Italian Ornithological Web Site
by Alberto Masi since 1996
Biographical notes A - L
Aa, Pieter van der (1659-1733). Dutch. Publisher and bookseller in Leiden. Also known as Van der Aa.
Académie royale des sciences, Paris. French. The French Académie des sciences was founded in 1666 and became a royal academy in 1699.
Adanson, Michel (1727-1806). French. Botanist. Travelled in Senegal. An opponent of Linnaeus.
Adler, Carl Fridrich (1720-c.1761). Swedish. Military surgeon, travelled to the East Indies, died on Java. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Adolf Fredrik, king of Sweden (1710-1771). Swedish. Reigned 1751-1771.
Agnethler, Michael Gottfried (1719-1752). German. Doctor of medicine, botanist, Helmstädt.
Ahlelöf, Jonas (1717-1783). Swedish. Clergyman, dean of Frillesås.
Albert the Younger (?-?).
Albinus, Bernhard Siegfried (1697-1770). German. Professor of anatomy at Leiden.
Aldrovandi, Ulisse (1522-1605). Italian. Naturalist and ornithologist, physician and professor at Bologna. Also known as Aldrovandus or Aldorandus.
Allamand, Frédéric (1736-?). Swiss. Botanist, doctor of medicine.
Allioni, Carlo (1725-1804). Italian. Professor of botany, Turin.
Allstadius, Peter (1705-1775). Swedish. Clergyman, Sånga (Westrobothnia). Also known as Alstadius.
Alston, Charles (1683-1760). Scottish. Botanist and physician. Studied in Leiden under Boerhaave. Professor of botany and medicine at Edinburgh.
Alströmer, Clas (1736-1794). Swedish. Baron, industrialist. Sent plants and specimens to Linnaeus from his travels abroad. Bought Linnaeusís ďlittle herbariumĒ, now in the Natural History Museum in Stockholm.
Alströmer, Jonas (1685-1761). Swedish. Industrialist. One of the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Father of Clas and Patrick Alströmer.
Alströmer, Patrick (1733-1804). Swedish. Baron and industrialist, Alingsås. Brother of Clas Alströmer. Director of the Swedish East India Company.
Amman, Johann (1707-1741). Curator of Hans Sloaneís natural history collection. Professor of botany at the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St Petersburg.
Amman, Paulus (1634-1691). German. Physiologist, professor of botany at Leipzig.
Andrew, John (1710-1772). British. Student and Linnaeusís friend in Leiden, doctor of medicine at Oxford, physician at Exeter.
Angerville, Louis François Augier de (?-1780). French. Member of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Rouen.
Ankarcrona, Theodor (1687-1750). Swedish. Admiral, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Antivari, Christopher Theodor von (1690-1763). Austrian. Imperial representative in Stockholm from 1711.
Appelroot & Spalding. Swedish. Merchants.
Arduino, Pietro (1728-1805). Italian. Professor of economy, Padua.
Arfwedson, Abraham (1698-1779). Swedish. Merchant, Stockholm.
Arfwedson, Jacob (?-?). Swedish.
Argillander, Abraham (1722-1800). Swedish. Director of the saltpetre works at Stockholm.
Arrhenius, Jakob (1721-1791). Swedish. Secretary to the chancellor of Uppsala University.
Artedi, Petrus (1705-1735). Swedish. Ichtyologist. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Ascanius, Peder (1723-1803). Danish. Naturalist. Inspector of mines, Norway.
Asp, Petrus (1733-1785). Swedish. Clergyman, Uppsala. Travelled in Germany, England, Holland and France.
Auge, Johan Anders (1711-1805). Swedish. Gardener and plant collector. Superintendent of the Swedish East India Companyís garden in Cape Town, 1751-1778.
Aurivillius, Carl (1717-1786). Swedish. Professor of Oriental languages, Uppsala.
Aurivillius, Samuel (1721-1767). Swedish. Professor of medicine, Uppsala.
