7.  Symbols and "Legenda"

The sign  #  evidencesa "famous taxonomic". The colon (:) means "that is".

* only * it is for species known only in the stated area.
* *  ambiguous (or from uncertain positions) species or subspecies.
The question mark indicates anyway "uncertainty".

* varying local *  indicates a series of variations relative to a species or subspecies (cited in the ornithological literature) but that for "the validity" of the same one does not exist the approval of the I.C.Z.N.
[ varying geographic # population ]. you see GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

These are custom definitions

                               Species = Sp., Subspecies = Ssp, Superspecies = SSp

There is a NUMBER which is not contemplated (something like w.n. - - - -) which represents the numeration of the General Archive indicating the DOS version search record.

Numeration WORLDNUMBERS, indicated (w.n. - - - - ) follows the sequence to level Family of the Peter's sequence; it comes from G.C. Sibley's and B.Monroe, Jr "Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World", that completes the numeration of the "BirdMaster Rows" (BMDF) by P.W. Smith, 1985.

The geographic numeration is arranged as follows:
       from the
-      0001      1000  A.O.U.
-      1001      1954  Center America-West India
-      2001      2994  Paleartic
-      3001      3983  the Oriental-Sumatra-Borneo-Giava-Philippines
-      4001     4981   South America (Colombia-Venezuela)
-      5001      5981  South America + Galapagos islands
-      6001     6759   South Africa + Indian Is. Ocean
-      7001     7859   Africa
-      8001     8568   Australia-New Zealand
-      9001     9881   Wallacea-New Guinea-Oceania

(w.n.) it determines the Species with (.) the final one, e.g. ( w.n.9820.) and the subspecie nominal without (.)
the final one, e.g.  (w.n.9820).
Others subspecies, ascribed to the recalled species, are evidenced adding a progressive number, e.g. : (w.n.9820.1), or (.n.9820.2) without (.) the final one.
When a specie is involved in a subspecie of another specie, immediately introduces a progressive number without the final point (.)

E.g. Lichenostomusmelanops (w.n.8490.), ssp. cassidix (w.n.8491)

The symbols  \, >  indicate the areale of migration or svernamento.

Some Subspecies are brought back also like Species and some Species dealt (also) like Subspecies (: over)
That denotes the uncertainty that still today permane, to testimony of problematic the anchor to resolve approximately the concepts of "Allospecie" and "Superspecie" .

The species "introduced" has not been taken in consideration even if in some cases they are brought back.



PHYLUM: one of the greater groupings used in classifying the plants and the animals. Group of animals with one identical general structure and coming from with emergency from one common source. In the zoologica classification several PHYLA are distinguished. All the vertebrati ones belong to the phylum of cordati (the provisti animals of an axis center them that it is the vertebral column).

The birds are ascribed to the PHYLUM Cordati.

CORDATI: Animals with one notocorda . NOTOCORDA: elastic skeletal cord that runs on the back, under the tubular system, in the embryo and the adults of all the cordati members of the phylum .

In the development the skeletal elements of the vertebral column encircle the notocorda .

POLIFILETICO: whose ancestors belong to various phyla .

BIRDS: members of the Animal Reign of type CHORDATA,sottotipo the VERTEBRATA and class AVES. Every single individual possesses branchial fissures, a neurale channel dorsal cable, one colonnavertebrale, a neurale crest, pens and front limbs transform to you in wings.

NEORNITHES: Sottoclasse of birds, contrapposta to that one of the Archeorniti , which the going back shapes belong all today living and known to the Cretaceous one and the geologic periods succeeded to you.
All have short tail with the last ones vertebre fused to form a pigostile and all, except the fossil group of the Odontalci, are lacking in teeth.

MORPHOLOGY: study of the shapes, following the historical development of the species; search of the external shape and the inner structure of the organs during their development and to the adult state.

SYSTEMATIC: branch of natural sciences that is taken care of the classification and the nomenclature of the organisms.

TAXONOMY (or TASSINOMIA) : division of the TAXA in hierarchical groups forming in theirs with the pictures of the biological classification.
The term is used also like synonym of SYSTEMATIC: science that is taken care of the rules of the classification of the living beings.

TAXON ( pl.TAXA): category or biological  systematic entity of whichever degree.
E' also the name of the category or entity in the within of the official nomenclature.

CLINE: the existence, in breast to a species or a subspecies or in other Taxa between analogous they, of a continuous series
of variations of or more morphologic and/or physiological characters along a transition line  it acclimatizes them or geographic. Variation that derives from one adaptation to the conditions of the atmosphere.

CLASSIFICATION: system that expresses the evolutionary interrelations between tassonomici groups orders in one exhausting hierarchy to you that comprises them without superimpositions. In every TAXON all the members come down from one
only common ancestor.
In this type of hierarchy the TAXA are disposed in one series of categories of various degree.
For the birds class AVES is the category more high degree, continuation from ORDERS, FAMILIES, KINDS and SPECIES. You they can be also intermediate degrees like SUPERFAMILIES,SOTTOFAMIGLIE and TRIBU '.

SEQUENCE: dispositions of TAXA adapted to the books and data banks with similar linear limitations.
As an example, the groups piu'antichi and primiti to you come before those piu'evoluti.
From a same classification various sequences can be gained.

OSCINI: subdivision of the Order of the Passeriformi . Birds characterize to you from the complex structure of theirs siringe that of ago the best singers. It calls also ACROMIODI to you.

ENDEMIC: bird just to a region or a continent that is not found elsewhere.

