 4(b)(3)(C)(iii) of the Act requires the Service to
``implement a system to monitor effectively the status of all species''
subject to a warranted-but-precluded 12-month finding, and to ``make
prompt use of the [emergency listing] authority [under section 4(b)(7)]
to prevent a significant risk to the well being of any such species.''
The annual resubmitted petition findings for foreign species play a
crucial role in the Service's monitoring of all warranted-but-precluded
foreign species by seeking information regarding the status of those
species. The Service reviews all new information on these species as it
becomes available and identifies any species for which an emergency
listing may be appropriate. If the Service determines that emergency
listing is appropriate for any species, the Service will make prompt
use of its authority under section 4(b)(7). We have been monitoring and
will continue to monitor all warranted-but-precluded foreign species.
 
 

    As a result of this review, we find that warranted-but-precluded
findings remain appropriate for 51 species. We emphasize that we are
not proposing these species for listing by this notice, but we
anticipate developing and publishing proposed listing rules for these
taxa in the future. Seventeen species no longer warrant listing under
the Act and, therefore, are being removed from the list.
    Based on information gathered and assessed since January 12, 1995,
we have updated our determinations of whether listing of these taxa
continues to be warranted or warranted but precluded, or whether we
have now determined that listing is not warranted. See Table 1 for a
summary of these current determinations. Taxa in Table 1 of this notice
are assigned to three status categories, noted in the ``Category''
column at the left side of the table. We identify the species for which
listing is no longer warranted with an ``R'' in the category column. We
identify the taxa for which we continue to find that listing is
warranted but precluded by a ``C'' in the category column. We have
added a third category for those species for which we find that listing
is warranted and designate these taxa with an ``L.'' The column labeled
``Priority'' indicates the listing priority number for all warranted or
warranted-but-precluded taxa. We assign this number based on the
immediacy and magnitude of threats, as well as taxonomic status. We
published a complete description of our listing priority system on
September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098). Following the scientific name of each
taxon (third column) is the family designation (fourth column) and the
common name, if one exists (fifth column). The sixth column provides
the known historical range for the taxon.
 

Extinct Species

Kalinowski's tinamou (Nothoprocta kalinowskii)
    Kalinowski's tinamou was endemic to Peru. It is known from only two
specimens that were collected from widely scattered localities and has
not been recorded since 1900 (BirdLife International 2000). One
specimen was collected in 1894, in Cuzco at 4,575 meters (m), and the
other was collected in 1900, on the Pacific slope east of Santiago de
Chuco, western La Libertad, at 3,000 m (Collar et al. 1992). The Cuzco
specimen was collected in an area that suggested its natural habitat
was grassland or possibly a Polylepis woodland (BirdLife International
2000). The specimen collected on the Pacific slope of La Libertad came
from a habitat of montane scrub (Collar et al. 1992). It is possible
that the Cuzco specimen is mislabeled and was also taken at a lower
elevation (BirdLife International 2000).
    Virtually nothing is known about this species, but its conservation
status was presumed to be critical (IUCN 2002). Threats to the species
and the cause of its extreme rarity and likely extinction are unknown
(BirdLife International 2000). Virtually all species of tinamous are
affected by hunting and habitat alteration from the presence of man in
the high Andes, and these factors may have been threats (Collar et al.
1992). This species has not been documented in over a century, even
though Collar et al. (1992) had proposed that the existence of the
species be confirmed. We conclude, based on the best available
scientific and commercial information, that this species is extinct. We
therefore find that listing of this species is no longer warranted.
Because this species is known from only two specimens collected over
100 years ago, a full taxonomic evaluation of the species, involving
careful evaluation of the two known skins, would be helpful to
determine if it ever was a distinct taxon or is actually another
species. Research on whether there is any possibility of the continued
existence of this species would also be helpful.

Colombian grebe (Podiceps andinus)
The best available scientific and commercial information indicates
that the Colombian grebe is extinct, and therefore, listing is not
warranted. It was once found on several lakes on the Bogota and Ubate
savannas, and in Lake Tota in the eastern Andes of Colombia (O'Donnel
and Fjedsa 1997). These lakes contained tall marginal reeds and
extensive shallows full of submergent water-weeds. The Colombian grebe
was formerly considered abundant on Lake Tota in the 1940s, but by
1968, it had declined to approximately 300 birds (del Hoyo et al.
1992). There were only two records of the bird in the 1970s: one in
1972 and another one in 1977 involving one to three birds. It was
sporadically sighted in various other lakes in the region of the Sabana
de Bogota until the early 1950s. The last confirmed record of this
species was in 1977 (World Conservation Union [IUCN] 2002). However,
the validity of these last records has been questioned, and some
individuals believe the species may have become extinct as early as the
beginning of the 1960s. Two detailed surveys conducted in 1981 and 1982
in the wetlands of the eastern Andes of Colombia did not locate any
birds (O'Donnel and Fjedsa 1997).
    The decline of the Colombian grebe is attributed to wetland
drainage, siltation, pesticide pollution, disruption by reed
harvesting, hunting, competition, and predation of chicks by rainbow
trout (Salmo gairdneri) (del Hoyo et al. 1992). However, the main cause
of the decline is considered to be the drainage of wetlands, siltation,
and subsequent eutrophication of Lake Tota, which destroyed the open,
submergent Potamogeton vegetation and resulted in the formation of a
dense monoculture of Elodea (Varty et al. 1986, Fjeldsa 1993, as cited
in O'Donnel and Fjeldsa 1997). In the 1950s, to provide land for
agriculture, the level of the lake was reduced by about one meter. This
also changed the composition of the aquatic plant community from 1960
forward due to a boom in onion growing around the lake. Large amounts
of fertilizers and mineral were applied at this time. The extent of
shallow zones with floating vegetation was greatly reduced. The area
affected was where the Colombian grebe, a foliage gleaner, obtained
most of its food. The decrease in food availability markedly reduced
the number of grebes and made the species more vulnerable to other
adverse impacts (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Beck's petrel (Pseudobulweria becki)
    Based on the best available scientific and commercial information
this species is either extinct or conspecific (i.e., synonymous) with
another taxon, and we conclude that it no longer warrants listing. See
further discussion below under ``Taxa found to be not taxonomically
distinct'' for the basis for finding that the species, if it is not
conspecific with another taxon, is extinct.

Utila chachalaca (Ortalis vetula deschauenseei)
    The Utila chachalaca was only found on Utila Island off the coast
of northern Honduras. This subspecies was found in mangroves, which
cover approximately three-quarters of Utila Island, and was formerly
found in adjacent scrub patches. The Utila chachalaca was known to be
local in 1936, but not rare. However, since that time, the population
declined severely due to intense hunting pressure. In 1962, the
population was estimated at 50-70 individuals. More recently, S.
Midence (personal communication, as cited in Brooks and Strahl 2000)
had suggested that a small population persists on the island, but del
Hoyo et al. (1994) stated that it is possibly extinct. Results from
brief surveys conducted in 1995 suggested that the population at that
time was extremely small if not extinct (Seutin 1998, as cited in
Brooks and Strahl 2000). Honduras has listed the species Ortalis vetula
in Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Considering the historic
decline of the species, that some ornithologists have considered this
species to be extinct for 10 years or more, and that no confirmed
sightings have occurred in over 10 years, we conclude that the best
available scientific and commercial information indicates that this
species is extinct and its listing is no longer warranted.

Bar-winged rail (Nesocolpeus poecilopterus)
The best available scientific and commercial information indicates
that the bar-winged rail is extinct, and therefore listing of this
species is not warranted. It is known from twelve 19th Century
specimens from Vitu Levu and Ovalau, reports from Taveuni, and in 1973,
from Waisa and Vitu Levu, all in Fiji (Holyoak 1979, as cited in
BirdLife International 2000). This was a flightless bird that inhabited
remote forested areas, old overgrown plantations, and possibly lowland
swamps (Pratt et al. 1987). Two other rails from these islands have
become extinct due to predation by introduced mongooses (Herpestes
spp.) and cats (Felis domesticus). BirdLife International (2000)
classifies the bar-winged rail as extinct.

Stresemann's bristlefront (Merulaxis stresemanni)
    Stresemann's bristlefront is known from just two specimens from
eastern Brazil: one collected near Salvadore in the 1830s and a second
from Ilheus in 1945 (BirdLife International 2000). Nothing is known
about this species, and recent surveys have failed to find any
individuals. The humid forest in Bahia, the presumed range of the
species, has been cleared or converted to cacao plantations, and the
remaining patches are disappearing very rapidly (BirdLife International
2000). This species is categorized as Critically Endangered by the IUCN
because, if it is extant, its population is likely to be very tiny
(IUCN 2002), and it continues to be protected by Brazilian law.
BirdLife International (2000) recommends that surveys be conducted to
locate any extant populations. Fieldwork is needed not only to confirm
the continued existence of the species but to provide information on
its ecological requirements if it exists (BirdLife International 2001).
Based on the best available scientific and commercial information,
particularly the lack of sightings and extensive loss of habitat, we
conclude that this species is now extinct and its listing is not
warranted.

Bananal tyrannulet (Serpophaga araguayae)
    The Bananal tyrannulet appears to be known only from the type
specimen from Ilha do Bananal, Goias, Brazil (Traylor 1979, as cited in
Collar et al. 1988), and has not been relocated in the wild despite
several searches. We have therefore determined that the species is
extinct, and we no longer find that listing of this species is
warranted.

Grey-headed blackbird (Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus)
    The grey-headed blackbird has been classified by Environment
Australia as extinct. The subspecies was last seen in 1975 and there
have been no records since, despite searches (Garnett and Crowley
2000). It was endemic to Norfolk Island and originally probably
occurred throughout the island. The principle reason for the grey-
headed blackbird's disappearance was the arrival of black rats (Rattus
rattus) in the 1940s (Robinson 1988, as cited in Garnett and Crowley
2000). Hybridization with the European blackbird (Turdus merula) may
have also played a part in the decline of the subspecies (Schodde and
Mason 1999, as cited in Garnett and Crowley 2000). The best available
scientific and commercial information indicates that this species is
extinct, and therefore listing is not warranted.

Moorea reed-warbler (Acrocephalus caffer longirostris)
    This subspecies was considered nearly extinct in 1986 (Sherley
2001). An expedition in 1921 reported that this endemic form on Moorea
Island (Society Islands) was less common and localized than previously
thought. Investigative surveys in 1971-1973 located two pairs in the
interior of the island (Sherley 2001). However, research conducted in
December 1986 and January 1987 yielded no evidence of this warbler's
continued existence, and Thibault and Guyot (1988) considered it
extinct. Thus, we conclude that the best available scientific and
commercial information indicates that this subspecies is extinct, and
listing of this subspecies is not warranted. Three other forms of this
species, endemic to certain islands, are also extinct, whereas the
nominate form is widespread on many islands (Birds of French Overseas
Territories 2003).

Long-legged thicketbird (Trichocichla rufa)
    The long-legged thicketbird was endemic to Viti Levu and Vanua Levu
on Fiji (BirdLife International 2000). It was secretive and foraged on
the ground beneath dense vegetation in rainforests above 800 m (Pratt
et al. 1987). This species is known from very few specimens and has
been considered to be extinct (Watling 1982, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). Observations from 1967, 1973, 1991, and more
recently remain unconfirmed (D. Watling, personal communication 2000,
as cited in BirdLife International 2000). Predation by introduced
mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), possibly cats, and black rats
(Rattus rattus) may be threats (BirdLife International 2000). This
species is categorized as data deficient by the IUCN. However, we
conclude that the best available scientific and commercial information
indicates that this species is extinct, and that listing of the species
is no longer warranted.

Ua Pu flycatcher (Pomarea mendozae mira)
    Pomarea mendozae was formerly widespread in the central Marquesas
Islands, French Polynesia, and comprised four subspecies (Collar et.
al. 1994). On Ua Pu, the Ua Pu flycatcher was not located during 1989
or 1990, or during intensive searches in 1994 and 1998 (Thibault and
Meyer, as cited by BirdLife International 2003). The best available
scientific and commercial information indicates that this subspecies is
now extinct (BirdLife International 2003), and therefore listing is not
warranted.

Taxa Found To Be Not Taxonomically Distinct

Beck's petrel (Pseudobulweria becki)
    Beck's petrel is known from only two specimens: a female taken at
sea east of New Ireland and north of Buka, Papua New Guinea, in 1928,
and a male taken northeast of Rendova, Solomon Islands, in 1929
(BirdLife International 2000). If it survives at all, it is thought
that this species probably nests on small islets or high mountains on
larger islands (BirdLife International 2000), but this species is very
poorly known. This species may potentially be threatened by predation
from introduced cats and rats on its unknown breeding grounds (BirdLife
International 2000). This species is categorized as Critically
Endangered by the IUCN because it is suspected to have a tiny
population. However, if recent sightings of presumed Tahiti petrels
Pseudobulweria rostrata in the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands
prove to be, in fact, Beck's petrels, population estimates will
increase and perhaps cause the species to be categorized as Endangered
(IUCN 2002). There are a number of target actions identified for this
species by BirdLife International. These include various surveys as
well as investigating the taxonomic validity of specimens to determine
this species' relationship with the Tahiti petrel, with which it may be
conspecific (BirdLife International 2000).

The best available scientific and commercial information indicates
that this species is either extinct or conspecific (i.e., synonymous)
with another taxon, and we conclude that it no longer warrants listing.

Italian grey partridge (Perdix perdix italica)
    The Italian grey partridge was described at the beginning of the
20th Century from a limited number of museum specimens (BirdLife
International 1999). Subsequently, its taxonomic validity was
questioned (Violani et al. 1988, as cited in BirdLife International
1999). Currently, the subspecies italica is normally included within
the nominate perdix, even if taxonomy of the species may be subject to
further study (e.g., as recommended by del Hoyo et al. 1994). The
status of the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) is considered secure
because it is still widespread and estimated to number several million
birds (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Because we agree that the Italian grey
partridge is no longer considered distinct from the nominate species,
we conclude that it no longer warrants listing.

