Parvclass Picae
    Order PICIFORMES
        Infraorder Picides
              Family Indicatoridae
              Family Picidae
          Subfamily Jynginae
   Subfamily Picinae
   Infraorder Ramphastides
            Superfamily Megalaimoidea
              Family Megalaimidae
            Superfamily Lybioidea
              Family Lybiidae
            Superfamily Ramphastoidea
              Family Ramphastidae
                Subfamily Capitoninae
                Subfamily Ramphastinae

OrderPICIFORMES
Family INDICATORIDAE

Indicator maculatus  SPOTTED HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, C. Afr. Rep., n,ne Zaire, s Sudan and w Uganda, s to sw,c,ce Zaire.
Indicator variegatus  SCALY-THROATED HONEYGUIDE.  Riparian woods, forest, savanna woodland.  Se Sudan, sw,sc Ethiopia and s Somalia, s through ne,se Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe to e,s S. Africa, w through Angola.
Indicator indicator  GREATER HONEYGUIDE.  Wooded savanna, dry woodland.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, Burkina Faso, e through s Mali, sw Niger, Nigeria, s Chad and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and nw,s Somalia and s to s S. Africa.  Recorded in all subSaharan African countries except Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
Indicator archipelagicus  MALAYSIAN HONEYGUIDE.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m of se Asia in Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo.
Indicator minor  LESSER HONEYGUIDE.  Riparian woodland, savanna.  Senegambia, sw Guinea and Liberia e through s Mali, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia and s to s S. Africa.  Recorded in all subSaharan African countries except Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania and Djibouti.
Indicator conirostris  THICK-BILLED HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  From coastal Liberia e through Cameroon, n,ne Zaire and Uganda to w Kenya and s to se,sc,ce Zaire.
Indicator willcocksi  WILLCOCKS'S HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Locally in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, C. African Rep., n,c,e Zaire and Uganda.
Indicator exilis  LEAST HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Fernando Po, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, w Kenya and nw Tanzania, s to c Angola, nw Zambia and s,e Zaire.
Indicator pumilio  DWARF HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Mts. in w Uganda and Rwanda.
Indicator meliphilus  PALLID HONEYGUIDE.  Savanna woodland.  E Uganda and w,s,se Kenya s locally through Tanzania, se Zaire and Malawi to se Zimbabwe and adjacent sw Mozambique and w through Zambia to c,cw Angola.
Indicator xanthonotus  YELLOW-RUMPED HONEYGUIDE.  Forest.  Himalayas, 1500-3000 m from extreme e Afghanistan and n Pakistan e through n India to ne Burma.
Melichneutes robustus  LYRE-TAILED HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Locally in Sierra Leone, Liberia, w Ivory Coast and s Nigeria e to s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., ne Zaire and s to extreme n Angola and sw,c Zaire.
Melignomon eisentrauti  YELLOW-FOOTED HONEYGUIDE.  Forest.  Locally in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ghana and sw Cameroon.
Melignomon zenkeri  ZENKER'S HONEYGUIDE.  Forest.  S Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, n Gabon, se,c C. African Rep., n,ce Zaire and w Uganda.
Prodotiscus insignis  CASSIN'S HONEYGUIDE.  Humid forest.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, se Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne,ce Zaire, extreme s Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda and w Kenya and s to n Angola and sw,sc Zaire.
Prodotiscus zambesiae  GREEN-BACKED HONEYGUIDE.  Dry woodland.  Kenya, Tanzania, se Zaire and Malawi to extreme ne Namibia (Caprivi), ne Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe and w through Zambia to c,s Angola.
Prodotiscus regulus  WAHLBERG'S HONEYGUIDE.  Acacia savanna, brachystegia woodland, forest edge.  Locally in Liberia, Ivory Coast, Togo, s,ne Nigeria, w Cameroon and w C. African Rep.; from Angola, se Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, ce Sudan, w,c Ethiopia and c,s Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, to extreme ne Namibia, n,e Botswana and e S. Africa.

Family PICIDAE
Subfamily JYNGINAE

Jynx torquilla  EURASIAN WRYNECK.  Open woodland, second growth, orchards, farmlands.  From British Isles and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk and Sakhalin and s locally to nw Africa, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, n Mediterranean region, nw Turkey, nw Iran, s Russia, n India, nc,ne China, n Mongolia, Manchuria, ne Korea and n Japan.  Winters s to c Africa, India, se Asia, s China and s Japan.
Jynx ruficollis  RUFOUS-NECKED WRYNECK.  Woodland, edge, scrub, farmlands, savanna.  Patchy distribution from se Nigeria and Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., Ethiopia s to Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozmbique, Angola and e S. Africa.