HYBRID: "hybrida = bastard". Individual or taxon turning out from the crossing respective of genotipicamente various parents or taxa.

Stabilized hybrid that able one to transmit its nature ibri from indefinitely to the own descendancys, ability due to the fact to be allopoliploide, for which the meiosi it can proceed regularly, since every chromosome finds a its homologous one to which coupling itself for giving rise to to the stage zigotene ; it today for is considered like one being species to  himself; it can be natural or obtained it hopes mentally.

HYBRIDIZATION: the action or the process that determines the ibridismo or the practical series of necessary in order to obtain it. Introgressiva hybridization is that one that involves the incorporation of geniuses of a taxon in the pool genic of an other;
it can be taken place between two taxa, of analogous rule two species or two subspecies of the same species, in the areas in which parapatria or marginal simpatria comes to contact for: if their hybrids are fecund, these stretch to reincrociarsi with the species more abundant coming to form a population in which the greater part of the individuals, also being similar those of taxon the more abundant they possess also some characters of that little abundant.

UBIQUISTA: that it is recovered ovunque, than alive everywhere, in all the atmospheres of a determined Country.
Example, the Merlon  in Italy is ubiquista: it is observed ovunque.

UMICOLO: that it lives on the land and that in this atmosphere passes the greater part of the existence (12#:Beccaccia).

ORDERS, FAMILIES and KINDS: subdivisions based on the likenesses and the anatomical differences of the birds
that they reflect the evolutionary development and the biological relations of every group.

A KIND groups between they similar shapes that is believed has had one common evolutionary origin.

A SOTTOGENEREaccorpa in the considered Kind one thought Species Subspecies, evidencing in parenthesis
"species-group" .

Example: virenticeps = ssp of " Atlapetestorquatus"

Atlapetes ( torquatus)virenticeps
Atlapetes ( torquatus)atricapillus
Atlapetes ( torquatus)torquatus

Hierarchically inferior systematic SOTTOGENERE:categoria to the advanced Kind and to the Species.

SPECIES: systematic category immediately inferior to the Kind (or sottogenere) and advanced to the subspecies, to whichthe second Latin name in the nomenclature is classified trinomia with it begins them very small.

Species ALLOPATRICA (allopatrico) : when the areali are not overlapped. When they occupy a various areale from that one of other specie.[=Parapatrica ]

Species SIMPATRICA (simpatrico): when the arealisovrappongono .Quando are only taken care respective, even if in part, the same areale of an other species. That is, species near in the classification and that they have an identical geographic distribution or whose areali partially are overlapped.

Species EURIECIE : to wide distribution.

Species STENOECIE : localized.

ELEMENTARY SPECIES: Synonym of subspecies; sometimes this term is used as a synonym of "pure line".

SPECIAZIONE: The formation (or the process of formation) of a biological species, is verificantesi for as an example graduates them divergence from the group of belongings (second the succession subspecies-semispecie-species) that without warning for combination or transformation of genomes, like in the poliploidi case of the species.

SPECIOGRAFIA: The branch of the systematic one that has for object the distinction and the description of the species and the sottospecifiche entities.

SYSTEMATIC SPECIES (= LINNEANA): E' the species in its running accezzione in biological field, dynamics entity and therefore difficult to define with exactitude. It can be at least considered as with of organisms between they intimately it becomes related to you, genetically and morphologically similar the uni to the others (in the same sex and corresponding stages of development), it equips you of ability it puts into effect them or it upgrades them to intercross itself indefinitely giving prole fecund. For more the s .s. it comprises a varied number of subspecies, that is of populations or groups of allopatriche or parapatriche populations, rule (at least in the animal reign), between distinguibili they for a complex of hereditary characters.
Talora subspecies of the same one s .s. can introduce insufficient or null ability to mutual crossing, especially when they reach contact the extreme terms of a continuous series of subspecies are disseminated to the periphery of an area in which the species it is not present, having as an example in their complex one circumpolar distribution or around one great montuosa chain, as the Karacoram or the Himalayas. And, to the contrary, they can exist taxa able of giving experimentally or, in exceptional cases also in more or less fecund nature, prole, but that, for with of reasons, they come for more it considers you like species already various; in this case it is spoken about " semispecies" (synonymous: great species, linneone,macrospecies, collective species, linneana species).


A group of organisms that can really or potentially intercross themselves among them, but that genetically are insulated  from other analogous groups. The species conserves their mutual separation thanks to intrinsic insulating barriers that prevent the exchange of genetic material.

(Concept formulated from Theodosius Dobzhansky, resumed and modified by Ernst Mayr and Michael T.Ghiselin).

The biological concept of rifà species to the intuition of Buffon (1753) second which the species must be understanding like "riproduttiva community": with of the able individuals intercrossing itself between of they giving origin to prole similar to the parents and, in its turn, fecund.


Criterion adopted from C.G.Sibley & B.L.Monroe that whichever population raises to level of species whose members are "various" from those of other population to prescind from every consideration of interfecondità with other populations.


Where the populations of one given species are separated from geographic barriers, somewhat various shapes for ransom or color of the plumage can be developed, and so those populations may be separately identified as races or subspecies.
An adult female could successfully intercross itself with an adult male of one analogous subspecies, just if their distribution areas are overlapped and the abitat is suitable. Considering subspecies or separated species as the geographic distribution varies is an arbitrary decision: there isn't any objective verification that concurs to judge the specific condition of the geographic representatives whose distribution areas are not combined.


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