Hairy hermit (Glaucis hirsuta; Previously Referred to as black
barbthroat [Threnetes grzimeki])
    The black, or Grzimek's, barbthroat (species name used in the
original petition) was first described as a new species in 1973 by
Ruschi from Espiritu Santo (Sibley and Monroe 1990). It is currently
included with the hairy hermit (Glaucis hirsuta; Sick 1993), since it
has been determined that it was described based on the plumage of an
immature male G. hirsuta (del Hoyo et al. 1999; Sibley and Monroe
1990). Two subspecies are currently recognized: G. h. insularum, found
in Grenada and Trinidad and Tobago, and G. h. hirsute, found in Panama,
Colombia west of the Andes, and east of the Andes to central Bolivia,
through Venezuela to the Guianas, and almost all of Brazil (del Hoyo et
al. 1999). It is found in the understory of many types of forest and
dense vegetation outside primary forests, second growth, woodland
clearings, disturbed and secondary forest, riverine habitats, swamps,
shrubs, and forest edge (del Hoyo et al. 1999; Sick 1993). It is not
globally threatened and is generally common throughout much of its
extensive range (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Glaucis hirsuta is listed in
Appendix II of CITES.
    Based on the best available scientific and commercial information,
we conclude that listing of the black barbthroat is no longer warranted
because it has been determined to be conspecific with a species that is
common within its range and not a distinct, rare species.

Niceforo's wren (Thryothorus nicefori)
    Niceforo's wren occurs on the west slope of the eastern Andes in
Santander, Colombia (BirdLife International 2000). It is known only
from the type locality at San Gil on the Rio Fonce, south of
Bucaramanga, where seven specimens, including the type, were taken in
1945 (Meyer de Schauensee 1946, as cited in BirdLife International
2000). There appear to be no further records until 1989, when two birds
were seen in dense Acacia scrub in a semi-arid valley a short distance
east of San Gil (Collar et al. 1992). This species is considered
Critically Endangered by IUCN because its known population is tiny,
inferred to be declining, and known from only one site in a region
where the habitat is highly modified and habitat degradation is
continuing (IUCN 2002). The threats to this species are unclear because
the dependence on Acacia scrub and the extent of occupied habitat is
not known (BirdLife International 2000). Suitable habitat may have been
lost to agricultural conversion, and the remaining Acacia scrub is
threatened by goat and cattle grazing and seasonal burning for farming
(Collar et al. 1992).
    Mayr and Greenway (1960) and Ridgely and Tudor (1989) have
suggested that this bird may be a well-marked subspecies of the
widespread rufous-and-white wren (Thryothorus rufalbus) (Collar et al.
1992). In Colombia, this wren is found from the Caribbean lowlands to
the llanos east of the Andes (Hilty and Brown 1986). The most recent
observation of Niceforo's wren showed that it sounds exactly like the
rufous-and-white wren and responds to a tape of that species (P.
Kaestner in litt. 1992, as cited in Collar et al. 1992). Validity as a
separate species is doubtful (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999, as cited in
BirdLife International 2000). Therefore, because of the significant
information indicating that this is not a distinct taxon, but is a
variant of a widespread species, we conclude that listing of this
species is not warranted.

Tumaco seedeater (Sporophila insulata)
    The Tumaco seedeater is described from islands and river deltas on
the coast of southwest Colombia (BirdLife International 2000). The
type-series was collected in 1912 (Chapman 1917, as cited in Collar et
al. 1992), and the bird was not seen again until it was rediscovered 82
years later in 1994 on Isla Bocagrande (Salaman 1995). In 1998, birds
were found on Isla Aji in the Rio Naya Delta, Valle del Cauca (Gomez,
in litt. 1999, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). It could be
extinct on Tumaco (Salaman 1995), and it was not found on Isla
Bocagrande after 3 days of searching in December 1999 (Strewe, in litt.
2000). This species is classified as Critically Endangered in the 2002
IUCN Red List because it has a very small range and the population is
declining to the extent that it is possibly extirpated from Tumaco
(IUCN 2002). The population estimate for this species is 250-999 birds
with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International 2000).
Development is the major threat (ibid.). Nonetheless, information
indicates that the species status should be re-assessed based on
taxonomy. Ridgely and Tudor (1989) concluded that the Tumaco seedeater
is almost certainly allied to the more common chestnut-throated
seedeater (S. telasco), or may represent a hybrid between the chestnut-
throated seedeater and the ruddy-breasted seedeater (S. minuta),
although they indicate that the taxonomic relationship of S. insulata
and S. telasco should be investigated further, along with other closely
related species of Sporophila.
    We conclude that listing of this species is no longer warranted
based on this information on taxonomy. The best available scientific
information indicates that this taxon is either a conspecific of a more
common species or a hybrid of two known species.

Taxa That Are Not Threatened or Endangered

Lanyu scops owl (Otus elegans botelensis)
    The Lanyu scops owl is not considered globally threatened, and we
note that this subspecies has been regularly omitted from lists of
globally threatened birds (Collar et al. 1988, BirdLife International
2001). This subspecies is found on Lanyu Island, off the coast of
southeastern Taiwan (del Hoyo et al. 1999). In the mid-1980s, the Lanyu
scops owl was listed as Endangered by IUCN because its population was
estimated at about 200 individuals. Since that time, numbers have
grown, and recently, the population has been determined to be stable at
about 1,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Currently, the IUCN
categorizes Otus elegans as Lower Risk/Near-Threatened (IUCN 2002). The
species is listed in Appendix II of CITES, as are all members of the
Order Strigiformes unless they are listed in Appendix I.
    The status of this species has improved considerably since our
original warranted-but-precluded finding was made. Based on the best
available scientific and commercial information, we have evaluated the
status of this subspecies according to the five factors contained in
Section 4(a)(1) of the Act for determining whether a species is
endangered or threatened, as follows:
    The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment
of its habitat or range: The Lanyu scops owl is restricted to the
relatively small (45 km2) tropical island of Lanyu, located
southeast of Taiwan. Studies have shown that, although the amount of
suitable habitat is limited, all available nesting habitat is saturated
(Severinghaus 2000), and prospects for the survival of the Lanyu scops
owl are considered good as long as the habitat is protected (BirdLife
International 2000). We are not aware of any specific information on
current threats to the habitat of this subspecies.
    Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or
educational purposes: There is no documentation of overutilization of
this subspecies, if it is utilized at all. However, even if it were to
be utilized for some purpose, such use would be regulated
internationally through the current listing of this and all owls in the
Appendices to CITES, which requires that any trade must be both legal
and non-detrimental to the survival of the species.
    Disease or predation: There is no information to suggest that the
Lanyu scops owl is subject to any threat from disease or predation.
    The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms: Although the
Lanyu scops owl might benefit in the long term from more formal
protection of its habitat, the lack of current protection does not
appear to present a problem for the species, since no immediate threat
to the habitat has been identified.
    Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence:
Due to the lack of any information on current threats to the Lanyu
scops owl, and because it has been able to increase to five times the
estimated population size of 20 years ago, there is no indication that
this subspecies is being adversely affected by any other natural or
manmade factors.
    Therefore, we conclude that this subspecies is not in danger of
extinction or likely to become an endangered species within the
foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its
range, and that listing of the Lanyu scops owl is no longer warranted.

Grey-winged cotinga (Tijuca condita)
    The grey-winged cotinga is restricted to the Serra dos Orgaos and
the Serra do Tingua in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (BirdLife
International 2000). It has been recorded from small patches of
extremely humid elfin cloud-forest rich in bromeliads with an even
canopy 5-10 m above the ground (Snow 1982). It is found on both exposed
ridge-tops and on sheltered slopes in an otherwise open area of bamboo
and tussock grass (ibid.). It is classified as Vulnerable in the 2002
IUCN Red List because it has a small range restricted to two adjacent
montane areas (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated at 1,000-2,499
individuals and is considered stable (BirdLife International 2000).
Scott and Brooke (1985, as cited in Collar et al. 1988) found that this
species is clearly rare and local, and occurs at a very low density,
and the total area of suitable habitat is small. However, there is
little reason to believe that it was ever much more numerous than at
present. There are no major threats to its habitat, although both
disturbance and fires caused by hikers have been considered potential
threats (BirdLife International 2000). Both populations occur within
the protected areas of Serra dos Orgaos National Park and the Tingua
Biological Reserve (ibid.).
    This species currently has a stable population at approximately
historic levels, is not subject to significant threats within its
range, and occurs within protected areas. Based on the best available
scientific and commercial information, we have evaluated the status of
this species according to the five factors contained in section 4(a)(1)
of the Act for determining whether a species is endangered or
threatened, as follows:
    The present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment
of its habitat or range: This species has a limited area of suitable
habitat, but this is believed not to have changed over time. Its
habitat is described as naturally fragmented (BirdLife International
2003). There is a potential threat from fire, but otherwise, no
specific threat to the species' habitat (Scott and Brooke 1985, as
cited in Collar et al. 1988).
    Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or
educational purposes: There is no information to suggest that this
species is used by humans for any purpose, and therefore it is not
being overutilized.
    Disease or predation: There is no information to indicate that this
species is threatened by disease or predation.
    The inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms: The habitat of
both known populations of this species is protected within a National
Park and a Reserve. Although the species is not specifically protected
under national law in Brazil, no threat has been identified for which
such overarching protection is required.
    Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence:
There is no information to indicate that any other natural or manmade
factors are adversely affecting this species.
    Therefore, we conclude that this species is not in danger of
extinction or likely to become an endangered species within the
foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its
range, and that listing of the grey-winged cotinga is no longer
warranted.

Findings on Species for Which Listing Is Warranted

    We will promptly prepare listing proposals for five of the species:
The giant ibis (Pseudibis gigantean), black stilt (Himantopus
novaezelandiae), Gurney's pitta (Pitta gurneyi), Socorro mockingbird
(Mimodes graysoni), and caerulean paradise-flycatcher (Eutrichomyias
rowleyi).

Giant ibis (Pseudibis gigantea)
    The giant ibis has undergone a massive reduction in range and is
currently confined to open deciduous forest in extreme southern Laos
and a larger area of northern and eastern Cambodia (BirdLife
International 2001). It is still fairly widespread but extremely rare,
with only a few birds surviving in southern Laos (BirdLife
International 2000). Its historical range spanned central and
peninsular Thailand, central and northern Cambodia, southern and
central Laos, and southern Viet Nam (King et al. 1975, as cited in N.J.
Collar et al. 1994). The giant ibis is now considered extinct in Viet
Nam and Thailand (BirdLife International 2000). It seems always to have
been uncommon and local throughout its range (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
The giant ibis is a lowland bird, found in both open and forested
wetland habitats (N.J. Collar et al. 1994).
    The giant ibis is categorized as Critically Endangered by the IUCN
(IUCN 2002). In 1997, its population was estimated at about 250 birds,
but this is probably too high and the population is very likely to be
fewer than 50 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2000). The
loss of wetlands is probably one of the main causes of decline, and the
conversion for agriculture of the central valley of Chao Phraya is
thought to have been instrumental in its extirpation from Thailand. The
large size of the giant ibis probably makes it vulnerable to hunting
(del Hoyo et al. 1992). Currently, the giant ibis is depicted in public
awareness material in Laos and Cambodia as part of an ongoing campaign
to reduce hunting of large waterbirds (BirdLife International 2000).
    The giant ibis does not represent a monotypic genus. The magnitude
of threat to the species is high, and the immediacy of threat is
imminent. We therefore give this species a priority rank of 2.

Black stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae)
    The black stilt was formerly widespread across New Zealand (del
Hoyo et al. 1996). Currently, breeding is restricted to the Upper
Waitaki Valley, South Island, and small numbers of the species
overwinter on North Island (BirdLife International 2000). It is found
along riverbanks, lake shores, swamps, and shallow ponds. The black
stilt is carnivorous, taking a variety of invertebrates and small fish
(del Hoyo et al. 1996). Most individuals breed for the first time at 3
years of age. The species typically lays four eggs per clutch and will
usually re-nest if the first clutch is lost early in the season
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The total population of black stilts crashed from 1,000 birds or
more in 1950 to fewer than 100 birds in 1960 (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
The current population estimate for the black stilt is 40 individuals
and decreasing (BirdLife International 2000). It is considered
Critically Endangered by the IUCN because it has declined recently to
an effective population size of 18 breeding birds and is considered one
of the most threatened shorebirds in the world (IUCN 2000). This
species suffers from heavy predation, primarily from introduced animals
such as cats, ferrets (Mustelo furo), stoats (M. Erminea), hedgehogs,
brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), the native Australian harrier (Circus
approximans), and kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) (BirdLife International
2001). For nesting, the black stilt prefers dry banks where both cats
and ferrets hunt (Pierce 1986, as cited in Collar et al. 1994). They
are solitary nesters, have a long fledgling period, and exhibit
ineffective anti-predator behavior, which all contribute to heavy
losses from predation (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Nesting areas have also
been destroyed by drainage, weed growth, and hydroelectric development
(Collar et al. 1994). There is also interbreeding with the black-winged
stilt (H. himantopus) as the population size decreases (del Hoyo et al.
1996). The black stilt has been prevented from becoming extinct in the
wild by the annual release of substantial numbers of captive-bred birds
and through predator control (BirdLife International 2000).
    There are a number of conservation efforts under way for the black
stilt. Predator control and captive rearing and release began in the
early 1980s with mixed success (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Recent advances
in release methods appear to have enhanced the initial survival of
released birds from 20-45 to 80-100 percent (Chambers and MacAvoy 1999,
as cited in BirdLife International 2000). Trapping for predators around
all wild nests has been ongoing since 1997 (Maloney in litt. 1999, as
cited in BirdLife International 2000). Water levels are being
manipulated in managed wetlands where predators are controlled to
attract birds to feed and possibly breed (Dowding and Murphy (in
press), as cited in BirdLife International 2000).
    The black stilt does not represent a monotypic genus, but the
magnitude of threat is high, and the immediacy of threat is imminent.
We therefore assign this species a priority rank of 2.