Subfamily PICINAE

Picumnus innominatus  SPECKLED PICULET.  Humid forest, dense undergrowth, bamboo, second growth.  Lowlands to 3000 m in mts. of s Asia from n Pakistan e across n,s,e India to c,e China and s through se Asia to Sumatra and Borneo.
Picumnus aurifrons  BAR-BREASTED PICULET.  Humid forest, edge.  Up to 1000 m e of Andes from extreme se Colombia, e Peru and Amazonian Brazil s to n Bolivia and sw Brazil.
Picumnus pumilus  ORINOCO PICULET.  Humid forest.  Up to 500 m of Andes in e Colombia, s Venezuela and extreme nw Brazil in R. Uaupes area.
Picumnus lafresnayi  LAFRESNAYE'S PICULET.  Humid forest.  Up to 1400 m of Andes in se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and w Amazonian Brazil.
Picumnus exilis  GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET.  Humid forest, second growth, savanna.  Up to 1900 m of e Andes in extreme e Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas and n Brazil; e Brazil.
Picumnus fuscus  RUSTY-NECKED PICULET.  Forest.  Lowlands in n Bolivia in Río Guaporé drainage and sw Brazil.
Picumnus sclateri  ECUADORIAN PICULET.  Arid open woodland, thorn scrub.  Up to 2000 m on w slope of w Andes in w Ecuador and nw Peru.
Picumnus squamulatus  SCALED PICULET.  Forest undergrowth, edge, deciduous woodland.  Up to 1900 m in e Colombia and n Venezuela.
Picumnus spilogaster  WHITE-BELLIED PICULET.  Humid forest, deciduous woodland, thickets.  Up to 500 m in e Venezuela, Guianas and adjacent n,nc Brazil.
Picumnus minutissimus  GUIANAN PICULET.  Forest edge, savanna, woods.  Lowlands of the Guianas.
Picumnus pygmaeus  SPOTTED PICULET.  Dry forest.  Up to 750 m in e Brazil.
Picumnus steindachneri  SPECKLE-CHESTED PICULET.  Forest.  Mts., 1350-2000 m in ne Peru.
Picumnus varzeae  VARZEA PICULET.  Humid forest, usually near water.  Lowlands of Amazonian Brazil.
Picumnus dorbygnianus  OCELLATED PICULET.  Forest, woodland, scrub.  Andes to 2100 m in e Peru and Bolivia.
Picumnus temminckii  OCHRE-COLLARED PICULET.  Forest, woodland, scrub.  Lowland of se Brazil.
Picumnus albosquamatus  WHITE-WEDGED PICULET.  Dense woodland, gallery forest.  Lowlands and foothills to 2100 m of Andes in n,e Bolivia and c,e,sw Brazil in sw Mato Grosso.
Picumnus cirratus  WHITE-BARRED PICULET.  Forest, woodland, scrub.  Lowlands e of Andes in Guyana, French Guiana and ne,sw Brazil, se Bolivia, n Argentina, Paraguay.
Picumnus rufiventris  RUFOUS-BREASTED PICULET.  Humid forest edge, undergrowth.  Up to 1000 m along e slope of e Andes from se Colombia s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia.
Picumnus fulvescens  TAWNY PICULET.  Forest, woodland.  Up to 1000 m of ne Brazil.
Picumnus limae  OCHRACEOUS PICULET.  Dry woodland.  Lowlands of e Brazil.
Picumnus nebulosus  MOTTLED PICULET.  Forest, edge.  Up to 1000 m in se Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Picumnus castelnau  PLAIN-BREASTED PICULET.  Forest edge, farmlands, swampy woodland, riverine woodland, second growth.  Up to 1000 m of Andes in se Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru.
Picumnus subtilis  FINE-BARRED PICULET.  Forest.  Up to 1100 m along e base of Andes in Peru.
Picumnus olivaceus  OLIVACEOUS PICULET.  Humid forest, undergrowth, second growth, mangroves.  Up to 1500 m on Caribbean slope of e Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, in sw Costa Rica, both slopes of Panama,and foothills, 600-2500 m, in n,w Colombia, nw Venezuela and w Ecuador.
Picumnus granadensis  GREYISH PICULET.  Humid forest edge, scrub.  Andean foothills, 600-2100 m, of Colombia.
Picumnus cinnamomeus  CHESTNUT PICULET.  Arid scrub, dry forest edge, mangroves.  Coastal lowlands to 500 m in ne Colombia and nw Venezuela.
Sasia africana  AFRICAN PICULET.  Humid forest, dense second growth.  Up to 1000 m in Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, and from s Cameroon, s C. African Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, n,ne Zaire and w Uganda s to nw Angola and sc,ce Zaire.
Sasia abnormis  RUFOUS PICULET.  Forest, dense undergrowth, bamboo.  Up to 1200 m from s pen. Burma and s pen. Thailand s through Malaya to Sumatra, Borneo and c,w Java.
Sasia ochracea  WHITE-BROWED PICULET.  Humid forest undergrowth, bamboo.  Lowlands and mts. to 2000 m in n,e India, Burma, Thailand and Indochina.
Nesoctites micromegas  ANTILLEAN PICULET.  Forest, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands and mts. to 1800 m of Hispaniola.
Melanerpes candidus  WHITE WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, open woodland, savanna, farmlands.  Up to 2200 m from s Surinam s through Brazil to extreme se Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Melanerpes lewis  LEWIS'S WOODPECKER.  Open forest, woodland, orchards.  S British Columbia, sw Alberta, Montana, sw S. Dakota and nw Nebraska s to sc California, c Arizona, s New Mexico and e Colorado.
Melanerpes herminieri  GUADELOUPE WOODPECKER.  Woodland, forest edge.
Melanerpes portoricensis  PUERTO RICAN WOODPECKER.  Woodland.

Melanerpes erythrocephalus  RED-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, towns, farmlands.  S Saskatchewan, s Manitoba, w,s Ontario, sw Quebec, c New England and s New Brunswick s to c Texas, Gulf coast and sc Florida.
Melanerpes formicivorus  ACORN WOODPECKER.  Oak woodland, mixed oak-coniferous forest.  W of Cascades and Sierra Nevada from cs Washington and nw Oregon s to s Baja California; from n Arizona, n New Mexico, w Texas, Nuevo León and sw Tamaulipas s through highlands to w Panama; lowland pine savanna of e Honduras and ne Nicaragua; Andes, 1400-3300 m of Colombia (exc. Nariño).  A communal breeder.
Melanerpes pucherani  BLACK-CHEEKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, woodland.  Up to 1500 m from Puebla, Veracruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca and Chiapas s along Caribbean slope of C. America to Costa Rica, on both slopes of Panama and in w Colombia and w Ecuador.

Melanerpes chrysauchen  GOLDEN-NAPED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, second growth, woodland.  Up to 1500 m in sw Costa Rica and w Panama.
Melanerpes cruentatus  YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge, swamps.  Up to 1350 m e of Andes from e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s to e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Melanerpes flavifrons  YELLOW-FRONTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, open woodland.  Up to 1800 m in c,s Brazil.
Melanerpes cactorum  WHITE-FRONTED WOODPECKER.  Scrubby woodland, palms, arid scrub.  Lowlands and foothills to 2500 m from se Peru, c,se Bolivia and sw Brazil s to Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina.