Ausenius, Anders (?-?). Swedish.
Avanzi, Carlo (?-?). Italian. Physician and botanist, professor of medicine at Padua. Also known as Avantius.
Avicenna (980-1037). Arabian. Philosopher and physician. Author of Canon medicinae.
Aymen, Jean Baptiste (1729-1784). French. Naturalist and physician, Bordeaux.
Bäärnhielm, Peter Gustaf (1733-1809). Swedish. Squire of Häggestad.
Bäck, Abraham (1713-1795). Swedish. Physician, president of the Collegium Medicum, Stockholm. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Baër, Friedrich Charles de (1719-1797). French. Vicar at the Swedish embassy in Paris. Professor of theology, Strasbourg. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Intermediary for Swedish science in France.
Bagge, Ehregott Nicolaus (1725-1796). German. Doctor of theology. Superintendent, Coburg.
Bailly, Jean Sylvain (1736-1793). French. Astronomer. President of the first National Assembly, mayor of Paris.
Baldinger, Ernst Gottfried (1738-1804). German. Professor of medicine at Jena, later at Marburg.
Balfour, John, & Co. Publishers in Edinburgh.
Bälter, Sven (1713-1760). Swedish. Clergyman. Cathedral dean of Växjö. Travelled in Russia.
Baltimore, Frederick Calvert, 6th Lord of (1731-1771). Irish. Peer. Owner of the colony of Maryland. English writer. Visited Linnaeus at Hammarby in 1769.
Banks, Joseph (1743-1820). British. Naturalist, president of the Royal Society. Together with Daniel Solander he took part in Cookís first voyage.
Barnades, Miguel (?-1771). Spanish. Botanist. Personal physician of Carlos III, Madrid.
Barrelier, Jacquin (1606-1673). French. Botanist, dominican.
Barrère, Pierre (1690-1755). French. Professor of medicine, Perpignan.
Bartels, Peter (17??-17??). Danish. Consul in Livorno.
Barthélemy, François, marquis de (1747-1830). French. Diplomat in Stockholm.
Bartram, John (1701-1777). American. Botanist living in Pennsylvania and Delaware.
Bartsch, Johann (1708-1738). German. Naturalist, travelled to Surinam. Assisted Linnaeus with the publication of Flora Lapponica.
Bassi, Ferdinando (c.1710-1774). Italian. Director of the botanical garden of Bologna.
Bassi, Giovanni Battista (17??-17??). Italian. Cousin of Ferdinando Bassi.
Baster, Job (1711-1775). Dutch. Naturalist, doctor of medicine, Leiden.
Batigne, Paul (?-1773). French. Physician, Montpellier.
Bauder, Johann Friedrich (1713-1791). German. Wine-merchant and palaeontologist.
Bauer, Johannes Adam (17??-17??). German.
Bauhin, Caspar (1560-1624). Swiss. Botanist and physician, Basle. Bauhinís Prodromus and Pinax theatri botanici (1620, 1623, 1671) were important works in the field of botanical nomenclature.
Bauhin, Johann (1541-1612). Swiss. Caspar Bauhinís brother. Botanist and physician.
Beckman, Johannes (1739-1811). German. Professor of economy, Göttingen. After a two-year stay in St Petersburg, he travelled in Sweden and Denmark in 1765-1766.
Bedford, John Russell, 4th Duke of (1710-1771). British. Renowned for his botanical interests.
Bedoire, Frans (1737-1776). Swedish. Iron master.
Beer (17??-17??). German. Archiater.
Behnisch, C. F. (17??-17??). German. Prussian secretary at the German embassy in Stockholm.
Benzelius, Erik, the Younger (1675-1743). Swedish. Librarian of Uppsala University. Founder of the first Swedish society for the sciences, the Collegium Curiosorum (1710) and of of the Royal Society of Sciences, Uppsala (1727). Archbishop.