Gurney's pitta (Pitta gurneyi)
    Historically, Gurney's pitta was restricted to the semi-evergreen
rainforest biome of southernmost Myanmar and southern Thailand.
Currently it occurs from a single small site, Khao Nor Chuchi, in Krabi
Province, Thailand (BirdLife International 2001). This species is, and
was, always restricted to extreme lowland semi-evergreen forest,
usually below 160 m, with an understory
containing Salacca palms, where it nests (BirdLife International 2000).
A central element of its territories are gully systems where moist
conditions exist year-round and there is usually access to water in
small streamlets. Moisture and shade appear to be crucial. Since almost
all feeding takes place on the forest floor, the understory vegetation,
humidity, composition of the leaf litter, and availability of
earthworms appear to be of greatest importance in determining the
distribution of Gurney's pitta (Gretton et al. 1993, as cited in
BirdLife International 2001). Its diet consists of snails, worms,
slugs, and insects of all kinds.
    Gurney's pitta was formerly common across much of its range.
However, there have been no records of this species in Myanmar since
1914, and there were no field observations in Thailand between 1952 and
1986. Since 1986, intensive surveys have found individuals in at least
five localities, although at present it only remains in one: Khao Nor
Chuchi. In 1986 there were estimates of 44-45 pairs (BirdLife
International 2000). Currently, this species has one of the lowest
known populations of any bird species in the world, with only 11 pairs
and two spare males counted in a survey at Khao Nor Chuchi (Y. Meekaeo
(in litt.) 2000; P. D. Round in litt. 2000, as cited in BirdLife
International 2001). It is considered Critically Endangered by the IUCN
(2000). It was originally listed in Appendix III in Thailand in July
1987, but was included in Appendix I of CITES in January 1990 (UNEP
2001).
    The primary reason for the decline of this species has been the
almost total clearance of lowland forest in southern Myanmar and
peninsular Thailand through clear-felling for timber, unofficial
logging and conversion to croplands, fruit orchards, coffee, rubber,
and oil-palm plantations (BirdLife International 2000). Hunting is also
a concern for this species. As recently as April 2000, hunting and
trapping (including terrestrial birds) were still being regularly
recorded in Khao Pra-Bang Khram Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjacent
National Reserve Forest. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that
there are few routine patrols so intruders run little risk of being
intercepted (Bird Conservation Society of Thailand Bulletin, as cited
in BirdLife International 2001). Snare-line trapping for the cage-bird
trade is also a serious threat (BirdLife International 2000). These
birds were relatively easy to obtain in Bankok from the late 1950s to
the early 1970s and were entering trade within Thailand as well as to
the United Kingdom and United States in the period 1966-1968 and in the
early 1980s to June 1985 (Collar et al. 1986, as cited in BirdLife
International 2001). In 1986, one major animal trading company in
Bankok maintained that it still received 5-6 Gurney's pittas per year,
and an unidentified contact claimed that as many as 50 birds per year
were still entering trade in Thailand (Round and Treesucon 1986, as
cited in BirdLife International 2001). Two male Gurney's pittas were
seen in captivity in the Khao Khieo Open Zoo, Chonburi, in March 1996
(F. R. Lambert [in litt.] 1998, as cited in BirdLife International
2001), and three Gurney's pittas were confiscated from local villagers
at Khao Nor Chuchi and returned the forest in the period 1990-1997
(Round and Treesucon 1986, as cited in BirdLife International 2001).
    A number of conservation efforts have been initiated for the
species. Khao Nor Chuchi was designated a Non-Hunting Area in 1987, and
upgraded to a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1993. The Khao Nor Chuchi Lowland
Forest Project was established in 1990, which entailed education
programs and ecotourism, as well as engaging the local community in
participatory management to help reduce pressure on the remaining
forest. This has met with limited success. In addition, a series of
breeding season censuses were conducted from 1987 to 1989, to locate
and quantify populations in peninsular Thailand (BirdLife International
2000).
    Gurney's pitta does not represent a monotypic genus. However, the
magnitude of threat to the species is high and the immediacy of threat
is imminent. We therefore assign this species a priority rank of 2.

Socorro mockingbird (Mimodes graysoni)
    The Socorro mockingbird is endemic to Socorro in the Revillagigedo
Islands in Mexico, where it was the most abundant and widespread
landbird in 1925 (Jehl and Parkes 1982, 1983). It was still considered
abundant in 1958, but had declined dramatically and was feared to be on
the brink of extinction by 1978 (BirdLife International 2000). Surveys
in 1988-1990 resulted in estimates of 50-200 pairs (Castellanos and
Rodriguez-Estella 1993). In 1993-1994, there were approximately 350
individuals (Martinez-Gomez and Curry 1996). This species is found at
elevations above 600 m principally in moist dwarf forests and ravines
with a mixture of shrubs and trees (ibid.). The Socorro mockingbird is
categorized as Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because
of its extremely small range and because the high number of sub-adults
found in the 1993-1994 survey suggests that the number of mature
individuals is also very small (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated
at 50-249 individuals and declining (BirdLife International 2000).
There is no suitable nesting or foraging habitat remaining in the south
of the island because of intensive grazing by sheep (Castellanos and
Rodriguez-Estella 1993). There is also a possibility, but no
substantial evidence of predation by feral cats (Martinez-Gomez and
Curry 1996). The Revillagigedo Islands were declared a Bioshpere
Reserve in 1994.
    The Socorro mockingbird represents a monotypic genus experiencing a
high magnitude of threat that is imminent. We therefore give this
species a priority rank of 1.

Caerulean paradise-flycatcher (Eutrichomyias rowleyi)
    The caerulean paradise-flycatcher is only known from the island of
Sangihe, north of Sulawesi, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001).
This species is a sedentary insectivore that occupies primary
broadleaf-trophophyllous forest on steep-sided valley slopes and valley
bottoms with streams (BirdLife International 2000). Until 1998, the
caerulean paradise-flycatcher was thought to be extinct. Currently, the
total population is thought to lie between 50 and 100 birds (BirdLife
International 2001). This flycatcher is considered Critically
Endangered by the IUCN because of its tiny range and population, both
of which have undergone a major and continuing decline due to habitat
loss due to deforestation and conversion to agriculture (BirdLife
International 2000; IUCN 2002). Since 1995, the Action Sampiri project
has been conducting field work and conservation awareness programs, and
developing ideas for future land use through agreements between
interested parties in Sangihe and Talaud. Plans to reclassify
``protection forest'' on Gunung Sahengbalira on Sangihe Island as a
wildlife reserve, with core areas as a strict reserve, are under
development (BirdLife International 2000).
    The caerulean paradise-flycatcher represents a monotypic genus that
faces a high magnitude of threat that is imminent. We therefore assign
this species a priority rank of 1.




part 2
NEOORN-L] USFWS seeks information for potential listing of  foreign species on Endangered Species List (part 2 of 2)
-
Under the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. can list foreign species (NOT non-native species that are in the U.S., but species that are in their native ranges).

Because of the distribution of some of these species, I am copying this message to NEOORN. If any of you are on lists relevant to the distribution of species outside the Western Hemisphere, please forward this message.

This notice covers 73 species and it is very long. I've deleted non-essential information and the literature list. Please e-mail me if you want the full notice. I am also splitting the list itself and the information upon which the USFWS based its decisions into two messages.

This message covers "Listing is warranted but precluded" by actions needed for higher-priority species (51 species).

The USFWS (Office of Scientific Authority) is seeking further information on any of these species, but information on the five for which listing proposals will be prepared is probably of most value.

The information requested is as follows:

Request for Information

We request you submit any further information on the taxa named in
this notice as soon as possible or whenever it becomes available. We
especially seek information: (1) Indicating that we should remove a
taxon from warranted or warranted-but-precluded status; (2) indicating
that we should add a taxon to a list of candidate taxa; (3) documenting
threats to any of the included taxa; (4) describing the immediacy or
magnitude of threats facing these taxa; (5) pointing out taxonomic or
nomenclatural changes for any of the taxa; (6) suggesting appropriate
common names; or (7) noting any mistakes, such as errors in the
indicated historical ranges.

However, you can submit any other information that you feel should be considered.

--
PLEASE NOTE NEW EMAIL ADDRESS
ellen.paul@verizon.net

Ellen Paul
Executive Director
The Ornithological Council
Mailto:ellen.paul@verizon.net
Ornithological Council Website:  http://www.nmnh.si.edu/BIRDNET
"Providing Scientific Information about Birds"
 

Species for Which Listing Is Warranted but Precluded (numbers indicate priority; 1 is highest priority)

 

Junin Flightless Grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii) 2
Fiji Petrel (Pterodroma macgillivrayi) 5
Chatham Petrel (Pterodroma axillaris) 2
Cook's Petrel (Pterodroma cookii) 8
Galapagos Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) 2
Magenta Petrel (Pterodroma magentae) 2
Heinroth's Shearwater (Puffinus heinrothi) 11
Greater Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos dubius) 2
Andean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus) 2
Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus) 2
Cauca Guan (Penelope perspicax) 2
Southern Helmeted Currasow (Pauxi unicornis) 8
Blue-billed Currasow (Crax alberti) 2
Cantabrian Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus cantabricus) 3
Gorgeted Wood-quail (Odontophorus strophium) 2
Junin Rail (Laterallus tuerosi) 2
Bogota Rail (Rallus semiplumbeus) 8
Takahae (Porphyrio mantelli) 8
Chatham Oystercatcher (Haematopus chathamensis) 8
Jerdon's Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus) 2
Slender-billed Curlew (Numenius tenuirostris) 5
Marquesan Imperial Pigeon (Ducula galeata) 2
Salmon-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) 2
Orange-fronted Parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) 5
Uvea parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaensis) 8
Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis) 8
Southeastern Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi dulcis) 3
Margaretta's Hermit (Phaethornis malaris margarettae) 3
Black-breasted Puffleg (Eriocnemis nigrivestis) 2
Chilean Woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii) 4
Esmerelda's Woodstar (Acestrura berlepschi) 2
Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus) 8
Okinawa Woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii) 7
Yellow-browed Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus huallagae) 11
Royal Cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae) 2
White-browed Tit Spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) 2
Black-hooded Antwren (Formicivora erythronotos) 2
Fringe-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglena atra) 2
Brown-banded Antpitta (Grallaria milleri) 2
Brasilia Tapaculo (Scytalopus novacapitalis) 8
Kaempfer's Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi) 2
Ash-breasted Tit Tyrant (Anairetes alpinus) 2
Peruvian Plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii) 2
St. Lucia Forest Thrush (Cichlherminia iherminieri sanctaeluciae) 3
Eiao Polynesian Warbler (Acrocephalus caffer aquilonis) 3
Codfish Island Fernbird (Bowdleria punctata wilsoni) 9
Ghizo White-eye (Zosterops luteirostris) 8
Medium Tree-finch   (Camarhynchus pauper) 11
Cherry-throated Tanager (Nemosia rourei) 2
Black-backed Tanager (Tangara peruviana) 11
Lord Howe Island Pied Currawong (Strepera graculina crissalis) 12
 
 
 

    Issuance of proposed listing rules for most of the warranted-but-precluded species, even those with the highest listing priority numbers
(i.e., 1, 2, or 3) will continue to be precluded over the next year due to the need to complete pending proposals to determine if other
species are endangered or threatened. Over the next year, we will work on final determinations for...the scarlet-chested parakeet
(Neophema splendida) and turquoise parakeet (Neophema pulchella)...
In addition, we must meet our other statutory and treaty obligations. In determining the resources for listing warranted-but-precluded
species, we must balance these needs with the resources needed for completing the other non-discretionary activities funded under the
International Wildlife Trade budget component of the International Affairs program. This budget component includes not only all of these
 listing activities, but also issuing permits under the Act and mandatory activities for U.S. implementation of the Convention on
International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(CITES), the Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992, certain permitting
provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act, issuing Injurious Wildlife permits under the Lacey Act, and parts of the Pelly Amendment
(section 8 of the Fisherman's Protective Act). Therefore, the resources available for listing actions under the Act for foreign species
is limited by competing non-discretionary activities funded from the International Wildlife Trade budget.

    We have found that, for the following 51 species, listing continues
to be warranted but precluded. As previously indicated, this means that
immediate publication of a proposed rule to list the species is
precluded by higher-priority listing actions, and that we are making
expeditious progress to add and remove species from the List, as
appropriate. We will continue to monitor the status of these species as
new information becomes available. Our review of new information will
determine if a change in status is warranted, including the need to
emergency list any species.

Junin flightless grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii)
    The Junin flightless grebe is confined to Lake Junin, which is
located 4,080 m above sea level in central Peru (Fjeldsa 1981, as cited
in O'Donnel and Fjedsa 1997). The lake, which covers approximately
14,320 hectares, reaches a depth of 10 m in its center and is bordered
by extensive reed marshes. These reed marshes can be continuous in
places, but also form a mosaic with stretches of open water.
Considerable areas of the lake are shallow, with the bottom densely
covered with Chara (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The Junin grebe is a bird of
open lake habitat and stays far off-shore in the center of the lake for
part of the year. However, during the breeding season, it goes to areas
of tall Scirpus (californicus) tatora or bays and channels in the outer
edge of the 2-5-km-wide reed marshes surrounding the lake (O'Donnel and
Fjedsa 1997). The Junin grebe feeds mainly on fish (Orestias), which
make up approximately 90% of its diet (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
    The Junin grebe experienced a dramatic decline during the 20th
Century. The species was considered abundant in 1938, and common in
1961, with estimates of several thousand birds (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Current population estimates for the Junin grebe are between 50 and 249
birds, with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International
2000). Because of this decline, and because it is endemic to one Andean
lake, the Junin grebe qualifies as Critically Endangered on the IUCN
Red List (IUCN 2002). The decline in numbers of this species was
brought about by pollution of Lake Junin by local mining activities and
variations of up to 7 m in water level, which is controlled by a
hydroelectric power station. These changes in water level caused
nesting and foraging areas to dry out (BirdLife International 2000),
and in 1969, the vegetation of Lake Junin appeared to be dyed yellow
with breakdown products of sulphuric acids and toxic fumes from a
copper mine (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Of less significance was the
introduction of trout in the 1930s, which replaced native fish species.
Since 1975, some conservation measures have been implemented: Lake
Junin was declared a reserve, and the Peruvian government nationalized
the mines of Cerro del Pasco in an attempt to prevent pollution by the
mine (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
    The Junin flightless grebe does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore
receives a priority rank of 2.

Fiji petrel (Pterodroma macgillivrayi)
    The Fiji petrel is marine and presumably pelagic (del Hoyo et al.
1992). It was originally known from just one specimen collected in 1855
on Gau Island and more recently from eight records of sightings on the
island since 1983 (BirdLife International 2000). The only other record
is a reported sighting at sea over 200 km north of Gau (Watling 2000,
as cited in BirdLife International 2000). The Fiji petrel's breeding
grounds have yet to be discovered, but may be located in areas of
undisturbed mature forest or on rocky, mountainous ground (del Hoyo et
al. 1992). The Fiji petrel is classified as Critically Endangered by
the IUCN because it is inferred, given the paucity of recent records,
that there is only a tiny population confined to an extremely small
breeding area (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated at fewer than 50
individuals and is assumed to be declining because of predation by
cats, which may threaten its long-term survival (BirdLife International
2000). However, very little is known about the species. It is protected
under Fijian law, and priorities for the species include conducting
surveys on Gau and other suitable islands and reinforcing existing
community awareness (BirdLife International 2000).
    The Fiji petrel does not represent a monotypic genus. The magnitude
of threat to the species is high, but the immediacy of threat is non-
imminent. Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 5.