Melanerpes striatus  HISPANIOLAN WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland, mangroves, orchards, desert scrub.
Melanerpes radiolatus  JAMAICAN WOODPECKER.  Forest, open woodland.  Lowlands and mts. of Jamaica.
Melanerpes chrysogenys  GOLDEN-CHEEKED WOODPECKER.  Forest, open woodland.  Up to 1000 m from Sinaloa s to c Oaxaca and e to e Michoacán, n Guerrero, Morelos and extreme sw Puebla.
Melanerpes hypopolius  GREY-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Cactus desert, riverine forest, open woodland.  Highlands, 1350-2100 m from nw Guerrero, México and Puebla s to c Oaxaca.
Melanerpes pygmaeus  YUCATAN WOODPECKER.  Coastal scrub, deciduous forest, second growth.  Caribbean coast and is. in se Mexico, Belize and Guanaja I.

Melanerpes rubricapillus  RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, scrub, second growth, woodland, towns, mangroves.  Up to 1800 m in sw Costa Rica, Panama, n,ne Colombia, n Venezuela, Tobago, Guyana and Surinam.
Melanerpes uropygialis  GILA WOODPECKER.  Cactus desert, arid woodland, riparian woodland, towns.  Se California, s Nevada, c Arizona and sw New Mexico s to s Baja California, Sonora, sw Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Nayarit and Zacatecas to Jalisco and Aguascalientes.
Melanerpes carolinus  RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, second growth, riverine forest, swamps, towns.  Se Minnesota, sc Wisconsin, s Michigan, s Ontario, c New York and Massachusetts s to c Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida and w to c Great Plains region.
Melanerpes superciliaris  WEST INDIAN WOODPECKER.  Woodland, palm groves.  N Bahama Is. and Cuba.

Melanerpes aurifrons  GOLDEN-FRONTED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, scrub, second growth, towns.  E Durango, c Chihuahua, w,nc,c,s Texas and sw Oklahoma s through Mexico and w,c Honduras, but absent from e Honduras to nc Nicaragua.
Melanerpes hoffmannii  HOFFMANN'S WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, arid scrub, savanna, farmlands, towns.  Pacific lowlands to 2150 m from s Honduras to c Costa Rica.

Sphyrapicus:  Cicero and Johnson (1994.  J. für Orn. 135:351) reviewed previous studies and sequenced 711 cytochrome b base pairs.  S. thyroideus is the most distinct; nuchalis is more closely related to ruber than to varius; nuchalis and ruber occasionally hybridize in sympatry.  The cyt b data indicate that the sapsuckers are closer to Melanerpes than to Colaptes, confirming allozyme data.

Sphyrapicus varius  YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER.  Deciduous forest woodland.  E,ec Alaska, sw Yukon, ne British Columbia, sw Mackenzie, n,c Alberta and nw,c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to s Labrador and c Newfoundland and s to e S. Dakota, ne Missouri, c Illinois, nw Indiana, n Ohio, w Pennsylvania and s New England and to 1800 m in Appalachians s to e Tennessee and w N. Carolina.
Sphyrapicus nuchalis  RED-NAPED SAPSUCKER.  Coniferous forest, open woodland, second growth.  To 2900 m in Rocky Mt. region from sc British Columbia, sw Alberta and w Montana s, e of Cascades, to ec Calif., s Nevada, c Arizona, s New Mexico and w Texas.
Sphyrapicus ruber  RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER.  Aspen-pine, coniferous forest, woodland.  To 2900 m from se Alaska and coastal and c int. British Columbia s, w of Cascades, to cw California and Sierra Nevada to ec California and w Nevada; locally mts. of s California and s Nevada.

Sphyrapicus thyroideus  WILLIAMSON'S SAPSUCKER.  Coniferous forest, especially fir and lodgepole pine.  Up to 2900 m from s int. British Columbia, Idaho, w Montana and Wyoming s to n,ec,s Calif., c Arizona and s New Mexico.
Xiphidiopicus percussus  CUBAN GREEN WOODPECKER.  Woodland, forest, edge, gardens.
Campethera punctuligera  FINE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Savanna.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Niger, Benin, Nigeria, n Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, s Sudan and extreme ne Zaire.
Campethera nubica  NUBIAN WOODPECKER.  Savanna.  To 1800 m from n Chad, n Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti s to ne Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

Campethera bennettii  BENNETT'S WOODPECKER.  Savanna, open Brachystegia woodland, thorn scrub.  To 1500 m from sc, se Zaire, Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, c Namibia, n S. Africa and Mozambique.  Includes scriptoricauda.
Campethera abingoni  GOLDEN-TAILED WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland.  Up to 1350 m in s Mali, s Mauritania, Senegambia, Guinea, n Ghana, Benin, C. African Rep., Congo, s, Chad, extreme s Sudan and extreme ne Zaire and from sw,se,ce Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, sw Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, to c Namibia, Angola, Botswana and ne S. Africa.
Campethera mombassica  MOMBASA WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland.  Se Somalia, coastal Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Campethera notata  KNYSNA WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland.  S. Africa in s Natal and s,e Cape Province.

Campethera maculosa  LITTLE GREEN WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands in s Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Campethera cailliautii  GREEN-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth, woodland, palm groves, thorn scrub.  Up to 1700 m in nc,e Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan, sw Ethiopia, s Somalia, c,s Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, w,s Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, e Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and nw,n,e Angola and sc,ce,se,ce Zaire.
Campethera tullbergi  TULLBERG'S WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge.  Mts. above 900 m in se Nigeria, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., n Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

Campethera nivosa  BUFF-SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, dense second growth, woodland.  Up to 1000 m in s Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, w Tanzania, s to nw Angola and sc,ce Zaire.
Campethera caroli  BROWN-EARED WOODPECKER.  Forest, second growth, woodland.  Up to 1700 m in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n Zaire, sw Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, w Tanzania, n Zambia, Malawi, s to nw Angola, sw,cs,ce Zaire, n Zambia and Rwanda.
Geocolaptes olivaceus  GROUND WOODPECKER.  Boulder-strewn grassy slopes in hills and mts. and down to sea level in sw Cape Province.  E,se,s,sw South Africa.

Dendropicos elachus  LITTLE GREY WOODPECKER.  Lightly wooded savanna.  To 1600 m in a narrow belt from sw Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, s Niger, s Nigeria, ne Cameroon and s Chad to cw Sudan.
Dendropicos poecilolaemus  SPECKLE-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Savanna, farmlands.  To 1500 m in extreme se Nigeria, c,s Cameroon, C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, ne Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda and w Kenya.
Dendropicos abyssinicus  ABYSSINIAN WOODPECKER.  Juniper woodland, savanna.  Highlands of Ethiopia, including Eritrea.
Dendropicos fuscescens  CARDINAL WOODPECKER.  Woodland, forest edge, savanna, brushland.  Up to 3350 m in s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. African Rep., se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and to s S. Africa.