Benzelstierna, Erik (1705-1767). Swedish. Iron master. Met Linnaeus in Dalecarlia. Also known as Benzelius.
Benzelstierna, Mathias (1713-1791). Swedish. Public official, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Linnaeusís fellow student at Lund.
Berg, Fr. (?-?). Swedish.
Bergen, Carl August von (1704-1759). German. Doctor of medicine. Professor of botany and anatomy, later of pathology and therapy, Frankfurt/Oder.
Bergencrantz, Carl Fredrik (1726-1792). Swedish. Officer in the Royal Westrobothnia regiment. Married Linnaeusís eldest daughter Elisabeth Christina in 1764.
Bergenstierna, Axel (1739-1782). Swedish. Public official.
Bergius, Bengt (1723-1784). Swedish. Historian and naturalist. Known for his copies of Swedish scientific correspondences and sources, now in the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Linnaeusís student.
Bergius, Petter Jonas (1730-1790). Swedish. Physician and botanist. Professor of natural history and pharmacy at Collegium Medicum, Stockholm. Linnaeusís student.
Bergman, Torbern (1735-1784). Swedish. Professor of chemistry, metallurgy and pharmacy at Uppsala. Linnaeusís student.
Bergqvist, Carl Eric (1711-1781). Swedish. Linnaeusís draughtsman, illustrated all of his travels and almost all of his dissertations.
Bergskollegium. The history of the Swedish Board of Mines dates back to 1630. It was named Bergskollegium in 1644.
Bergstral, Johan (1715-1795). Swedish. Member of Collegium Medicum in Stockholm in 1754. Also known as Bergius.
Bering, Vitus (1681-1741). Russian. Voyager, travelled in Kamchatka, Sibiria, Japan and North western America.
Berlin, Andreas (1746-1773). Swedish. Botanist. Linnaeusís student 1765-1766. Secretary of Joseph Banks 1770-1773. Died in Delos, Guinea.
Bernitz, Martin Bernhard de (16??-16??). Polish. Physician and botanist. Director of the Royal Botanical Garden of Warsaw. Also known as Berniz.
Bernstorff, Johan Hartvig Ernst (1712-1772). Danish. Minister of foreign affairs.
Berselles, de (?-?). Swedish. Consul in Toscana.
Bertouch, Ernst Albrecht von (1745-1815). Danish. Genealogist, secretary at the Danish embassy in Stockholm.
Biberg, Isac (1722-1793). Swedish. Doctor of theology, lecturer in Greek, Härnösand.
Bicher, Lambertus (1732-1801). Dutch. Physician, Rotterdam.
Bickern, Nicolos van (17??-17??). Swedish. Titular lord mayor, Uppsala. Also known as Nils Kyronius.
Bielke, Eleonora von Mentzer (1725-1786). Swedish. Wife of Sten Carl Bielke.
Bielke, Janus (?-?). Chancellor of Norway.
Bielke, Nils Adam (1724-1792).
Bielke, Sten Carl (1709-1753). Swedish. Baron, government official, patron of science, and naturalist. One of the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Private pupil of Linnaeus. Close friend of Pehr Kalm, whose voyage to America he supported financially.
Biörck, Israel (?-?). Swedish. Regimental pastor at Svea Livgarde, married to Margareta Celsia.
Birger Persson of Finsta (?-1327). Swedish. St Bridget's father, councillor.
Birgersdotter, Birgitta (1303-1373). Swedish. St Bridget of Sweden. Canonised in 1391.
Bitner (?-?). German. Pharmacist, collector of natural history objects.
Bjerkén, Pehr af (1731-1774). Swedish. Pupil of Linnaeus. City medical officer, Stockholm.
Björck, Margareta Celsia (1710-1782). Swedish. Daughter of Olof Celsius the Elder. Married to Israel Björck.
Björk, Tobias (1704-1778). Swedish. Clergyman. Minister of the Swedish Church in London in 1735. In 1752 dean of Norrbärke, Dalecarlia.