Chatham petrel (Pterodroma axillaris; Previously Referred to as
Pterodroma hypoleuca axillaris)
    The Chatham petrel is found only on South East Island (Rangatira)
in the Chatham Islands of New Zealand (BirdLife International 2000). It
is marine and presumably pelagic, and breeds on coastal lowlands and
slopes in areas with low forest, bracken, or rank grass (del Hoyo et
al. 1992). It nests in burrows amongst low vegetation and roots on flat
to moderately sloping ground (Marchant and Higgins 1990). This species
is classified as Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List
because it is restricted to South East Island and inferred to be
continuing to decline due to competition from other native burrowing
seabirds (IUCN 2002). The population estimate for this species is 800-
1,000 birds with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International
2000). There is intense competition for burrows on South East Island
with the abundant broad-billed prion (Pachyptila vittata), which may be
the cause of the observed low breeding success and high rate of pair
bond disruption (ibid.). As a conservation measure, artificial nest
sites have been provided, and burrows have been blocked to prevent
occupation by P. vittata (ibid.). Although these actions have greatly
improved breeding success, only a small proportion of breeding burrows
have been found (Taylor 2000).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus. It has a
restricted range and its population is declining. The threat to the
species is high and imminent. Therefore, this species receives a
priority rank of 2.

Cook's petrel (Pterodroma cookii)
    Cook's petrel is endemic to New Zealand. It is marine and highly
pelagic in temperate and subtropical waters, and rarely approaches land
except at nesting colonies (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Cook's petrel breeds
on Little Barrier, Great Barrier, and Codfish Islands (del Hoyo et al.
1992) and occupies thickly forested high ridges and slopes, up to 700 m
above sea level (BirdLife International 2000). This species is
classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because it has a
very small range when breeding, and
although population numbers are increasing, there is a danger that the
population on Great Barrier Island may be lost (IUCN 2002). Population
estimate for this species is 100,000 birds and increasing (BirdLife
International 2000). Threats to this species are predominantly from
invasive species such as cats, black rats (Rattus rattus), Pacific rats
(R. exulans), and the weka (Gallirallus australis), which are major
predators of adults and chicks (Heather and Robertson 1997; Taylor
2000). By 1980, cats were eradicated from Little Barrier Island, and
wekas were eradicated from Codfish Island between 1980 and 1985 (Taylor
2000). Pacific rats were successfully eradicated from Codfish Island in
August 1998, and eradication from Little Barrier Island has been
proposed (Conservation News 2002).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus, and has a fairly
good population size, which is increasing. Its primary threat is a
limited breeding range and predation by introduced species. However,
the threats have been reduced by eradication of introduced predators,
which is ongoing. Therefore, the threat is moderate and imminent, and
the species receives a priority ranking of 8.

Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia; Previously Referred to as
Pterodroma phaeopygia phaeopygia)
    The Galapagos petrel is a pelagic marine bird endemic to the
Galapagos Islands, Ecuador (BirdLife International 2000). It breeds on
Santa Cruz, Floreana, Santiago, San Cristobal, Isabela, and possibly
other islands in the archipelago (Cruz and Cruz 1987; H. Vargas and F.
Cruz in litt. 2000, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). This
species is classified as Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red
List because of its history of declines (IUCN 2002). In the early
1980s, this species underwent extremely rapid declines, in some cases
by as much as 81 percent in 4 years, and the species is likely to have
declined by more than 80 percent in the last 60 years (three
generations) (ibid.). The population estimate for this species is
20,000-60,000 birds with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife
International 2000). Threats for this species include introduced dogs,
cats, and pigs, which take eggs, young, and adults; black rats and
brown rats (R. norvegicus), which take eggs and chicks; nest-site
destruction by goats, donkeys, cattle, and horses; and predation by the
Galapagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) (Cruz and Cruz 1987; Cruz and Cruz
1996). Predator control and petrel monitoring is occurring on Floreana,
Santa Cruz, and Santiago Islands (H. Vargus and F. Cruz in litt. 2000,
as cited in BirdLife International 2000). The breeding areas on Santa
Cruz, Floreana, and San Cristobal have been severely restricted due to
clearance of vegetation for agriculture and intensive grazing (Cruz and
Cruz 1987; Cruz and Cruz 1996), and at least half the breeding range is
still farmed on Santa Cruz (Baker 1980, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). The Galapagos Islands are a national park and were
declared a World Heritage Site in 1979 (BirdLife International 2000).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus, but it is
declining and has persistent threats that are high in magnitude and
imminent. Therefore, this species receives a priority rank of 2.
 

Magenta petrel (Pterodroma magentae)
    The magenta petrel is known from Chatham Island, New Zealand. It
breeds in a fragmented colony under dense forest (BirdLife
International 2000) and is marine and presumably pelagic (del Hoyo et
al. 1992). The magenta petrel was rediscovered in 1978 after 10 years
of intensive searching (Crockett 1994, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). This species is listed as Critically Endangered by
IUCN because it has undergone a historic decline that is assumed to be
greater than 80 percent in 60 years, it has a very small population,
and it is restricted to one extremely small location (IUCN 2002). The
population is estimated to number 100-150 individuals, and the long-
term reduction in numbers may have begun to stabilize (BirdLife
International 2000). However, it is premature to assume that there is
not a continuing decline. The species is predominantly threatened by
introduced species that take eggs, chicks, and adults, or compete for
or cause the destruction of burrows (BirdLife International 2000).
    The magenta petrel does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is high, and the immediacy is
imminent. It therefore receives a priority rank of 2.

Heinroth's shearwater (Puffinus heinrothi)
    The Heinroth's shearwater is known from the Bismarck Archipelago
and around Bougainville in Papua New Guinea and Kolombangara in the
Solomon Islands (Buckingham et. al. 1995, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). It is marine and presumably pelagic (del Hoyo et
al. 1992). It is likely to breed on high, inaccessible mountains, where
introduced rats, cats, and dogs are potential threats to this species.
There are a number of target actions identified for this species by
BirdLife International, which include various surveys and assessing the
presence of introduced mammals on suspected breeding grounds (BirdLife
International 2000). The Heinroth's shearwater is categorized as
Vulnerable by the IUCN on the basis that there may be a very small
population and breeding range (IUCN 2002). The population estimate for
this species is 250-999 birds with an unknown population trend
(BirdLife International 2000). There is no substantial evidence of a
decline (IUCN 2002).
    Heinroth's shearwater does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are moderate and non-imminent. Therefore, it
receives a priority rank of 11.

Greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius)
    The greater adjutant stork previously occurred, often in huge
numbers, in much of South and Southeast Asia, from Pakistan through
northern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, to Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Viet
Nam, and Cambodia (BirdLife International 2000). However, the species
has experienced a dramatic crash, and currently, the population
estimate is at 700-800 birds (BirdLife International 2000). Breeding
populations of the species remain in only two very small and highly
disjunct populations: One in Assam (Saikia and Bhattacharjee 1989, as
cited in BirdLife International 2001) and the other in Cambodia
(Mundkur et al. 1995, as cited in BirdLife International 2001). In the
last century, there were vast colonies of millions in Burma, and del
Hoyo et al. (1992) indicate that in Calcutta there was ``almost one on
every roof.'' It frequents marshes, lakes, paddyfields, and open
forest, and is often found in dry areas, such as grasslands and fields.
It is commonly found at carcasses and rubbish dumps at the edges of
towns.
    The greater adjutant is classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN
Red List. The key threats are direct exploitation, particularly at
nesting colonies, habitat destruction, particularly lowland
deforestation and the felling of nest trees, and drainage, conversion,
pollution, and over-exploitation of wetlands. The Indian population is
also considered threatened by the reduced use of open rubbish dumps for
the disposal of carcasses and foodstuffs (BirdLife International 2000).
    The greater adjutant stork does not represent a monotypic genus,
but it faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent. It
therefore receives a priority rank of 2.
 

Andean flamingo (Phoenicopterus andinus)
    The Andean flamingo is restricted to high-altitude salt lakes in
the high Andes, mainly between 3,500 and 4,500 m, from southern Peru
through Bolivia to northern Chile and northwestern Argentina (del Hoyo
et al. 1992). Population assessments for this species are difficult and
vary greatly, but it is believed that 50,000-100,000 individuals
existed until the mid-1980s. The collection of eggs to sell as food was
intensive during the mid-20th Century and early 1980s, with estimates
of thousands of eggs being taken. Unfavorable water levels due to
weather and manipulation, mining activities, erosion of nest sites, and
human disturbance may also affect productivity. The latest population
estimate, from 1997, was 33,927 birds, which suggests the species had
declined rapidly during the preceding 10-15 years (BirdLife
International 2000). Very low breeding success has been reported for
this species (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The Andean flamingo was recently
categorized as Vulnerable by the IUCN and is listed in Appendix II of
CITES. Threats to this species include ongoing exploitation and a
decline in habitat quality (IUCN 2002). Local conservation actions
include habitat management, prevention of egg-collecting, and raising
public awareness (BirdLife International 2000).
    The Andean flamingo does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces
threats that are high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore receives
a priority rank of 2.

Brazilian merganser (Mergus octosetaceus)
    The Brazilian Merganser is found in extremely low numbers at a few,
highly disjunct localities in south-central Brazil (BirdLife
International 2000). Its range also extends into eastern Paraguay and
northeastern Argentina. It is found in rapid, torrential streams and
fast-moving rivers surrounded by dense tropical forests. The species is
believed to be mainly sedentary and presumably maintains its territory
all year round (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The Brazilian merganser is a
good swimmer and diver, and feeds primarily on fish and occasionally on
aquatic insects and snails (Collar et al. 1992).
    Recent records from Brazil, and particularly a recent northerly
range extension, indicate that the status of this species is better
than previously thought (BirdLife International 2000). However, it
remains close to extinction and is considered Critically Endangered
(IUCN 2002). The population is currently estimated at 50-249
individuals and is decreasing (BirdLife International 2000). Threats
include the perturbation and pollution of rivers, which result
predominately from deforestation, agriculture, and diamond mining in
the Serra da Canastra area. Dam-building has flooded suitable habitat,
especially in Brazil and Paraguay, and hunting and collection of
exhibition specimens in Argentina are considered contributory factors
to this species' decline (BirdLife International 2000). The Brazilian
merganser is considered extinct in Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro,
Sao Paolo, and Santa Catarina (ibid.). There is only one recent record
from Misiones, Argentina (Benstead 1994; Hearn 1994, as cited in Collar
et al. 1994), and it was last recorded in Paraguay in 1984 (BirdLife
International 2001). There is little, if any, habitat left (Brooks et
al. 1993, as cited in Collar et al. 1994). This species is legally
protected in Brazil, where it occurs in three Brazilian national parks
(del Hoyo et al. 1992).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus, but it faces
threats that are high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore receives
a priority rank of 2.

Cauca guan (Penelope perspicax)
    The cauca guan is endemic to the west slopes of the West and
Central Andes (Risaralda, Quindio, Valle del Cauca, and Cauca),
Colombia (Collar et al. 1992). The stronghold for the species is in the
Ucumari Regional Park, Risaralda (BirdLife International 2000). The
Cauca guan inhabits large, humid primary forests at 1,600-2,150m
(Salaman in litt. 1999, as cited in BirdLife International 2000).
Records at 900-1,600m have been from plantations of exotic broadleaf
trees, secondary forest, and forest edge (BirdLife International 2000).
This species was not considered uncommon at the beginning of the 20th
Century, but has suffered from severe loss of habitat (del Hoyo et al.
1994). The current population estimates is 1,000-2,499 individuals with
a decreasing trend (BirdLife International 2000). It is also hunted for
food even in some protected areas, except in Ucumari (ibid.). It is
listed as Endangered by IUCN because it has a very small range in which
severely fragmented habitat patches are declining (IUCN 2002). Its
population is believed to be very small and divided into extremely
small sub-populations, which are inferred to be declining from ongoing
habitat loss and hunting (ibid.).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus, but faces
threats that are high in magnitude and imminent. This species therefore
receives a priority rank of 2.

Southern helmeted curassow (Pauxi unicornis)
    The southern helmeted curassow is known from central Bolivia and
central and eastern Peru, where it inhabits dense, humid, lower montane
forest and adjacent evergreen forest at 450-1,200m (BirdLife
International, 2000). The fallen nuts of the almendrillo (Bryrsonima
wadsworthii) constitute this species' major food, and it presumably
also takes other fallen fruits, including those from three types of
laurels and negrillo (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The southern helmeted
curassow is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, and the
population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 birds, with a decreasing
population trend (BirdLife International 2000). In Bolivia,
professional hunters have caused a decline in the population. In
addition, local people in the area fashion cigarette lighters from the
curassow's horn, or casque (Cordier 1971, as cited in Collar et al.
1992). In Amboro National Park, the bird is often eaten and its head
skewered for use in folk dances (Hardy 1984, as cited in Collar et al.
1992). Other threats include forest clearing within its range, road
building and development, and in Peru, oil exploration (BirdLife
International 2000). Large parts of the southern helmeted curassow's
range are protected by inclusion in the Amboro and Carrasco National
Parks. Further work in the low Andean foothills and outlying ridges in
the region of the Peru-Bolivia border is likely to reveal new
populations (Collar et al. 1992). Discovery of new populations, as well
as increased protections in Bolivian national parks and other specific
measures to conserve the species, could lead to future reclassification
(IUCN 2002).
    The southern helmeted currasow does not represent a monotypic
genus. It faces threats that are moderate in magnitude and imminent.
Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 8.

Blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti)
    The blue-billed curassow historically occurred in northern
Colombia, from the base of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta west to the
Sinu Valley and south in Magdalena Valley to north Tolima (BirdLife
International 2000). It inhabits humid forest in lowlands and foothills
and on lower mountain slopes in the tropical zone. This species of
curassow occurs up to 1,200 m, but is more common below 600 m (del Hoyo
et al. 1994). It feeds on fruit, shoots,invertebrates, and possibly carrion (BirdLife International 2000).
    The blue-billed curassow is categorized as Critically Endangered in
the 2002 IUCN Red List and is listed in Appendix III of CITES by
Colombia. The species was not common anywhere in the Santa Marta region
at the beginning of the 20th Century, although it was perhaps most
numerous in the humid lowlands of the north coast (Todd and Carriker
1922, as cited in Collar et al. 1992). It was becoming very rare
(Haffner 1975, as cited in Collar et al. 1992), and by the 1980s it had
disappeared from most places in which it had previously been found
(Estudillo Lopez 1986, as cited in Collar et al. 1992). The population
was estimated at 1,000-2,500 birds in 1994, and local reports have
indicated more recent and rapid declines (BirdLife International 2000).
Previous reports indicated that, outside of a few forest patches
bordering national parks, the species is almost extinct (L.M. Renjifo,
Z. Calle, D. Rodriguez personal communications, as cited in Brooks and
Strahl 2000). However, some sites believed to harbor the species have
been recently identified in work supported by the World Pheasant
Association International (Cuervo and Salaman 1999, as cited in Brooks
and Strahl 2000). Rapid deforestation in this species' range over the
past decade has left little habitat. Given increased access and
hunting, this curassow could undergo an extremely rapid population
reduction (BirdLife International 2000). The blue-billed curassow is
perhaps one of the most endangered species identified as an immediate
conservation priority by the Cracid Specialist Group (Brooks and Strahl
2000). Recent international trade in this bird may be cause for alarm
(J. V. Rodriguez personal communication, as cited in Brooks and Strahl
2000).
    The blue-billed currasow does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent, and therefore it
receives a priority rank of 2.

Cantabrian capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus cantabricus)
    The Cantabrian capercaillie inhabits the Cantabrian Mountains of
northern Spain (Storch 2000). It occupies a forest and woodland habitat
that is mainly coniferous (especially Pinus sylvestris), but also
contains species such as Piscea and Abies and isolated broad-leaved
forests (BirdLife International 2000). It prefers extensive areas of
old, shady forest, often with damp soil and interspersed bogs, areas of
peat or glades, and a dense undergrowth of ericaceous plants (ibid.).
It is currently treated as a subspecies of the western capercaillie
Tertrao urogallus, which is not globally threatened. However, the
subspecies cantabricus was considered to be endangered in the Red Data
Book of 1978-1979 (Storch 2000; BirdLife International 2000). The
population is presently estimated at 250-300 adult males, equivalent to
a total population size of fewer than 1,000, but it is probably only
600-750 birds (A. Lucio personal communication, as cited by Storch
2000). The Cantabrian Capercaillie Group estimates that numbers have
declined by 25-50 percent over the past 10-15 years (Storch 2000).
Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation related to forestry and
tourism, illegal hunting, and disturbance by human outdoor activities
have been identified as the major causes of decline (J. Castroviejo,
personal communication, as cited by Storch 2000).
    This is a subspecies that faces threats that are high in magnitude
and imminent. It receives a priority rank of 3.

Gorgeted wood-quail (Odontophorus strophium)
    The gorgeted wood-quail occurs on the west slope of the east Andes
of Colombia in Santander and Cundinamarca (Collar et al. 1992). It is
found on the forest floor of temperate and subtropical forests at
1,500-2,050 m, especially those dominated by Quercus humboldtii (del
Hoyo et al. 1994). The gorgeted wood-quail is probably dependent on
primary forest for at least part of its life cycle, although it has
been recorded in degraded habitats and secondary forest (BirdLife
International 2000). Since the 17th Century, the west slope of the East
Andes has been extensively logged and converted to agriculture (Stiles
et al. 1999). Forest loss below 2,500 m has been almost complete
(Stattersfield et al. 1998), with habitat reduced in many areas to
tiny, isolated relicts on steep slopes and along streams (Stiles et al.
1999). This species is considered Critically Endangered by IUCN because
it has an extremely small range (IUCN 2002). The population is
estimated to be 250-999 individuals and declining (BirdLife
International 2000). Additionally, until 1923, it was known only from
Cundinamarca, but recent records have come from one of the only
remaining areas of suitable habitat around Virolin in Santander
Department, where logging and hunting are prevalent (Collar et al.
1992). Some habitat regeneration has occurred following the abandonment
of marginal land (ibid.). Less disturbed and ornithologically unknown
forests in west Boyaca and Santander might retain populations of this
species (BirdLife International 2000). In November 1993, 100
km2 of forest at Virolin was gazetted as a reserve, the
Guanenta--Alto Rio Fonce Flora and Fauna Sanctuary (Andrade and Repizzo
1994), which provides some protection.
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus. The threat to
the species is high in magnitude and imminent. It receives a priority
rank of 2.

Junin rail (Laterallus tuerosi)
    The Junin rail is endemic to the Andean Highlands of central Peru
along the shores of Lago de Junin (BirdLife International 2000). It is
known to inhabit the rushy marsh vegetation bordering the lake, but
details on habitat preference are lacking (Fjeldsa 1983, as cited in
Collar et al. 1992). These secretive birds have been seen in areas that
contain mosaics of small beds of 1-m-tall Juncus andecolus and open
areas with bottom mosses and herbs (ibid). This species is classified
as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because it has a very small
range around a single lake where habitat quality is declining (IUCN
2002). The population estimate for this species is 1,000-2,499 birds,
with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International 2000). Since
1955, Lago de Junin has been affected by pollution and human-induced
water-level changes, which may be adversely affecting the fringe
vegetation (J. Fjeldsa 1987 personal communication, as cited in Collar
et al. 1992). Reed marshes have also been dessicated from drought and
unsustainable water management by Electro Peru and occasional flooding
with highly acidic water from the Cerro de Pasco mines (J. Fjeldsa in
litt. to Taylor and van Perlo 1998, as cited in BirdLife International
2000). Although the lake is a national reserve, this has not influenced
mining and dam-building activities.
    The Junin rail does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces
threats that are high and imminent. It therefore receives a priority
rank of 2.

Bogota rail (Rallus semiplumbeus)
    The Bogota rail is found in the East Andes of Colombia on the
Ubate-Bogota Plateau in Cundinamarca and Boyaca. It occurs in the
temperate zone, at 2,500-4,000 m (occasionally as low as 2,100 m) in
savanna and paramo marshes (BirdLife International 2000). This rail
frequents wetland habitats that are fringed by dense, tall reeds and
bulrushes, and contain vegetation-rich
shallows. It often feeds along the water's edge, in flooded pasture,
wet fen, or within patches of dead water-logged vegetation nearby
(Varty et al. 1986; Fjeldsa and Krabbe 1990). It feeds primarily on
aquatic invertebrates and insect larvae, but also takes worms,
molluscs, dead fish, frogs, tadpoles, and plant material (Varty et al.
1986).
    This species is listed as Endangered by the IUCN primarily because
its range is very small and contracting, in part due to local
extirpations. The population has become severely fragmented and is
declining for a variety of reasons, including habitat loss and
degradation (IUCN 2002). The current population is estimated to be
between 1,000 and 2,499 individuals and is decreasing (BirdLife
International 2000). Although the Bogota rail is declining, it is still
uncommon to fairly common, with some notable populations, including
approximately 400 birds at Laguna de Tota, about 50 territories at
Laguna de la Herrera, about 110 birds at Parque La Florida, and those
at La Conejera marsh and Laguna de Fuquene (BirdLife International
2000). Some of the birds occur in protected areas such as Chingaza
National Park and Carpanta Biological Reserve. However, savanna
wetlands are virtually unprotected.
    The Bogota rail does not represent a monotypic genus. It is subject
to threats that are moderate in magnitude and imminent. Therefore, it
receives a priority rank of 8.

Takahe (Porphyrio mantelli; Previously Referred to as Notornis
mantelli)
    The takahe is endemic to New Zealand and is unique as the world's
largest living member of the rail family (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The
species, Porphyrio mantelli, is the remnant of the South Island
population resulting from speciation. The North Island species
Porphyrio hochstetteri, which was taller and thinner boned, is extinct
(TerraNature Trust 2003). Subfossils show that this bird was once
widespread in the North and South Islands. However, when this species
was rediscovered in 1948, it was confined to the Murchison Mountains in
Fiordland (BirdLife International 2000). It is restricted to alpine
tussock grasslands on the mainland and feeds primarily on juices from
the bases of snow tussock and the rhizome of a fern species (ibid.).
The takahe is listed as Endangered by the IUCN because it has an
extremely small population (IUCN 2002). The main cause of the species'
decline was competition for food from the introduced red deer, Cervus
elaphus, which also modified habitat by grazing (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
It may also be affected by predation by stoats, Mustela erminea
(BirdLife International 2000). Other potential competitors or predators
include the introduced brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, and
the threatened weka, Gallirallus australis (New Zealand Department of
Conservation 1997). For the last 20 years, the population has
fluctuated between 100 and 160 birds (Maxwell in press, as cited in
BirdLife International 2000). Populations have been established on four
predator-free offshore islands--Kapiti, Mana, Tiritiri Matangi, and
Maud--from birds translocated between 1984 and 1991 (BirdLife
International 2000). Overall, numbers are slowly increasing due to
intensive management of these island populations, although there are
fluctuations in the remnant mainland population (IUCN 2002). Since the
1960s, deer have also been controlled in the Murchison Mountains
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The takahe does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces threats
that are moderate in magnitude and imminent. Therefore, it receives a
priority rank of 8.

Chatham oystercatcher (Haematopus chathamensis)
    The Chatham oystercatcher is endemic to the Chatham Islands, New
Zealand (BirdLife International 2000). It is mostly found on rocky
shores, less often on sandy or gravel beaches, and sometimes nests in
sites with some short vegetation (del Hoyo et al.1996). This species is
classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because it has a
very small population (IUCN 2002). The Chatham oystercatcher population
has increased from approximately 50 birds in the early 1970s to 100-110
birds in the breeding season of 1987-1988, which included 44 breeding
pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996). A census conducted in 1998 revealed 140-
150 birds, which represented a significant increase (BirdLife
International 2000). However, numbers of birds on South East Island
appear to have gradually declined since the 1970s (Schmechel and
O'Connor 1999, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). Introduced
predators, as well as cattle and sheep, are a major threat on Pitt and
Chatham Islands (BirdLife International 2000). South East and Mangere
are free of mammalian predators, but populations are highly variable,
and the causes of the decline occurring on South East Island are
unknown (Schmechel and O'Connor 1999, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). The birds on the Chatham Islands are protected
through active management. Nest manipulation, fencing, signage,
intensive predator control, and a research program aimed at assessing
the effects of predators, flooding, and management on breeding success
have been initiated (BirdLife International 2000).
    The Chatham oystercatcher does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are moderate in magnitude and imminent, and
therefore it receives a priority rank of 8.

Jerdon's courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus; previously referred to as
Cursorius bitorquatus)
    Jerdon's courser is endemic to southern India, where it is
principally known from southern Andhra Pradesh, from the Godaveri River
Valley near Sironcha and Bhadrachalam, and from the Cuddapah and
Anantapur areas in the valley of the Pennar River (Ripley and Beehler
1989; Ali and Ripley 1968-1998, as cited in BirdLife International
2001). It is found in sparse, thorny and non-thorny scrub-forest and
bushes, interspersed with patches of bare ground, in gently undulating
rocky foothills (BirdLife International 2000). Historically, it was
known from just a few records in the Pennar and Godavari river valleys
and was assumed to be extinct until 1986, when it was rediscovered
around Lankamalai.
    Jerdon's courser is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN
because of its single small, declining population. It is thought to be
threatened by exploitation of the scrub-forest, livestock grazing,
disturbance, and quarrying (IUCN 2002). The population estimate for
this species is 50-249 birds, with a decreasing population trend
(BirdLife International 2000). Very few individuals have been recorded
so far, mainly due to its nocturnal, shy, and retiring habits (ibid.).
Between 1986 and 1995, there have been eight sightings of the species
in the Lankamalai area (Bhushan 1995, as cited in BirdLife
International 2001). However, it may occur in much higher densities
than currently known (BirdLife International 2001). Members of the
Yanaadi community, who played a major role in the rediscovery of the
species, were employed by the State Forest Department to locate
individuals in other localities and habitats in the Eastern Ghats, but
the results are unknown (Bhushan 1995, as cited in BirdLife
International 2001).
    Jerdon's courser does not represent a monotypic genus. The current
threat to the species is high and imminent, and therefore, it receives
a priority rank of 2.

Slender-billed curlew (Numenius tenuirostris)
    The slender-billed curlew migrates along a west-southwest route
from Siberia through central and eastern Europe (predominantly Russia,
Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia) to
southern Europe (Greece, Italy, and Turkey) and northern Africa
(Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) (BirdLife International 2000). Breeding
has only been confirmed near Tara, north of Omsk, in Siberia, Russia,
between 1914 and 1924; there have been no breeding records since 1925
(del Hoyo et al. 1996). The only known nests were recorded on the
northern limit of the forest--steppe zone in habitat more typical of
taiga marsh (BirdLife International 2000). During migration and winter,
a wide variety of habitats are used, including steppe grassland,
marshland, salt pans, brackish lagoons and wetlands, tidal mudflats,
fish ponds, semi-desert, and sandy farmland next to lagoons (ibid.).
    During the 19th Century, the slender-billed curlew was regarded as
very common (BirdLife International 2000), but declined dramatically in
the 20th Century. It is considered Critically Endangered by the IUCN
because it has an extremely small population and the number of birds
recorded annually continues to decrease (IUCN 2002). This species is
also listed in CITES Appendix I. Flocks of over 100 birds were recorded
from Morocco as late as the 1960s and 1970s (BirdLife International
2000). However, between 1980 and 1990, there were only 103 records
involving 316-326 birds, and from 1990 to 1999, this dropped to 74
records involving 148-152 birds (ibid.). Most recent records are of 1-3
birds, with the exception of a flock of 19 birds in Italy in 1995. In
1994, the population was estimated at only 50-270 birds, but records
suggest it may now be lower. Threats to the breeding grounds are
unknown (BirdLife International 2000), although it has recently been
suggested that the main breeding areas may have been located in the
steppe zone, which has been cultivated on a large scale, perhaps
explaining the rapid decline of the species (del Hoyo et al. 1996).
Historically, hunting was high and may have been a key factor in the
species' historical decline (BirdLife International 2000). Wetlands in
North Africa and the Mediterranean, and potentially important areas in
Iraq, have been extensively drained (ibid.).
    The slender-billed curlew does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is high, but non-imminent.
Therefore, the priority rank for this species is 5.