Dendropicos gabonensis  GABON WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth.  In Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw,sc,ce Zaire, sw C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and extreme w Uganda.  Includes lugubris.
Dendropicos stierlingi  STIERLING'S WOODPECKER.  Brachystegia woodland.  Up to 1500 m in s Tanzania, n Mozambique and Malawi.
Dendropicos namaquus  BEARDED WOODPECKER.  Woodland with large trees, savanna, second growth, farmlands.  Up to 1800 m in n C. African Rep. e through s Chad, c,s Sudan to Ethiopia and Somalia and s through e,se Zaire, Angola, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and to n S. Africa.  Placed in Thripias by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Dendropicos pyrrhogaster  FIRE-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands in s Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, e Nigeria and s Cameroon.  Placed in Thripias by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).

Dendropicos xantholophus  GOLDEN-CROWNED WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth, woodland.  Up to 1700 m in s Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., extreme s Sudan, Uganda and w Kenya s to nw Angola and sw,sc,ce Zaire.  Placed in Thripias by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Dendropicos elliotii  ELLIOT'S WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, second growth.  Mts., 1000-2300 m in e Nigeria and n Cameroon; Gulf of Guinea Is.; lowlands to 1800 m in s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., ne,ce Zaire, Rwanda, w,e Uganda s to nw Angola and sc,ce Zaire.  Placed in Mesopicos by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Dendropicos goertae  GREY WOODPECKER.  Woodland, savanna, forest edge.  Up to 3350 m from s Mauritania, Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad to c,s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and s to extreme nw Angola, sc,ne Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w Kenya and nw,nc Tanzania.  Placed in Mesopicos by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).

Dendropicos spodocephalus  GREY-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, riverine forest.  In e Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, c,e Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Often included in D. goertae; they are separated by narrow gaps of unsuitable habitat.  Included in goertae by Short, et al. (1990:139) and Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
The situation is not entirely clear -- leaving this taxon as a species is as reasonable on current information as lumping it.  There is no genetic evidence to support the statement by Short, et al. that the two are, or are not, "genetically separable".
Dendropicos griseocephalus  OLIVE WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, riverine forest.  Mts. to 3350 m from Angola, se,ce Zaire, sw Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and s,ne Tanzania, Zambia and nw Malawi; locally in Zimbabwe, extreme s Mozambique and S. Africa.
Hybridizes with D. goertae in Rwanda and is sometimes considered a subspecies of goertae.

Dendropicos obsoletus  BROWN-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Savanna, acacia, thorn bush.  Up to 2100 m in s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, s Niger, sw Chad, c,s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and s to s Cameroon, C. African Rep., ne Zaire, Uganda, Kenya and n Tanzania.  Sometimes placed in Dendrocopos or Picoides.
Dendrocopos temminckii  SULAWESI WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland.  Up to 2300 m of Sulawesi.
Dendrocopos maculatus  PHILIPPINE WOODPECKER.  Dipterocarp forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 2500 m of Philippine is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Lubang, Marinduque, Mindoro, Sibuyan, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Guimaras, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Mindanao, Basilan and the Sulu Archipelago.

Dendrocopos nanus  BROWN-CAPPED WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth, woodland, towns.  Up to 1500 m in n Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka.  Sometimes included in D. maculatus.
Dendrocopos moluccensis  SUNDA WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth, mangroves, woodland, towns.  Up to 2200 m in coastal Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa.
Dendrocopos canicapillus  GREY-CAPPED WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland, scrub, mangroves, farmlands.  Up to 3000 m from ne Pakistan, n,e India, c,e,s China, se Siberia and Korea and s through se Asia to Sumatra and Taiwan.
Dendrocopos kizuki  PYGMY WOODPECKER.  Woodland, forest edge, towns.  To 2100 m
in ne China, se Siberia, Korea, Kuril Is., Japan and Ryukyu Is.

Dendrocopos minor  LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth, towns.  Up to 1200 m from British Isles and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c,s Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk, Anadyrland and Kamchatka and s to nw Africa, n Mediterranean region, Turkey, sw Russia, w,n Iran, extreme w China, Mongolia, Manchuria, n Korea and n Japan.
Dendrocopos auriceps  BROWN-FRONTED WOODPECKER.  Pine-oak forest, towns.  Mts., 600-3300 m from Afghanistan e across n Pakistan and nw India to ec Nepal.
Dendrocopos macei  FULVOUS-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, forest edge, second growth, bamboo.  Up to 2750 m in n Pakistan, n,e India, Burma, nw,c Thailand, Cambodia, c,s Laos, s Vietnam, Andaman Is., Java and Bali.
Dendrocopos atratus  STRIPE-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Pine-oak woodland, open stunted forest.  Mts. above 2000 m in e India, sw China, w,s,e Burma, nw Thailand and Laos.

Dendrocopos mahrattensis  YELLOW-CROWNED WOODPECKER.  Dry woodland, desert scrub, second growth, bamboo, towns.  Up to 2000 m in e Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, w,c,s Burma, c,ne Thailand and s Laos.
Dendrocopos dorae  ARABIAN WOODPECKER.  Open acacia woodland, especially in ravines and river beds.  Lowlands and hills to 2800 m of Arabia.  Sometimes placed in Picoides.
Dendrocopos hyperythrus  RUFOUS-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Open coniferous forest, mixed woodland.  Foothills and mts., 600-4300 m, in ne Pakistan, n India, , w,se Tibet, cs China, Burma, nw,ne Thailand, s Laos and n,c Vietnam; Manchuria.
Dendrocopos cathpharius  CRIMSON-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, woodland.  Mts., 700-4000 m in ne, e India, se Tibet, c,sw China, c,n,ne Burma, nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam.