Björnståhl, Jacob Jonas (1731-1779). Swedish. Orientalist. Studied in Uppsala and attended Linnaeusís lectures. Travelled in Europe and Asia (1767-1779). Died in Saloniki, Greece.
Bjur, Pehr (17??-17??). Swedish. Merchant and magistrate in Umeå. Brother-in-law of Petrus Artedi. Also known as Biur.
Blackburne, Anna (?-1794). British. Naturalist and collector of specimens.
Blackstone, John (?-1753). British. Botanist and apothecary, London.
Blackwell, Elizabeth (1700?-1758). Scottish. Botanist, wife of Alexander Blackwell.
Blad, Peter Johan (1746-1816). Swedish. Supercargo of the Swedish East India Company.
Blair, Patrick (c.1666-1728). British. Botanist from Dundee, known for his new views regarding the sexual characters of flowering plants.
Blom, Carl Magnus (1737-1815). Swedish. Studied in Uppsala under Linnaeus 1755-1763. Provincial physician in Dalecarlia.
Boccone, Silvio-Paolo (1633-1704). Italian. Botanist at the court of Ferdinand II of Tuscany, professor of botany at Padua.
Bock, Hieronymus (1498-1554). German. Physician and preacher at Hombach. Also known as Tragus.
Boddaert, Pieter (1730?-?). Dutch. Naturalist and physician. Friend of Albert Schlosser, whose cabinet of natural history objects he described.
Boerhaave, Herman (1668-1738). Dutch. Professor of medicine, botany and chemistry at Leiden. One of the most influential professors of medicine of the eighteenth century. Linnaeus visited him during his stay in Holland.
Böhm & Bom, Johan Daniel (?-?). Swedish.
Bohn, T. C. (?-?).
Bolten, Joachim Friedrich (1718-1792). German. Doctor of medicine, Hamburg.
Bonde, Gustaf (1682-1764). Swedish. Count, councillor of the realm, member of the Royal Society of Sciences.
Borchgrevink, Jens Finne (1737-1819). Norwegian. Botanist and clergyman. One of Linnaeusís private pupils. Assistant to Johan Ernst Gunnerus.
Borel, Pierre (1620?-1689). French. Botanist and physician, doctor of medicine at Montpellier in 1640.
Borgström, Peter (?-1775). Swedish. Probably secretary at the Swedish East India Company.
Born, Ignaz von (1741-1791). Austrian. Imperial counsellor of mines, Vienna.
Bose, Caspar (1686-1733). German. Professor of botany at Leipzig.
Bostadia, Magdalena (1713-1789). Swedish. Daniel Solanderís mother. Married to Carl Solander, dean at Piteå.
Boswell, Johan (1707?-1780). British. Scots physician. Practiced in Edinburgh. President of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Uncle to James Boswell.
Braad, Christopher Henrik (1728-1781). Swedish. Supercargo of the Swedish East India Company.
Brag, Carl Johan (1735-1781). Swedish. Clergyman in Gothenburg.
Brander, Gustaf (1720-1787). Swedish. Merchant in London. Partner of Abraham Spalding in the firm Spalding & Brander. Curator of the British Museum. Friend of John Ellis.
Brander, Uno (?-?). Swedish. Merchant, married a sister of Elisabet Moraea, Linnaeus's mother-in-law.
Brandt, Georg, the Elder (1694-1768). Swedish. Chemist, mineralogist, assessor at the Bergskollegium.
Branting, Carl Ammon (17??-17??). Swedish. Public official. Married to Linnaeusís youngest sister Emerentia.
Brendel, Adam (?-1719). German. Professor of anatomy and botany at Wittenberg.
Breteuil, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de (1733-1807). French. Prime minister. Diplomat in St Petersburg, Stockholm, Vienna and Naples.
Breyne, Jacob (1637-1697). German. Merchant and naturalist at Danzig.
Breyne, Johann Philip (1680-1764). Zoologist and physician in Danzig. Son of Jacob Breyne.