Marquesan imperial-pigeon (Ducula galeata)
    The Marquesan imperial-pigeon is endemic to Nuku Hiva in the
Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. It is restricted to valleys in
remote wooded valleys from 250 to1,300 m elevation in the west and
north of the island. It is also seen in secondary forest and at the
edge of banana and orange plantations (BirdLife International 2002).
The Marquesan imperial-pigeon is categorized as Critically Endangered
in the 2002 IUCN Red List because it has a very small population on one
tiny island (IUCN 2002). Illegal hunting is the main threat, and the
species' habitat has been modified and degraded by introduced
vegetation and grazing from feral livestock (BirdLife International
2002). In 1975, the population was estimated at 200-400 birds by
Holyoak and Thibault (1984), and in 1998, a minimum of 85 birds was
seen and the population was estimated at about 250 birds (Evva 1998).
The Marquesan imperial-pigeon survives because it exists in several
areas that are difficult to access by hunters and introduced grazers,
and that have not been colonized by rats (IUCN 2002).
    The Marquesan imperial-pigeon is a species that does not represent
a monotypic genus. It faces threats that are of high magnitude and
imminent. Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 2.

Salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis)
    The salmon-crested cockatoo is found, and perhaps endemic to, Seram
in the South Moluccas, Indonesia, with records from the adjacent
islands of Haruku, Saparua, and Ambon. There is some speculation that
records from locales other than Seram might all relate to birds of
captive origin (BirdLife International 2001). Lowland rain forest below
altitudes of 1,000 m and unlogged lowland forest below 300 m are
clearly the most productive habitat (Marsden 1998). Studies conducted
in 1998 suggested that habitat rich in strangler fig trees and the key
nest tree, Octomeles sumatranus, holds the highest densities of
cockatoos, but this needs confirmation (Kinnaird et al. in prep., as
cited in BirdLife International 2000). The diet of salmon-crested
cockatoos consists of seeds, nuts (including coconuts), berries, and
insects and their larvae (Forshaw 1989).
    The salmon-crested cockatoo was formerly a common species of the
lowlands within its range (del Hoyo et al. 1997). There are no recent
records from Saparua and Haruku, and it may only survive at one
locality on Ambon, which leaves almost the entire population on Seram
in the Manusela National Park (BirdLife International 2000). This
species is one of three threatened members of the suite of 14 bird
species that are entirely restricted to the Seram Endemic Bird Area
(BirdLife International 2001). It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN
2002 Red List (IUCN 2002), and current populations are estimated as
fewer than 10,000 individuals and decreasing (BirdLife International
2000).
    By the 1980s, the species was being extensively and unsustainably
trapped for the cage-bird market (BirdLife International 2000) and was
placed on CITES Appendix II in 1981. It was estimated that 74,509
individuals were exported from Indonesia between 1981 and 1990
(BirdLife International 2000). Imports from Indonesia between 1983 and
1988, as reported to CITES, averaged 9,571 per year (Marsden 1995, as
cited in BirdLife International 2001), and allowing for unrecorded
international trade, domestic trade, and mortality, it is estimated
that at least 10,000 birds were being taken on Seram annually in the
1980s (Kinnaird et al. [in prep.], as cited in BirdLife International
2001). In October 1989, the salmon-crested cockatoo was transferred to
CITES Appendix I. This listing resulted in a rapid drop to zero in
officially traded birds, but the domestic consumption of the species
remained high (BirdLife International 2001). Extrapolation from figures
obtained by interviews in villages suggests that possibly thousands of
birds (perhaps as many as 4,000, or 6.4 percent of the current
estimated total) are still being captured each year (Kinnaird 1999, as
cited in BirdLife International 2001). Forest loss, degradation, and
fragmentation from timber extraction, settlement, and hydroelectric
projects pose the other major threats. A program to raise local
awareness, linked with the promotion of ecotourism, has recently been
launched (BirdLife International 2000).
    The salmon-crested cockatoo does not represent a monotypic genus.
It faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent, and therefore
it receives a priority rank of 2.

Orange-fronted parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi)
    The orange-fronted parakeet was treated as a species until it was
first proposed as a color morph of C. auriceps in 1974 (Holyoak 1974,
as cited in Snyder et al. 2000). However, recent analysis has led to the suggestion that it should again be considered a
distinct species (Triggs and Daugherty 1996). It is only known from two
valleys on the South Island of New Zealand: the South Branch Hurunui
River valley and the Hawdon River valley. Historically, it was once
present on the North, most of the South, and Stewart Islands (BirdLife
International 2000). This species is restricted to southern beech
(Nothofagus spp.) forest (BirdLife International 2000), with a
preference for areas bordering stands of mountain beech (N. solandri)
(Snyder et al. 2000). It requires mature trees with natural hollows or
cavities for nesting, and breeding of the species is linked with the
irregular seed production by Nothofagus (BirdLife International 2000).
    The orange-fronted parakeet has an extremely small population and
limited range. There have only been a few sightings since 1966 (Triggs
and Daugherty 1996), and previous assessments of its status have ranged
from more common than originally thought (Harrison 1970) to close to
extinction (Mills and Williams 1980). It is classified as Endangered in
the 2002 IUCN Red List and is listed in Appendix II of CITES. The
population is estimated at 200-500 individuals and declining (BirdLife
International 2000). The primary cause of decline is likely to be
predation by stoats (Mustela erminea) and rats (Rattus spp.) (BirdLife
International 2000). Hybridization with yellow-crowned parakeets (C.
auriceps) has been observed at Lake Sumner (Snyder et al. 2000).
Existing captive stocks also show signs of interbreeding with C.
auriceps and should not be considered for any conservation action in
the future (Triggs and Daugherty 1996). Monitoring and conservation of
this species is problematic given the difficulty in separating it from
C. auriceps (BirdLife International 2000).
    The orange-fronted parakeet does not represent a monotypic genus.
It faces threats that are high but non-imminent. Therefore, it receives
a priority rank of 5.

Uvea parakeet (Eunymphicus uvaensis; Previously Referred to as
Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis)
    The Uvea parakeet is restricted to Uvea, New Caledonia. It was
recently split from the horned parakeet E. cornutus on the basis of
morphological and biochemical differences (O. Robinet in litt. 1999, as
cited in BirdLife International 2000). It is found primarily in forest
habitat, notably, those dominated by Agathis--Araucaria and general
woodlands, and feeds on the berries of vines and the flowers and seeds
of various trees and shrubs (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It is restricted to
areas of old-growth forest with nesting holes, but highest numbers
occur close to gardens with papayas (BirdLife International 2000).
    Early population estimates were alarmingly low for the Uvea
parakeet, 70-90 birds and declining (Hahn 1993), but surveys yielded
estimates of approximately 600 birds in 1993 and 750 birds in 1998 (P.
Primot, in litt. 1999, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). It is
classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because it occurs in
a very small, declining area of forest on one small island (IUCN 2002).
It was listed in Appendix I of CITES in July 2000, and had been
previously listed in Appendix II. Habitat destruction in the last 30
years has caused a 30-50 percent decline in primary forest. Threats
also include an ongoing illicit pet trade, mostly for the domestic
market. Nesting holes are cut open to extract nestlings, which make
them unsuitable for future breeding. The lack of nesting sites is
believed to be a limiting factor for the species (BirdLife
International 2000). Juveniles may be taken by predators such as the
native brown goshawk (Accipiter fasciatus). Introductions to the
adjacent island of Lifou in 1925 and 1963 failed (BirdLife
International 2000), possibly due to the presence of ship and Norwegian
rats (Rattus norvegicus) (Snyder et al. 2000).
    A recovery plan for the Uvea parakeet was prepared for the period
1997-2002, which included strong local participation in population and
habitat monitoring (Snyder et al. 2000). It is becoming well known and
celebrated as an island emblem (Robinet and Salas 1997). Illegal trade
is being successfully addressed by increased awareness and law
enforcement. A captive-breeding program was initiated in 1998 to
restock the south of Uvea. Measures are being taken to control
predators and prevent colonization by rats (BirdLife International
2000). Current population numbers are increasing, but any relaxation of
current conservation efforts or introduction of rats could lead to a
rapid decline of the species (IUCN 2002).
    The Uvea parakeet does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces
threats that are moderate and imminent, and therefore receives a
priority rank of 8.

Blue-throated macaw (Ara glaucogularis)
    The blue-throated macaw is endemic to forest islands in the
seasonally flooded Beni Lowlands (Lanos de Moxos) of Central Bolivia
(Jordan and Munn 1993). It inhabits a mosaic of seasonally inundated
savanna, palm-groves, forest islands, and possibly humid lowlands. This
species is found in areas where there is an availability of palm-fruit
food, especially Attalea phalerata (Hesse 1998, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). The region it inhabits lies at elevations between
200 and 250 m (BirdLife International 2000). The species has not been
seen congregating in large flocks, and is most commonly seen traveling
in pairs, and on rare occasions may be found in small flocks of up to
five individuals (Collar et al. 1992). The blue-throated macaw nests
between November and March in cavities within large trees where one to
two young are raised (BirdLife International 2000).
    The taxonomic status of this species was disputed for a long time,
primarily because it was unknown in the wild to biologists until 1992
(del Hoyo et al. 1997). However, trappers apparently discovered these
birds sometime in the late 1970s or early 1980s. Between the early
1980s and early 1990s, approximately 400-1,200 birds were exported from
Bolivia, and many are now in captivity in the European Union and in
North America (World Parrot Trust 2003). This species is severely
threatened by past trapping for the national and international cage-
bird trade. Recent estimates indicate that there are between 75 and 150
individuals in the wild (Snyder et al. 2000). It is categorized as
Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List and is listed in
Appendix I of CITES. Trapping for the pet trade could still be a
problem today, although some protection for known populations is in
place. The Eco Bolivia Foundation patrols known populations by foot and
motorbike, and the Armonia Association of Santa Cruz is searching the
Beni for more populations. In addition, the Armonia Association is
working on an awareness campaign aimed at the cattlemen's association
to ensure that these birds are not hunted by trappers on their property
(Snyder et al. 2000).
    The blue-throated macaw does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are moderate and imminent, and therefore receives a
priority rank of 8.

Southeastern rufous-vented ground cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi dulcis)
    The southeastern rufous-vented ground cuckoo is found in
southeastern Brazil from Espirito Santo to Rio de Janeiro (del Hoyo et
al. 1997). It is found in tropical lowland evergreen forests, where it
feeds on large insects, scorpions, centipedes, spiders, small frogs,
lizards, and occasionally seeds and fruit (ibid.). The species is not globally threatened, although
populations of ground cuckoos in southern Brazil appear to be under
threat due to deforestation (ibid.). It is a rare, local, solitary
species that requires large blocks of natural forest (ibid.). This
extremely shy species is among the first to disappear if its primary
forest habitat is disturbed, and in southeastern Brazil where it
occurs, most of this type of forest has been destroyed (IUCN 1978-
1979). It is poorly known, has a small range, and is highly sensitive
to human disturbance (BirdLife International 2001). This subspecies is
protected under Brazilian law (IUCN 1978-1979).
    This is a subspecies facing threats that are high in magnitude and
imminent. It therefore receives a priority rank of 3.

Margaretta's hermit (Phaethornis malaris margarettae; Previously
Referred to as Phaethornis margarettae)
    Margaretta's hermit was first described as a new species in 1972 by
A. Ruschi (Sibley and Monroe 1990). It is currently treated as a
subspecies of the great-billed hermit (Phaethornis malaris) (Sick
1993), which is not considered globally threatened. It is found in the
understory of inundated lowland forest, secondary growth, bamboo
thickets, and shrubbery. Margaretta's hermit is found in coastal East
Brazil and is limited to forest remnants; consequently, it could be
threatened by further habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 1999). The
Margaretta's hermit is listed in Appendix II of CITES.
    Margaretta's hermit is a subspecies facing threats that are high
and imminent. Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 3.
Black-breasted puffleg (Eriocnemis nigrivestis)
    The black-breasted puffleg is possibly now confined to the northern
ridge crests of Volcan Pichincha, in Pichincha Province, northwest
Ecuador (BirdLife International 2000). It may also occur on Volcan
Atacazo, although there have only been three specimens found in 1898,
with a possible sighting in 1983 in this location (Collar et al. 1992).
It occurs in dwarf, humid elfin forest and paramo, at 3,100-4,500 m,
from November through January and in humid temperate forest at about
2,400 m at other times of the year (Philips 1989).
    There are a large number of museum specimens (over 100) for this
species, suggesting it was more common in the past (ibid.). The only
confirmed record between 1950 and 1993 was three individuals in 1980
(BirdLife International 2000). Recent fieldwork targeting the species
has produced more records, but it has clearly declined and is now rare
within a very limited range (Philips 1989). The population estimate for
this species is 50-249 birds, with a decreasing population trend
(BirdLife International 2000). This species is classified as Critically
Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List and is listed in Appendix II of
CITES. It qualifies as critical because it has an extremely small range
and the population is restricted to one location where habitat is being
rapidly converted and there is ongoing volcanic activity (BirdLife
International 2000). The main threat to the species is the taking of
trees in the elfin forest for charcoal, although media coverage of the
species has encouraged authorities to control access and forbid
charcoal production (Philips 1989). In addition, until recently, potato
cultivation and livestock grazing on ridge crests were causing suitable
habitat in these areas to disappear rapidly (ibid.). Some of these
ridges are almost completely devoid of natural vegetation, and even if
black-breasted pufflegs still occur in these areas, they are most
likely not numerous (BirdLife International 2000).
    The black-breasted puffleg does not represent a monotypic genus.
The threat to the species is high and imminent. Therefore, it receives
a priority rank of 2.

Chilean woodstar (Eulidia yarrellii)
    The Chilean woodstar is restricted to a very small area on the
Pacific coast from Tacna, Peru, to extreme northern Antofagasta, Chile
(Collar et al. 1992). It is only known to regularly breed in the Lluta
and Azapa valleys, Arica Department, in extreme northern Chile
(BirdLife International 2000). It inhabits desert river valleys and
gardens, mainly from sea level to about 750 m and was found once at
2,600 m (Collar et al., 1992). It is usually a solitary feeder and has
been reported feeding in gardens on Lantana and Hibiscus flowers
(Collar et al. 1992), but it is comparatively rare in such habitats
(Howell and Webb in prep., as cited in BirdLife International 2000).
    The Chilean woodstar was reported to be common at the beginning of
the 20th Century (Collar et al. 1992). More recently, surveys have
found this species to be scarce to locally common (Howell and Webb in
prep., as cited in BirdLife International 2000). It is unclear whether
this represents a serious decline or previous observers did not come
across flowering trees favored by this species (BirdLife International
2000). The population estimate for this species is 2,500-10,000 birds
with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International 2000). This
species is classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List. It has a
very small range, with all populations confined to remnant habitat
patches in the two desert valleys where it occurs, which are heavily
cultivated (IUCN 2002). The indigenous plants favored by the Chilean
woodstar may be severely threatened by this cultivation (Collar et al.
1992). The extent, area, and quality of suitable habitat are likely to
be declining (ibid.). The Chilean woodstar is listed in Appendix II of
CITES. All exports of hummingbirds from Peru and Chile are controlled
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The Chilean woodstar represents a monotypic genus. It faces threats
that are high in magnitude and non-imminent. It therefore receives a
rank of 4.