Dendrocopos darjellensis  DARJEELING WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Mts., 1200-4000 m, in ne,e India, se Tibet, sw China, w,ne Burma and n Vietnam.
Dendrocopos medius  MIDDLE SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Deciduous woodland.  Lowlands usually below 1000 m from cont. Europe and s Sweden e through Turkey to sw Russia and nw,sw Iran.
Dendrocopos leucotos  WHITE-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Deciduous and mixed forest.  The two races are parapatric in e Yugoslavia, but altitudinally and ecologically separated with few known hybrids.  They may be separate species.

D. l. leucotos.  Lowlands to 1700 m from s Scandinavia, and e Europe s to Germany, Austria, ne Italy, Hungary, e Yugoslavia and Romania, e across nw,c Russia, s Siberia, n Mongolia and n,c,se China to Japan, Ryukyu Is. and Taiwan.
D. l. lilfordi.  Locally in s Europe in the Pyrenees, c Italy, and from Yugoslavia e,s through Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and w,n Turkey to Caucasus, Transcaucasus and w,n Iran.

Dendrocopos major  GREAT SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland, farmlands, towns.  Lowlands and mts. to 2300 m from British Isles and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c,s Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka and Kuril Is. and s to Canary Is., n Mediterranean region,Turkey, n Iran, sw,s Russia, China, e India, w,n,ne Burma, n Laos, n Vietnam, Japan and Izu Is.

Includes two subspecies groups, major and cabanisi, the latter has strongly differentiated subspecies that are connected by the intermediate race, japonicus.
D. major hybridizes with D. syriacus and D. leucopterus where their ranges are in contact and they sometimes are treated as conspecific.

Dendrocopos syriacus  SYRIAN WOODPECKER.  Dry woodland, farmlands, towns, desert oases.  Lowlands to 1200 m from e Austria, Czechoslovakia and extreme w Russia se through Balkans to Greece, Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, sw Russia and w,s Iran.
Dendrocopos leucopterus  WHITE-WINGED WOODPECKER.  Open dry woodland, arid scrub, riparian woodland, farmlands.  Lowlands and mts. to 1800 m in s Russia, ne Iran, ne Afghanistan and w China.
Dendrocopos assimilis  SIND WOODPECKER.  Dry woodland, desert scrub.  Locally in lowlands to 2200 m in se Iran and Pakistan.  Hybridizes with D. syriacus in Iran.
Dendrocopos himalayensis  HIMALAYAN WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Himalayas, 1000-3300 m in ne Afghanistan, ne Pakistan and n India.

Picoides lignarius  STRIPED WOODPECKER.  Dry open forest, edge, woodland.  Andes, 1500-3800m in c,se Bolivia; lowlands and mts. to 1800 m in c,s Chile and s Argentina.
Picoides mixtus  CHECKERED WOODPECKER.  Dry woodland, campos, riverine scrub in pampas.  Lowlands to 600 m from se Bolivia, Paraguay and e,se Brazil s to w Uruguay and n,c Argentina.
Picoides nuttallii  NUTTALL'S WOODPECKER.  Oak woodland, chaparral, riparian woodland.  From n California s, w of deserts and Sierra divide, to nw Baja Calif.
Picoides scalaris  LADDER-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Cactus and yucca desert, thorn scrub, riparian woodland, pinyon-juniper, pine-oak, pine savanna.  From s Calif., s Nevada, sw Utah, nw, c Arizona, c,ne New Mexico, se Colorado, sw Kansas, w Oklahoma and Texas s through most of Mexico to Chiapas, Yucatán Pen. and Belize; int. of c Guatemala and Honduras (also Pacific coast); pine savanna of e Honduras and ne Nicaragua.

Picoides pubescens  DOWNY WOODPECKER.  Deciduous and mixed woodland, second growth, towns.  From w,c Alaska, s Yukon, sw Mackenzie and n Alberta e across c Canada to Newfoundland and s to s Calif., c Arizona, sc New Mexico, c Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida.
Picoides borealis  RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER.  Open pine, woodland.  Locally from e Oklahoma, s Missouri, n Arkansas, n Mississippi, n Alabama, n Georgia, se Virginia and s Maryland s to e Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida and n in Cumberland Plateau through e Tennessee to e Kentucky.
Picoides stricklandi  STRICKLAND'S WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, primarily oak or pine.  From se Arizona and sw New Mexico s in Sierra Madre Occidental to Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Distrito Federal, Morelos, Puebla and wc Vera Cruz.  The northern populations formerly were treated as a separate species, P. arizonae (Arizona Woodpecker), but intermediate populations occur in c Mexico.

Picoides villosus  HAIRY WOODPECKER.  Forest, open woodland, towns.  From w,c Alaska, c Yukon, sw,sc Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to Newfoundland and s to n Baja Calif., through highlands of Middle America to w Panama and to Texas, Gulf coast, s Florida and n Bahama Is.
Picoides albolarvatus  WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Coniferous forest, primarily pine and fir.  Mts. from s int. British Columbia, nc Washington and n Idaho s through Oregon to s Calif. and wc Nevada.
Picoides tridactylus  THREE-TOED WOODPECKER.  Coniferous forest, riparian willow thickets.  From Scandinavia e across n,c Russia and n,ec,se Siberia to Kolyma R., Kamchatka and Kuril Is. and s to sw Siberia, n Mongolia, w,c China, se Tibet, Manchuria, ne Korea and n Japan; mts. of c,s Europe; from nw,c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,c Mackenzie, Alberta and n,c Saskatchewan e across c,s Canada to n Labrador and Newfoundland and s to w,s Alaska, s British Columbia, c Washington and s Oregon, in Rocky Mts. to e Nevada, c Arizona and sc New Mexico and to ne Minnesota, n Michigan, n New York and n New England.

Picoides arcticus  BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Coniferous forest, open forest burns.  From e,c Alaska, s Yukon, wc,s Mackenzie and n,c Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c Labrador and Newfoundland and s to se British Columbia, through mts. of Washington and Oregon to c Calif. and wc Nevada, through Montana to nw Wyoming and sw S. Dakota and to n Minnesota, ne Wisconsin, nc Michigan, n New York and n New England.
Veniliornis callonotus  SCARLET-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Arid scrub and woodland.  Lowlands in s Colombia, w Ecuador and n Peru.
Veniliornis dignus  YELLOW-VENTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Andean slopes to 2450 m from nc Colombia and w Venezuela s through Ecuador to e Peru.