Bringh, Johan (?-?). Swedish.
Brodd, Sven (1722-1773). Swedish. Physician and lecturer in logic and physics at Skara gymnasium. Linnaeusís student in 1752.
Broman, Olof Johan (1676-1740). Swedish. Vicar at Hudiksvall. Met Linnaeus in 1732. Influenced by Rudbeckian Gothicism, author of Glysisvallur.
Bromell, Lars von (1713-1782). Swedish. Son of Magnus von Bromell. Student at Uppsala in 1728 later artillery captain.
Bromell, Magnus von (1679-1731). Swedish. Physician and naturalist, geologist. Head of the Laboratorium Chymicum in Stockholm from 1724. Natural history collector. Also known as Bromelius.
Browallius, Johan (1707-1755). Swedish. Professor of physics, later of theology. Bishop of Åbo.
Browne, Patrick (1720-1790). Irish. Botanist who made six voyages to the West Indies. In 1756 he published The Civil and natural history of Jamaica (1756).
Brucker, August (?-?). German. Editor of Pinacotheca scriptorum illustrium.
Brückmann, Franciscus Ernst (1697-1753). German. Naturalist and collector. Physician at Helmstädt, later at Brunswick and Wolfenbüttel.
Brugmans, Antonius (1763-1819). Dutch. Naturalist. Professor of botany at Leiden.
Brümmers, Otto F. G. (?-1752). German. Marshal of the court, Wismar.
Brunelli, Gabriele (1728-1797). Italian. Professor of botany.
Brünnich, Morten Thrane (1737-1827). Danish. Professor of natural history, Copenhagen. Later employed by the Danish mining department in Norway.
Bruyset, Jean-Marie, père (1719-1792). French. Bookseller in Lyon.
Bucher, Elisabeth (1711-1740). Swiss. Second wife of Albrecht von Haller.
Büchner, Andreas Elias (1701-1769). German. Editor of Miscellanea physico-medico-mathematica.
Buchwald, Balthazar Johan (1697-1763). Danish. Professor of medicine, Copenhagen. Translator.
Burchard, Ernst Friedrich (1724-1749). German. Doctor of medicine.
Burckard, Johann Heinrich (1676-1738). German. Botanist. Also known as Burchard.
Burgess, John (?-1805). Scottish. Botanist and clergyman.
Burghardt, Gottfried Heinrich (1705-1776). German. Physician, Bresalu and Brieg.
Burman, Abraham (?-?). Dutch. Merchant in Amsterdam. Uncle of Johannes Burman.
Burman, Frans (1708-1793). Dutch. Clergyman. Brother of Johannes Burman.
Burman, Johannes (1707-1779). Dutch. Botanist, professor of medicine in Amsterdam. Close friend of Linnaeus.
Burman, Nicolaas Laurens (1734-1793). Dutch. Professor of botany. Linnaeusís pupil in Uppsala in 1760.
Burman, Pieter (1713-1778). Dutch. Jurist. Brother of Johannes Burman.
Burman Van Peene (?-1737). Dutch. Brother of Johannes Burman.
Burmester, Johan Henrik (1720-1770). Swedish. Professor of economics, later of eloquence and poetry at Lund.
Burser, Joachim (1583-1639). Danish. Professor of medicine and botany, Sorö, 1625-1639.
Buxbaum, Johann Christian (1693-1730). German. Professor of botany, St Petersburg.
Camerarius, Rudolf Jacob (1665-1721). German. Professor of medicine, Tübingen.
Campbell, Colin (1686-1757). Swedish. Nobleman of Scottish origin. One of the directors of the Swedish East India Company, part-owner of the Imperial East India Company at Ostende.
Campi, Baldassare (?-c.1653). Italian. Botanist, Lucca. Published botanical works together with his brother Michele.
Camus, Charles Etienne Louis (1699-1768). French. Astronomer and mathematician. Member of the French expedition to Lapland in 1736-1737 to determine the shape of the earth.