Esmeraldas woodstar (Acestrura berlepschi)
    The Esmeraldas woodstar is restricted to a small area on the
Pacific Slope of the Andes of western Equador (Esmeraldas, Manabi, and
Guayas), where it is very rare and localized (BirdLife International
2000). It is found in lowland, moist forest (del Hoyo et al. 1999). It
has also been recorded in the canopy of semi-humid secondary growth at
50'150 m in December-March, when it apparently breeds (Becker et al.
2000). However, it has not been recorded in this habitat at other times
of year, and there is no evidence concerning its long-term ability to
survive in this type of forest (BirdLife International 2000).
    The Esmeraldas woodstar inhabits one of the most threatened forest
habitats within the Neotropics (del Hoyo et al. 1999). All forest types
within its range have greatly diminished due to logging and clearing
for agriculture (Dodson and Gentry 1991, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). This species is classified as Endangered in the
2002 IUCN Red List because it has a very small and severely fragmented
range, which is experiencing rapid declines, presumably causing
declines in the bird's population (IUCN 2002). The species is also
listed in Appendix II of CITES. The population estimate for this
species is 1,000-2,499 birds with a decreasing population trend
(BirdLife International 2000). There is a serious current threat from
persistent grazing by goats and cattle, which damage the understory and
prevent regeneration (Dodson and Gentry 1991, as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). Dodson and Gentry (1991) indicate that rapid
habitat loss continues, at least in
unprotected areas, and extant forests will soon be removed. In Manabi
Province, the Esmeraldas woodstar occurs in Machalilla National Park
(Collar et al. 1992), but even here, it receives inadequate protection
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The Esmeraldas woodstar does not represent a monotypic genus;
however, it faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent.
Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 2.

Helmeted woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus)
    The helmeted woodpecker is endemic to the southern Atlantic forest
region of southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and northeastern
Argentina (BirdLife International 2001). It is found in tall lowland
and montane primary forest, in forest that has been selectively logged,
and usually near large tracts of intact forest (ibid.). This woodpecker
feeds on beetle larvae living beneath bark and forages primarily in the
middle story of the forest interior (del Hoyo et al. 2002).
    Recent field work on the helmeted woodpecker has revealed that the
species is less rare than once thought (BirdLife International 2000).
It is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN 2002 Red List. The current
population is estimated at no more than 10,000 individuals and
decreasing (BirdLife International 2000). The greatest threat to this
species is widespread deforestation. Numerous sightings since the mid-
1980s has included a pair in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina in
1998, where the species had not been seen since 1946 (del Hoyo et al.
2002). The helmeted woodpecker is protected by Brazilian law and
populations occur in numerous protected areas throughout its range
(BirdLife International 2000). Further studies are needed to clarify
its distribution and status (del Hoyo et al. 2002).
    The helmeted woodpecker does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is moderate and imminent. It
therefore receives a priority rank of 8.

Okinawa woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii)
    The Okinawa woodpecker is endemic to Okinawa Island, Japan, in the
Nansei Shoto (Ryukyu) Islands in southern Japan. It is confined to
Kunigami-gun, with its main breeding areas along the mountain ridges
between Mt. Nishime-take and Mt. Iyu-take (BirdLife International
2000). This species is found in mature, subtropical moist evergreen
broadleaf forests, much of which is now confined to hilltops (Brazil
1991). It is found in forests that are at least 30 years old (Ikehara
1988) in trees more than 20 cm in diameter (Research Center, Wild Bird
Society of Japan 1993, as cited in BirdLife International 2001). The
Okinawa woodpecker heavily uses rotting stubs as food sources, which
suggests a dependence on old-growth forests with large, often moribund
trees, accumulated fallen trees and debris, and undergrowth (Short
1993, as cited in BirdLife International 2001). This woodpecker mainly
nests in the tree Castanopsis cuspidata (Research Center, Wild Bird
Society of Japan 1993, as cited in BirdLife International 2001). It
feeds on large arthropods, notably beetle larvae, spiders, moths, and
centipedes, plus fruit, berries, seeds, acorns, and other nuts (Winkler
et al. 1995).
    The Okinawa woodpecker is considered the world's rarest extant
picid and is categorized as Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red
List. It was considered close to extinction in the 1930s, and in the
early 1990s, the breeding population was estimated to be about 75
birds, with the total population between 146 and 584 individuals. It
has a single tiny, declining population, which is threatened by
continued loss of mature forest to logging, dam construction,
agriculture, and golf course developments (BirdLife International
2000). Some conservation efforts are underway. Currently, it is legally
protected in Japan. The Yambaru, a forest area in the Okinawa
Prefecture, was designated as a national park in 1996, and conservation
organizations have purchased sites where the woodpecker occurs to
establish private wildlife preserves (del Hoyo et al. 2002).
    The Okinawa woodpecker represents a monotypic genus. This species
faces threats that are moderate in magnitude and imminent. It therefore
receives a priority rank of 7.

Yellow-browed toucanet (Aulacorhynchus huallagae)
    The yellow-browed toucanet is known from only two localities in
north-central Peru, La Libertad, where it is uncommon, and Rio Abiseo
National Park, San Martin, where it is apparently very rare (BirdLife
International 2000). It has a narrow elevational distribution,
inhabiting the canopy of montane wet cloud forests with mosses and
epiphytes between 2,125 and 2,510 m (del Hoyo et al. 2002, Collar et
al. 1992). This distribution may be related to the occurrence of the
larger grey-breasted mountain toucan (Andigena hypoglauca) above 2,300
m and the occurrence of the emerald toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus)
below 2,100 m (Schulenberg and Parker, as cited in Collar et al. 1992).
However, its restricted range remains unexplained (ibid.). The yellow-
browed toucanet does not appear to occupy all apparently suitable
forest available within its overall range (Schulenberg and Parker
1997). Deforestation has been widespread in this region, but largely
below this species' altitudinal range (BirdLife International 2000).
However, coca growers have taken over forests within its altitudinal
range, probably resulting in some reductions in this species range and
population (ibid.). It is listed as Endangered by the IUCN because of
its very small range (IUCN 2002). Current population size is unknown
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The yellow-browed toucanet does not represent a monotypic genus.
The magnitude of threat to the species is moderate and non-imminent.
Therefore, it receives a priority rank of 11.

Royal cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae)
    The royal cinclodes occurs in the Andes of southeastern Peru
(Cuzco, Apurimac, and Puno) and adjacent Bolivia (La Paz) (BirdLife
International 2000). It is found in tiny humid patches of Polylepis
woodland and montane scrub, mainly at 3,500-4,800 m (Parker et al.
1996). This species is classified as Critically Endangered in the 2002
IUCN Red List because it has an extremely small population that is
restricted to a severely fragmented and rapidly declining habitat (IUCN
2002). In addition, no sub-population is thought to exceed 50 mature
individuals (ibid.). The population estimate for this species is 50-249
birds, with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International
2000). The main threat is the inability of Polylepis to regenerate due
to the uncontrolled use of fire and heavy grazing (Fjeldsa and Kessler
1996, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). Cutting for timber,
firewood, and charcoal, although locally destructive, could be
sustainable if regeneration was allowed to occur (ibid.). A local
program aimed at educating families on Polylepis woodland and its birds
seems to be working.
    The royal cinclodes does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is high and the immediacy is
imminent. We therefore have assigned a priority rank of 2 to this
species.

White-browed tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax)
    The white-browed tit-spinetail is restricted to a severely
fragmented range in south-central Peru in the Runtacocha highland
(Apurimac), the Nevado
Sacsarayoc Massif, and the Cordillera Vilcanota (Cuzco) (BirdLife
International 2000). These birds occur in small, widely scattered
patches of humid Polylepis woodlands at 3,700-4,550 m (ibid.). The
white-browed tit-spinetail is categorized as Endangered in the 2002
IUCN Red List because of its extremely small and fragmented range and
population, which continue to decline due to habitat loss and a lack of
habitat regeneration (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated at 250-
999 individuals and declining (BirdLife International 2000).
Regeneration of Polylepis woodlands is prevented by uncontrolled fires,
heavy grazing, and the inadequacy of afforestation projects, which are
the greatest threats to the white-browed tit-spinetail (Fjeldsa and

Kessler 1996, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). Although
cutting for timber, firewood, and charcoal is locally destructive, it
could be sustained if regeneration were allowed to occur. There have
been attempts to draw local attention to the plight of Polylepis
woodlands in Cuzco, which may lead to better environmental controls
(ibid.).
    The white-browed tit-spinetail does not represent a monotypic
genus. The magnitude of threat to this species is high and immediacy of
threat is imminent. It has therefore received a priority rank of 2.

Black-hooded antwren (Formicivora erythronotos, Previously Referred to
as Myrmotherula erythronotos)
    The black-hooded antwren is endemic to southeast Brazil and
survives in a narrow coastal strip around the Baia Ilha Grande in south
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (BirdLife International 2000; BirdLife
International 2001). It has been found to occur mostly in the lush
understory of modified restinga, early successional habitats such as
secondary growth, and the understory of old secondary growth (BirdLife
International 2000). This species was originally known from about
twenty 19th Century skins, and thought to be extinct until it was
rediscovered in 1987 (BirdLife International 2000). It has been
classified as Endangered by IUCN (2002). Although the species is found
at high densities at three sites, the overall range is very small and
highly fragmented, and the species is likely to be declining rapidly in
response to habitat loss (BirdLife International 2000). The population
estimate for this species is 1,000-2,499 birds with a decreasing
population trend (BirdLife International 2000). This species is
threatened by development of the narrow coastal plain for tourism and
beachside housing and widespread clearance of suitable habitat for
pasture and plantations of Euterpe sp. palms (ibid.).
    The black-hooded antwren does not represent a monotypic genus. It
faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent, and therefore it
receives a priority rank of 2.

Fringe-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena atra)
    The fringe-backed fire-eye is known only from a very restricted
area in the vicinity of Salvador, coastal Bahia, and in south Sergipe,
Brazil (Collar et al. 1992). It is found in the tangled undergrowth of
lowland forests and appears to favor secondary growth and other semi-
open habitats where horizontal perches can be found near the ground.
Recent population estimates indicate that between 250 and 999
individuals remain in the wild, and the population is declining
(BirdLife International 2000). The species is categorized as Critically
Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because of its extremely small
range and declining habitat, and because it is known from a very few,
highly fragmented localities (IUCN 2002). The fringe-backed fire-eye is
protected under Brazilian law. The greatest threat to this species is
habitat loss (BirdLife International 2000).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces threats
that are high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore receives a
priority rank of 2.

Brown-banded antpitta (Grallaria milleri)
    The brown-banded antpitta is endemic to the Volcan Ruiz-Tolima
Massif of the central Andes, Colombia (BirdLife International 2000). In
Ucumari, this species has been recorded in three types of habitat with
no significant difference in population: Early secondary growth
vegetation with a high density of herbs and shrubs; the understory of
30-year-old alder (Alnus) plantations; and the understory of 30-year-
old secondary forest (Kattan and Beltran 1997). Between 1911 and 1942,
ten specimens were collected at elevations of 2,745-3,140 m in Caldas
and Quindio (BirdLife International 2000; Kattan and Beltran 1997). It
was not seen again until May 1994 in Ucumari Regional Park in Risaralda
(Kattan and Beltran 1997). Eleven more birds were caught and banded
during surveys conducted between 1994 and 1997 in a narrow elevational
band of 2,400-2,600 m, and it was estimated that 106 individuals were
present in a 0.63-km2 area (ibid., Kattan and Beltran 1999).
During 1994-1997, additional observations of the bird were made on the
southeast slope of Volcan Tolima in the Rio Toche Valley, which
represents a range extension (Lopez-Lanus et al. 2000).
    The greatest threat to the brown-banded antpitta is habitat loss.
In the Rio Toche Valley, forest has been converted to agriculture since
the 1950s, and natural vegetation cover has been reduced to about 15
percent between 1,900 and 3,200 m (BirdLife International 2000). This
species is classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because
it is known from very few locations in a very small range (IUCN 2002).
In addition, habitat loss and degradation are continuing within this
range (ibid.). The population estimate for this species is 250-999
birds, with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International
2000). Significant numbers of this species are well protected in
Ucumari Regional Park, Risaralda (Kattan and Beltran 1997). The Rio
Toche watershed lacks any form of protection, and the limited remaining
forest there continues to diminish and become increasingly fragmented
(Lopez-Lanus et al. 2000).
    The brown-banded antpitta does not represent a monotypic genus. The
threat to the species is high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore
receives a priority rank of 2.

Brasilia tapaculo (Scytalopus novacapitalis)
    The Brasilia tapaculo occurs in the undergrowth of swampy gallery
forest and dense streamside vegetation with impenetrable secondary
growths of fern Pteridium aquilinum from Goias, the Federal District,
and Minas Gerais, Brazil (Collar et al. 1992; BirdLife International
2000, Negret and Cavalcanti 1985, as cited in Collar et al. 1992).
Although the species was once considered rare (Sick and Texeira 1979,
as cited in Collar et al. 1992), it is found in reasonable numbers in
certain areas of Brasilia (D. M. Teixeira, in litt. 1987, as cited in
Collar et al. 1992). The population is estimated at more than 10,000
birds, with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International
2000). Currently, the IUCN Red List categorizes Scytalopus
novacapitalis as Lower Risk/near threatened (IUCN 2002). This species
has a very limited range and is presumably losing habitat around
Brasilia. However, its distribution now seems larger than initially
thought, and the swampy gallery forests where it is found have escaped
clearance (D. M. Teixeira in litt. 1987, as cited in Collar et al.
1992). The Brasilia tapaculo is currently protected by Brazilian law
(Bernardes et al. 1990, as cited in Collar et al. 1992), and it is
known from six protected areas
(BirdLife International 2000). Annual burning of adjacent grasslands
limits the extent and availability of suitable habitat, as does wetland
drainage and the sequestration of water for irrigation (BirdLife
International 2000).
    The Brasilia tapaculo does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is moderate and imminent. Therefore,
it receives a priority rank of 8.