Veniliornis nigriceps  BAR-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Andes, 1800-3650 m, from Colombia s through Ecuador and Peru to c Bolivia.
Veniliornis fumigatus  SMOKY-BROWN WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, second growth, thickets.  Lowlands and foothills to 3000 m from Nayarit, Jalisco, Hidalgo, state of México, San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas south along both slopes to w Panama; from e Panama and Colombia e to w,n Venezuela and s along w slope of Andes to w Peru and e slope to e Peru, c,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Veniliornis passerinus  LITTLE WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland, scrub, savanna.  From e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s to e Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, ne Argentina and s Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul.
Veniliornis frontalis  DOT-FRONTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Andean slopes in c,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.

Veniliornis spilogaster  WHITE-SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Woodland, open forest. Lowlands in Paraguay, s Brazil, Uruguay and ne Argentina.
Veniliornis sanguineus  BLOOD-COLORED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, mangroves, woodland.  Lowlands of Guianas.
Veniliornis kirkii  RED-RUMPED WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, open woodland, second growth, savanna, mangroves.  Lowlands to 1750 m in sw,s Costa Rica, Panama, w,n Colombia, Venezuela.
Veniliornis chocoensis  CHOCO WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1000 m of w Colombia.  Often treated as a subspecies of V. cassini.

Veniliornis cassini  GOLDEN-COLLARED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, shrubbery.  Lowlands to 500 m in extreme e Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas and n Brazil.
Veniliornis affinis  RED-STAINED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1000 m e of Andes from se Colombia and s Venezuela s through e Ecuador and e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Brazil from Amazon basin e to Maranhão, Bahia, Pernambuco and Espírito Santo and s to sw Mato Grosso.

Veniliornis maculifrons  YELLOW-EARED WOODPECKER.  Forest.  Lowlands of se Brazil.

P. simplex, P. callopterus, P. litae and P. leucolaemus are sometimes included in P. callopterus, but they differ in plumage characters that do not appear to intergrade where they meet.  Vocal differences have also been reported, but not fully studied.
Piculus simplex  RUFOUS-WINGED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands to 2150 m on Caribbean slope of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w Panama.
Piculus callopterus  STRIPE-CHEEKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands on both slopes of Panama.
Piculus litae  LITA WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands w of Andes in w Colombia and nw Ecuador.

Piculus leucolaemus  WHITE-THROATED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands e of Andes from e Colombia s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Piculus flavigula  YELLOW-THROATED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 500 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador to e Peru, extreme ne Bolivia and Amazonian, e,se Brazil.
Piculus chrysochloros  GOLDEN-GREEN WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, swampy forest, savanna.  Lowlands to 750 m in e Panama and from n,e Colombia, nw,
s Venezuela and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador, ne Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian, e Brazil to n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay and n Argentina.
Piculus aurulentus  YELLOW-BROWED WOODPECKER.  Moist woodland, edge, second growth.  Lowlands in se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.

Piculus auricularis  GREY-CROWNED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, open woodland, pine-oak.  Pacific slope from se Sonora s to c Oaxaca.
Piculus rubiginosus  GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, forest edge, second growth, pine-oak, scrub, pine savanna.  Lowlands and mts. from c Nuevo León and Tamaulipas s through e San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo to ne Puebla and n Veracruz; lowlands to 3100 m from s Mexico s along both slopes of C. America to Panama and from Colombia e through Venezuela to Trinidad, Tobago, Guyana and Surinam and s, w of Andes to nw Peru and e of Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru and c,se Bolivia to nw Argentina.
Piculus rivolii  CRIMSON-MANTLED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Mts., 1800-3700 m from Colombia and w Venezuela s in Andes through Ecuador and c,e Peru to n Bolivia.

Colaptes atricollis  BLACK-NECKED WOODPECKER.  Scrubby woodland, riparian forest, desert.  Andean slopes to 3400 m of Peru.
Colaptes punctigula  SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER  Open woodland, second growth, mangroves, palm savanna, forest edge.  Lowlands to 1500 m on Pacific slope in e Panama and from Colombia e through Venezuela to Guianas and s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and w,c Amazonian Brazil.
Colaptes melanochloros  GREEN-BARRED WOODPECKER.  Arid scrub woodland; humid forest, edge, woodland, riverine forest.  C,s Bolivia, n,ne Argentina, e,s Brazil, e Paraguay, Uruguay.
Colaptes auratus    NORTHERN FLICKER.  Forest, open woodland, pine-oak, towns.  From Alaska, c Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie and n Manitoba e across c Canada to sc Labrador and Newfoundland and s to nw Baja California, c,e Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida; highlands of Mexico to Oaxaca and wc Vera Cruz; highlands of Chiapas s through Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras to nc Nicaragua; Cuba and Grand Cayman.  C. auratus includes the cafer (Red-shafted Flicker) group, the Cuban Flicker and the Guatemalan Flicker, but the Gilded Flicker (below) is probably an allospecies of auratus.

Moore (1994. J. für Orn. 135:362) reviewed the size and nature of the auratus-cafer hybrid zone and suggested that the two will "maintain their integrity and distinctness, as is characteristic of "good" species, despite a complete lack of reproductive isolation."  This is due to the different ecological conditions favored by the two "forms" -- they "will likely remain distinct as long as the Rocky Mountains cast a rain shadow over the western Great Plains."  These "semispecies" are neither subspecies nor allospecies -- whether to call them one or two species remains unclear.
Once again, Nature defeats taxonomy.

Colaptes chrysoides  GILDED FLICKER.  Cactus and yucca desert, riparian woodland.  From se Calif., to Baja Calif. (exc. nw) and c Arizona s through Sonora to n Sinaloa.
The status of chrysoides remains debatable -- is it a separate species or a race of auratus?  Intergradation is restricted by limited habitat in the contact zone, behavioral differences are trivial, and the population on the lower Colorado River on the Calif./Arizona border is somewhat intermediate.
Colaptes fernandinae  FERNANDINA'S FLICKER.  Palm groves.  Lowlands of Cuba.
Colaptes pitius  CHILEAN FLICKER.  Humid forest, riparian scrub.  In c,s Chile and Andean slopes of s Argentina.