Capdevila, Antonio (?-?). Spanish. Professor at the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid.
Caravajal y Lancáster, José de (1698-1754). Spanish. Leading politician of English origin. Spanish minister in Stockholm.
Carleson, Edvard (1704-1767). Swedish. Public official. President of the Swedish Board of Commerce. Accompanied Carl Fredric von Höpken on his voyage to the Orient.
Caroline-Louise av Baden-Durlach (1751-1783). German. Margravine of Baden. Amateur botanist. Also known as Carolina Lovisa.
Carrere, Thomas (1714-1764). French. Physician, Perpignan.
Castelli, Pietro (1575-1657). Italian. Physician, professor of botany at Rome, founded a botanical garden at Messina.
Catesby, Mark (1682-1749). British. Naturalist and artist. Best known for his illustrated work The Natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands (1736-1743).
Cederhielm, Carl Wilhelm (1705-1769). Swedish. Nobleman, chamberlain, one of the six founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Celse, Magnus von (1709-1784). Swedish. Royal librarian and Swedish national historiographer.
Celsia, Margareta Insulander (1682-1743). Swedish. Wife of Olof Celsius the Elder.
Celsius, Anders (1701-1744). Swedish. Professor of astronomy, Uppsala.
Celsius, Bernhard (1702-174?). Swedish. Son of Olof Celsius the Elder. Died when travelling abroad.
Celsius, Olof, the Elder (1670-1756). Swedish. Orientalist and theologian, professor at Uppsala. Botanist and plant collector, benefactor of Linnaeus.
Celsius, Olof, the Younger (1716-1794). Swedish. Bishop, historian, politician. Also known as Celsius.
Cesalpino, Andrea (1519-1603). Italian. Botanist, professor of medicine and botany in Pisa and Rome and physician of Clement VIII. Best known for his De plantis libri xvi (1583). Also known as Cisalpinus or Caesalpinus.
Channing, John (?-?). British.
Chardon de Courcelles, Étienne (?-1780). French. Physician.
Charlevoix, Pierre François Xavier de (1682-1761). French. Jesuit and author, travelled in North America and the Caribbean.
Chatelain, Henri Abraham (1684-1743). French. Theologian, geographer.
Chatelain, Isaac Emanuel (1692-1763). French. Clergyman.
Chomel, Pierre Jean-Baptiste (1671-1740). French. Botanist, supported Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in collecting plants. Physician at the royal court in 1707, member of the Académie des sciences.
Cirillo, Domenico Maria Leone (1734-1799). Italian. Physician and naturalist, Naples. Linnaeus especially esteemed his entomological works.
Clairaut, Alexis Claude (1713-1756). French. Mathematician. Member of the French expedition to Lapland in 1736-1737 to determine the shape of the earth.
Clayton, John (1685-1773). British. Physician and botanist. His herbarium collected in Virginia was published by Johan Frederik Gronovius and Linnaeus in Flora Virginica (1739, 1743).
Clerck, Carl Alexander (1709-1765). Swedish. Entomologist. Assessor in Stockholm.
Clifford, George (1685-1760). Dutch. Banker and merchant in Amsterdam, Linnaeusís benefactor. Owner of Hartecamp and its botanical garden outside Haarlem. Director of the Dutch East India Company.
Clifford, Henry (17?-17?). Dutch. George Cliffordís son.
Clifford, Petrus (1713-1788). Dutch. Mayor of Amsterdam. George Cliffordís son.
Colden, Cadwallader (1688-1766). American. Physician of Scottish origin, botanist, physicist, politician. Lieutenant governor of New York.
Colden, Jane (1724-1766). American. The first female botanist of her country, daughter of Cadwallader Colden.
Cole, William (1714-1782). British. Antiquary.
Collegium Medicum. The Swedish Board of Physicians in Stockholm was founded in 1663. Also known as Collegium Medicorum.