Kaempfer's tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi; Previously Referred to
as Idioptilon kaempferi)
    The Kaempfer's tody-tyrant is known from three localities in Santa
Catarina, Brazil: one record each in 1929, 1950, and 1998 (BirdLife
International 2000). It is found in humid lowland Atlantic forest. At
one of these localities, at Salto do Pirai, these birds have typically
been seen in forest edge, well-shaded secondary growth, and sections of
low, generally epiphyte-laden open woodland in the vicinity of
watercourses (Mazar Barnett et al. [in press], as cited by BirdLife
International 2000). It feeds predominantly in the midstory of medium-
sized trees, and pairs appear to remain within small well-defined areas
(ibid.). The Kaempfer's tody-tyrant is categorized as Endangered in the
2002 IUCN Red List because of its extremely small range, with only two
recent records in a single area (IUCN 2002). The population estimate is
1,000-2,499 individuals and declining (BirdLife International 2000).
There has been extensive deforestation in the Atlantic forest, and much
of the lowland forest continues to be cleared in the vicinity of the
two most recent sightings (BirdLife International 2000). The Kaempfer's
tody-tyrant is protected by Brazilian law and occurs in one protected
area (ibid.).
    This species does not represent a monotypic genus. Threats to the
species are high in magnitude and imminent. We therefore have assigned
a priority rank of 2 to this species.

Ash-breasted tit-tyrant (Anairetes alpinus)
    The ash-breasted tit-tyrant is confined to semi-humid Polylepis--
Gynoxys woodlands in the high Andes in Peru and Bolivia (BirdLife
International 2000). There are two widely disjunct populations: the
subspecies A. a. alpinus occurs in the Cordilleras Central and
Occidental, Peru, and A. a. bolivianus occurs in the Cordillera
Oriental, Peru, and in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia (BirdLife
International 2000; Collar et al. 1992; Fjeldsa and Kessler 1996). It
is relatively common in the Runtacocha highland, Apurimac, and the
Cordillera Vilcabamba, Cuzco (Fjeldsa and Kessler 1996). The ash-
breasted tit-tyrant is categorized as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red
List because of its very small, fragmented, and declining occupied
range and population (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated at 250-
999 individuals and declining (BirdLife International 2000). Heavy
grazing is the main threat, especially in Ancash, which, combined with
the uncontrolled use of fire, prevents Polylepis regeneration (Fjeldsa
and Kessler 1996 and G. Servat (in litt.), as cited in BirdLife
International 2000). In addition, a change from camelid to sheep and
cattle farming, erosion, and soil degradation caused by agricultural
intensification and afforestation are contributory factors to the
decline of the species (Fjeldsa and Kessler 1996). There have been some
local successes with public awareness campaigns in Cuzco, Peru (ibid.).
    The ash-breasted tit-tyrant does not represent a monotypic genus.
The threat to the species is high in magnitude and imminent. Therefore,
we have assigned it a priority rank of 2.

Peruvian plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii)
    The Peruvian plantcutter inhabits the coastal region of northern
Peru from Tumbus to Lima (BirdLife International 2000). Recent records
are from only four areas, and it is absent from much apparently
suitable habitat (ibid.). It occurs in desert scrub, riparian thicket,
and low woodland, usually dominated by Prosopis trees with some Acacia
up to 550 m (ibid.). The Peruvian plantcutter is categorized as
Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because of its extremely small and
fragmented range, and because the remaining habitat is subject to rapid
and continuing destruction and degradation (IUCN 2002). The population
is estimated at 250-999 individuals and declining (BirdLife
International 2000). Threats include the conversion of coastal river
valleys to cultivation, removal of the shrub layer by grazing goats,
and burning and logging for firewood and charcoal (Engblom in litt., as
cited by BirdLife International 2000).
    The Peruvian plantcutter does not represent a monotypic genus.
Threats to the species are high in magnitude and imminent. Therefore,
it receives a priority rank of 2.

St. Lucia forest thrush (Cichlherminia iherminieri sanctaeluciae)
    The St. Lucia forest thrush is found on St. Lucia Island in the
West Indies (Raffaele et al. 1998). It mostly inhabits the undergrowth
of mid- and high-altitude primary and secondary moist forest (Raffaele
et al. 1998; Keith 1997, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). On
St. Lucia, it is uncommon to rare, but was considered numerous in the
late 19th Century (Keith 1997, as cited in BirdLife International
2000). It is currently treated as a subspecies of the forest thrush
(Cichlherminia Iherminieri), which is classified as Vulnerable in the
2002 IUCN Red List because of human-induced deforestation and
introduced predators (IUCN 2002). Habitat loss has occurred throughout
the species' range, and other threats include competition with the
bare-eyed robin, brood parasitism by the shiny cowbird, hunting by
humans for food, and predation by mongooses and other introduced
predators (Raffaele et al. 1998).
    This subspecies faces threats that are high and imminent. It
therefore receives a priority rank of 3.

Eiao Polynesian warbler (Acrocephalus caffer aquilonis)
    The Eiao Polynesian warbler is restricted to dry forest on Eiao
Island in the Marquesas Islands. Decker (1973) found that other races
of the species occupy a variety of habitats possessing trees or tall
bushes, ranging from cultivated areas to dense forests. On Eiao, by
1960, only scraps of woodland remained, and after many years of grazing
by introduced sheep and swine, it was described as being a barren
desert of rock and orange clay. This warbler was apparently common in
1922, when the Whitney South Sea Expedition collected a number of
specimens (Holyoak 1975, as cited by IUCN 1978-1979). Three more
individuals were collected in 2 days in 1929, and it was still present
in small numbers in 1968 (ibid.). The population in 1987 was estimated
at 100-200 individuals (Thibault, personal communication to Philippe
Raust, Soci[eacute][eacute]t[eacute][eacute] d'Ornithologie de
Polyn[eacute][eacute]sie 2003). Threats include alien invasive mammals
and predators and a lack of regeneration of habitat (ibid.).
    The Eiao Polynesian warbler is a subspecies facing threats that are
high in magnitude and imminent. It therefore receives a priority rank
of 3.

Codfish Island fernbird (Bowdleria punctata wilsoni)
    The Codfish Island fernbird is found only in low scrub habitat on
Codfish Island, off the northwest coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand
(IUCN 1979). The vegetation of Codfish Island has been modified by the
introduced Australian brush-tailed possum
(Trichosurus vulpecula), and fernbird numbers have been reduced by
predation by the weka (Gallirallus australis scotti) and the Polynesian
rat (Rattus exulans) (Merton 1974, personal communication, as cited in
IUCN 1979). In 1966, this fernbird was considered relatively safe
(Blackburn 1967, as cited in IUCN 1979), but estimates from 1975
indicated a gradually declining population numbering approximately 100
individuals (Bell 1975, as cited in IUCN 1979). At that time, it was
absent from parts of Codfish Island that it had formerly occupied
(Blackburn 1967, as cited in IUCN 1979). Several conservation measures
have been completed on Codfish Island. The weka was eradicated from
Codfish Island between 1980 and 1985 (Taylor 2000), and Polynesian rats
were eradicated from Codfish Island in August 1998 (Conservation News
2002). The fernbirds are now rebounding strongly on the island (Hayley
Meehan, New Zealand Forest and Birds, personal communication, 2003).
    The Codfish Island fernbird is a subspecies that is now facing
threats that are low to moderate in magnitude and imminent. It
therefore receives a priority rank of 9.

Ghizo white-eye (Zosterops luteirostris)
    The Ghizo white-eye is endemic to Ghizo in the Solomon Islands
(BirdLife International 2000). Birds are locally common in the
remaining tall or old-growth forests located on Ghizo (Buckingham et
al. 1995 and Gibbs 1996, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). It
is less common in scrub close to large trees and in plantations
(BirdLife International 2000), and it is not known whether these two
habitats support sustainable breeding populations (Buckingham et al.
1995, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). This species is
classified as Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because of its small
population that is inferred to be declining because of habitat loss
(IUCN 2002). The population estimate for this species is 250-999 birds
with a decreasing population trend (BirdLife International 2000). The
very tall old-growth forest on Ghizo is still under some threat from
clearance for timber for local use, firewood, and gardens, and the
areas of other secondary growth, which are sub-optimal habitats for
this species, are under considerable threat from clearance for
agricultural land (ibid.).
    The Ghizo white-eye does not represent a monotypic genus. It faces
threats that are moderate and imminent, and therefore receives a
priority rank of 8.

Medium tree-finch (Camarhynchus pauper)
    The medium tree-finch is endemic to Floreana in the Galapagos
Islands, Ecuador (BirdLife International 2000). It is common in the
highlands and considered uncommon to rare on the coast (Harris 1992).
It is found in montane evergreen and tropical deciduous forest, the
Scalesia zone, and humid scrub (Stotz et al. 1996). This poorly known
species is considered Vulnerable by the IUCN because it has a very
small range (IUCN 2002). The population estimate ranges from 1,000 to
2,499 (BirdLife International 2000). Introduced species may be a threat
because Floreana Island has a number of introduced predators and
herbivores, including cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and rats, and also
suffers from extensive habitat destruction and degradation (Jackson
1985). However, it is not known how any of these potential threats
affects the species (BirdLife International 2000). Population trends
for this species are also unknown (IUCN 2002). Predator control is
occurring on Floreana, Santa Cruz, and Santiago Islands (H. Vargus and
F. Cruz (in litt.) 2000, as cited in BirdLife International 2000). The
Galapagos Islands are a national park and were declared a World
Heritage Site in 1979 (BirdLife International 2000).
    The medium tree-finch does not represent a monotypic genus. The
magnitude of threat to the species is moderate and immediacy is non-
imminent. We therefore give this species a priority rank of 11.

Cherry-throated tanager (Nemosia rourei)
    The cherry-throated tanager is currently known from Fazenda
Pindobas IV in Espirito Santo, Brazil, where small numbers have been
recorded since 1998 (Bauer et al. 2000). Prior to this time, this
species was only known from one type specimen, collected around the
mid-19th Century at Muriae, Minas Gerais, and from a flock of eight
individuals seen in the region of Jatiboca, Espirito Santo, in 1941
(Collar et al. 1992). The area of Espirito Santo is now devoid of
forest (BirdLife International 2000). There have been probable
sightings at the Augusto Ruschi (Nova Lombardia) Biological Reserve in
1992 (Scott 1997) and Fazenda Pedra Bonita, Minas Gerais (Bauer et al.
2000). It occurs primarily in the canopy of humid montane forests at
elevations of 900-1,100 m (ibid.). The cherry-throated tanager is
categorized as Critically Endangered in the 2002 IUCN Red List because
of its extremely small range and because the population is only found
in a single area (IUCN 2002). The population is estimated at 50-249
individuals and declining (BirdLife International 2000). It is believed
that extensive deforestation has had an adverse impact on this tanager
(ibid.). This species is protected by Brazilian law and its conceivable
range may include protected areas (ibid.). The owners of Fazenda
Pindobas IV have expressed interest in protecting the remaining native
forest on their property (Venturini, in litt. 2000, as cited in
BirdLife International 2000).
    The cherry-throated tanager does not represent a monotypic genus.
It faces threats that are high in magnitude and imminent, and therefore
it receives a priority rank of 2.

Black-backed tanager (Tangara peruviana)
    The black-backed tanager is endemic to the coastal Atlantic forest
region of southeastern Brazil, with records from Rio de Janeiro, Sao
Paolo, Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Espirito Santo
(BirdLife International 1992; Argel-de-Oliveira, in litt. 2000, as
cited in BirdLife International 2000). It is largely restricted to
coastal sand-plain forest and littoral scrub, also called restinga, and
has also been found in secondary forests (BirdLife International 1992).
The black-backed tanager is generally not considered rare within
suitable habitat (BirdLife International 2000). It has a complex
distribution with periodic local fluctuations in numbers owing to
seasonal movements, at least in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo (BirdLife
International 1992). Clarification of these seasonal movements will
provide an improved understanding of its actual conservation status
(IUCN 2002). Population estimates range from 2,500 to 10,000
individuals (BirdLife International 2000), and it is considered
Vulnerable by the IUCN. Currently populations appear to be small and
fragmented. The species is threatened by the rapid and widespread loss
of restinga and occasionally appears in the illegal cage-bird trade
(BirdLife International 2000).
    The black-backed tanager does not represent a monotypic genus. The
threat to the species is low to moderate in magnitude, and the threat
is non-imminent. Therefore, we give this species a priority rank of 11.

Lord Howe pied currawong (Strepera graculina crissalis)
    The Lord Howe Island subspecies of the pied currawong is endemic to
the Lord Howe Island group in New South Wales, Australia. The highest
densities of nests are located on the slopes of Mt. Gower and in the Erskine Valley, with smaller numbers on the lower land to the north (Knight 1987, as cited in Garnett and Gabriel 2000). This subspecies is highly mobile, and individuals can be found anywhere on the island as well as on offshore islands, such as the Admiralty group (Garnett and Gabriel 2000). Territories of the pied currawongs include a section of stream or gully that is lined by tall timber (ibid.). They feed on dead rats, possibly chase and kill live ones, and have also been recorded taking seabird chicks, poultry, and the chicks of the Lord Howe woodhen
(Tricholimnas sylvestris) and white terns (Gygis alba), as well as
fruits and seeds (Hutton 1991 and McFarland 1994, as cited Garnett and
Gabriel 2000). Local residents sometimes kill currawongs that have
attacked poultry, woodhens, or terns (Garnett and Gabriel 2000).
However, the effect of this killing on the overall population is
unknown (ibid.). The Lord Howe pied currawong is listed as Endangered
on the schedules of the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation
Act (Garnett and Gabriel 2000) because the subspecies is limited in
range, only occurring on Lord Howe Island (New South Wales National
Parks and Wildlife Service 2003). In the Action Plan for Australian
Birds (2000), the current population is estimated at approximately 80
mature individuals. The agency responsible for the conservation of this
species is the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
    The Lord Howe pied currawong is a subspecies facing threats that
are low in magnitude and non-imminent. Therefore, it receives a
priority rank of 12.