Colaptes rupicola  ANDEAN FLICKER.  Puna grasslands, farmlands.  Andes, 2000-5000 m in Peru, Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina.
Colaptes campestris  CAMPO FLICKER.  Grassland, savanna, campos, farmlands.  Lowlands in s Surinam; lower Amazon V. near Santarem; from e,sc Brazil to n Bolivia and n Paraguay; in s Paraguay, se Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Celeus brachyurus  RUFOUS WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, second growth, palm groves, towns, farmlands, scrubby woodland, bamboo, mangroves.  Lowlands to 1800 m from India, Sri Lanka and se China, s through se Asia to Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Celeus loricatus  CINNAMON WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1500 m of Caribbean slope in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, w,n Colombia and nw Ecuador.

Celeus grammicus  SCALY-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 2100 m e of Andes from se Colombia and s Venezuela s to e Peru, n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Celeus undatus  WAVED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 500 m in e Venezuela, Guianas and Amazonian Brazil.
Celeus castaneus  CHESTNUT-COLORED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, second growth, open woodland.  Lowlands to 750 m of Gulf-Caribbean slope from Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas and Yucatán Pen. s through C. America to w Panama.
Celeus elegans  CHESTNUT WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 750 m e of Andes from e Colombia and s Venezuela s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil; from e Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas and n Brazil.

Celeus lugubris  PALE-CRESTED WOODPECKER.  Thorn scrub, dry forest, riparian woodland.  Lowlands in n Bolivia, sw Brazil, Paraguay and nw Argentina.
Celeus flavescens  BLOND-CRESTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, woodland, dry scrub.  Lowlands from e Amazonian, e,se Brazil s to Paraguay and ne Argentina; there is no valid record for Bolivia.
Celeus flavus  CREAM-COLORED WOODPECKER.  Riverine forest, savanna, mangroves, woodland, generally near water.  Lowlands to 750 m e of Andes from e Colombia, sw,ne Venezuela and Guianas s to e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian, c,e Brazil.
Celeus spectabilis  RUFOUS-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, bamboo, locally seasonally dry forest.  Lowlands to 300 m e of Andes in e Ecuador, e Peru and n Bolivia; e Brazil.

Celeus torquatus  RINGED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 725 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s,e Venezuela and Guianas s to e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Dryocopus galeatus  HELMETED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 750 m in e Paraguay, se Brazil and ne Argentina in Misiones.  Has been thought to be extinct, but small populations survive in se Brazil.
Dryocopus pileatus  PILEATED WOODPECKER.  Forest, open woodland, second growth, towns.  From e British Columbia, sw Mackenzie and nw,c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and s to c Calif., sc Idaho and w Montana and e of Great Plains to ec Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida.
Dryocopus lineatus  LINEATED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, forest edge, second growth.  Lowlands and foothills to 2100 m from se Sonora, se Nuevo León and c Tamaulipas s along both slopes of Mexico and C. America to Panama and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, w of Andes to nw Peru and e of Andes to e Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil and n Argentina.  Hybridizes with D. schulzi where ranges meet.

Dryocopus schulzi  BLACK-BODIED WOODPECKER.  Dry forest.  Lowlands to 300 m in se Bolivia, w Paraguay and n Argentina.
Dryocopus javensis  WHITE-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland.  Locally in lowlands and mts. to 4300 m in sw,se India; c,s Korea; from cs China s through se Asia to Sumatra and adj. islands, Borneo, N Natuna Is., Java, Bali; Philippines.
Dryocopus hodgei  ANDAMAN WOODPECKER.  Forest.  Andaman Is.  Often included in javensis, but may be viewed as an allospecies.  Other insular populations could also be treated as allospecies.
Dryocopus martius  BLACK WOODPECKER.  Coniferous and mixed forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m from cont. Europe and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c,s Siberia to Kolyma R., Kamchatka and Kuril Is. and s to n Mediterranean region, n Turkey, sw Russia and n Iran and to sw Siberia, n Mongolia, w,ne China and n Japan; mts. to 4300 m in se Tibet and c China.

Campephilus pollens  POWERFUL WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Andes, 900-3650 m from Colombia and sw Venezuela s through Ecuador to n Peru.
Campephilus haematogaster  CRIMSON-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1100 m in Panama, nw Colombia and w Ecuador; lower Andean slopes to 2000 m in e Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru.
Campephilus rubricollis  RED-NECKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1600 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Campephilus robustus  ROBUST WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands in e,se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.

Campephilus guatemalensis  PALE-BILLED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, second growth.  Lowlands of both slopes from se Sonora, San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s to w Panama.
Campephilus melanoleucos  CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, second growth, open woodland, swamps.  Lowlands and mts. to 3100 m in Panama and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador, e Peru, Bolivia and Brazil to c Paraguay and n Argentina.
Campephilus gayaquilensis  GUAYAQUIL WOODPECKER.  Dry forest.  Pacific lowlands and w slopes of Andes to 1300 m in sw Colombia, w Ecuador and nw Peru.
Campephilus leucopogon  CREAM-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Dry woodland, forest.  Lowlands to 1700 m from c,se Bolivia, w,c Paraguay and s Brazil s to n Argentina.

Campephilus magellanicus  MAGELLANIC WOODPECKER.  Beech and beech-cypress forest.  From ec Chile and wc Argentina s to Tierra del Fuego.
Campephilus imperialis  IMPERIAL WOODPECKER.  Pine forest, pine-oak.  Probably extinct; formerly in mts. from ne Sonora and w Chihuahua s through Sierra Madre Occidental to w Durango, wc Zacatecas, ne Nayarit, c Jalisco and n Michoacán.
Campephilus principalis  IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER.  Mature deciduous forest, swamps, pines.  From e Texas, se Oklahoma, ne Arkansas, se Missouri, s Illinois, s Indiana, Kentucky and se N. Carolina s to Gulf coast and s Florida.  Cuba.  Probably extinct.  Cuban population last observed in the late 1970's; U.S. last seen in the 1950's.

Picus mineaceus  BANDED WOODPECKER.  Dipterocarp forest, mangroves, coastal scrub, dense second growth.  Lowlands to 1700 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and w,c Java.
Picus chlorolophus  LESSER YELLOWNAPE.  Forest, woodland, bamboo, scrub.  Lowlands to 2000 m from n,e,s India, s Tibet and s China s through se Asia to Sri Lanka and Sumatra.
Picus puniceus  CRIMSON-WINGED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 900 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Picus flavinucha  GREATER YELLOWNAPE.  Humid forest, oak forest, farmlands, dry forest.  Lowlands and mts. to 2750 m from n India, se Tibet and s China s through se Asia to Sumatra.

Picus mentalis  CHECKER-THROATED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, dense second growth.  Lowlands to 1700 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Picus viridanus  STREAK-BREASTED WOODPECKER.  Forest, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1700 m from Burma s to pen. Thailand and (mostly in highlands) Malaya.  Sometimes included in vittatus, but differs in habitat and they are not known to intergrade.
Picus vittatus  LACED WOODPECKER.  Forest, mangroves, coastal scrub.  Lowlands to 1700 m from e Burma, Laos and s Vietnam s to Thailand (exc. peninsular) and Malaya (lowlands only, incl. Langkawi I.), Sumatra and Java (incl. adj. islands) and Bali.
Picus xanthopygaeus  STREAK-THROATED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland, edge, towns, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1700 m in n India, Sri Lanka, sw China, w,c,s Burma, sw Thailand, Cambodia, s Laos and s Vietnam.
Picus squamatus  SCALY-BELLIED WOODPECKER.  Forest edge, oak-pine, juniper woodland, riparian forest, orchards.  Hills and mts., 1000-3700 m, in extreme s Russia, ne Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and n India.
Picus awokera  JAPANESE WOODPECKER.  Woodland, especially mixed or coniferous.  Hills and mts. 300-2000 m on Honshu, Skikoku and Kyushu.
Picus viridis  EURASIAN GREEN WOODPECKER.  Deciduous and mixed forest edge, second growth, woodland, towns.
P. v. viridis.  Lowlands and mts. to 2750 m from British Isles and s Scandinavia s through most of Europe to n Mediterranean region (exc. Pyrenees and Iberian Pen.) and e to w Russia (Volga R.), Caucasus, Transcaucasus, Turkey and w,n Iran.
 P. v. sharpei.  Sw Europe in Iberian Pen. and Pyrenees, incl. extreme sw France.  Differs from typical viridis in head color, juvenal plumage and size; may be a separate species.
Picus vaillantii  LEVAILLANT'S WOODPECKER. .  Mts. (mostly) up to 2100 m in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.  Often included in viridis but differs in several characters and is geographically separate; P. viridis sharpei is often considered to be an "intermediate" race.
Picus rabieri  RED-COLLARED WOODPECKER.  Forest.  In e Laos and n Vietnam.
Picus erythropygius  BLACK-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Dry forest, scrub woodland.  Lowlands to 825 m in Burma, sw,nw,ne Thailand, c,s Laos, Cambodia and s Vietnam.
Picus canus  GREY-FACED WOODPECKER.  Mixed forest, edge, dry woodland, towns, farmlands, bamboo.  Hills and mts., 1200-3650 m from cont. Europe and s Scandinavia e across c Russia and s Siberiad to Korea and n Japan, s in e Asia through most of n,c,e,se China and se Asia to Sumatra, Hainan and Formosa and w along Himalayas of s Tibet and n India.

Dinopium rafflesii  OLIVE-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1600 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo.
Dinopium shorii  HIMALAYAN FLAMEBACK.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 700 m along s base of Himalayas in n,se India from Garwhal e to n Assam and w,ne,c,s Burma.
Dinopium javanense  COMMON FLAMEBACK.  Open woodland, towns, mangroves, humid forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m from in sw India; from e India and sw China s through se Asia to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali and w Philippines.
Dinopium benghalense  BLACK-RUMPED FLAMEBACK.  Dry woodland, scrub, woodland, towns, gardens.  Lowlands to 1700 m in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and w Burma.
Chrysocolaptes lucidus  GREATER FLAMEBACK.  Forest, woodland, mangroves, farmlands.  Lowlands and mts. to 2400 m of s Asia and Malay Arch. from India and sw China s through se Asia to Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali and Philippines incl. Palawan.
Chrysocolaptes festivus  WHITE-NAPED WOODPECKER.  Open woodland.  Lowlands to 1000 m of pen. India.
Gecinulus grantia  PALE-HEADED WOODPECKER.  Bamboo.  Lowlands to 1200 m in ne India, s China, w,n,c Burma, nw Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
Gecinulus viridis  BAMBOO WOODPECKER.  Bamboo.  Lowlands to 1200 m in s,e Burma, Thailand, n Laos and Malaya.  Sometimes treated as a race of G. grantia, but they are not known to intergrade.
Sapheopipo noguchii  OKINAWA WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, dense undergrowth.  Hills above 150 m in s Ryukyu Is.
Blythipicus rubiginosus  MAROON WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m in Malay Pen.; highlands to 2200 m of Sumatra and Borneo.
Blythipicus pyrrhotis  BAY WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Mts. 1000-2150 m in ne India, se China, Burma, nw Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaya.
Reinwardtipicus validus  ORANGE-BACKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, dense undergrowth.  Lowlands to 2000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Meiglyptes tristis  BUFF-RUMPED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 800 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Meiglyptes jugularis  BLACK-AND-BUFF WOODPECKER.  Humid forest edge, second growth, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1000 m in w,s,e Burma, Thailand and Indochina.
Meiglyptes tukki  BUFF-NECKED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, dense undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1200 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo.
Hemicircus concretus  GREY-AND-BUFF WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, tall second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, Borneo and w,c Java.
Hemicircus canente  HEART-SPOTTED WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, second growth, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1400 m in sw,c,e India, Burma, Thailand and Indochina.
Mulleripicus fulvus  ASHY WOODPECKER.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 2200 m of Sulawesi.
Mulleripicus funebris  SOOTY WOODPECKER.  Humid forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1000 m of n Philippines.
Mulleripicus pulverulentus  GREAT SLATY WOODPECKER.  Open forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1000 m of s Asia and Malay Arch. from n,e India and sw China s through se Asia to Sumatra, Borneo, w,c Java and w Philippines.


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© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi

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