Collin, Olof (?-?). Swedish.
Collin, Peter (1722-1781). Swedish. Lecturer of theology at the gymnasium of Wäxjö. Dean.
Collinson, Peter (1693-1768). British. Merchant and amateur naturalist in London, corresponded with many scientists. Made Linnaeus and his works widely known.
Colonna, Fabio (1567-1650). Italian. Botanist, painter and engraver. Also known as Columna.
Comi, Michelangelo (?-?). Italian. Priest, Rome.
Commerson, Philibert (1727-1773). French. Naturalist.
Conring, Hermann (1606-1681). German. Polymath, professor of medicine at Helmstädt.
Cordus, Valerius (1515-1544). German. Botanist, explorer.
Cornarius, Janus (1500-1558). German. Botanist.
Cornelius, Marcus (?-?). Italian. Bishop of Torcello (Venice).
Corrêa da Serra, José Francisco (1751-1823). Portugese. Historian, naturalist and diplomat. Secretary of the Academy of Sciences in Lisbon.
Costeo, Giovanni (?-1603). Italian. Botanist, professor of medicine at Turin and later at Bologna. Also known as Costaeus.
Couturier, M (?-?). French. Bookseller.
Creutz, Gustaf Filip (1729-1785). Swedish. Count, ambassador in Madrid and Paris. Chancellor of Uppsala University.
Cronhielm, Gustaf (1664-1737). Swedish. Nobleman and politician. Chancellor of the court, chancellor of the universities of Uppsala and Lund, ambassador.
Crusius, Siegfried (?-?).
Cuno, Johann Christian (1708-1790). German. Poet, botanist and merchant. He made a fortune in the West Indies and settled in Holland where he kept a botanical garden. The later years of his life were spent in Weingarten, near Durlach in Germany.
Cusson, Pierre (1727-1783). French. Physician and botanist, Montpellier.
DíIsnard, Antoine Tristan Danty (?-1743). French. Professor at the Jardin des plantes in Paris. Also known as Disnard.
Da Costa, Emanuel Mendes (1717-1791). British. Naturalist of Portugese descent.
Dahlberg, Carl Gustaf (?-?). Swedish. Colonel and owner of a plantation in Surinam. Daniel Rolander went to Surinam to serve as tutor for Dahlbergís children.
Dalberg, Nils Ericsson (1736-1820). Swedish. Personal physician of Gustav III since 1768. Linnaeusís student in 1755.
Dale, Samuel (1659-1739). British. Apothecary and physician.
Daléchamps, Jacques (1513-1588). French. Medical humanist, physician and botanist at Lyon. Also known as Dalechamp.
Dalin, Olof von (1708-1763). Swedish. Author. Chancellor of the court.
Dalman, Johan Fredrik (1726-1809). Swedish. Nobleman, major at the Admirality. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Dassau, Johan (1749-1808). Swedish. Supercargo at the Swedish East India Company.
Daubenton, Louis Jean Marie (1716-1800). French. Curator at Jardin des plantes in Paris. Professor of mineralogy.
Davila, Don Pedro Franco (?-1786). Spanish. Peruvian naturalist. Moved to Paris in 1745, where he created a natural history collection. In 1769 he was called to Madrid to be the director of the Natural History Museum.
De Felice, Fortunato Bartolomeo (1723-1789). Italian. Publisher. Settled in Yverdon where he published a version of the Encyclopédie (1770-1780).
De Geer, Charles (1720-1778). Swedish. Entomologist and natural history collector, Leufsta Bruk. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm and Académie des sciences, Paris. Corresponded with Réaumur, Bonnet and other naturalists.
De Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen. The Dutch Society of Sciences was founded in Haarlem in 1752.
De la Gardie, Catharina Charlotta (1723-1763). Swedish. Countess and philanthropist. Campaigned for inoculation for smallpox and combated witch trials in Sweden.
Defleury (?-?). French.
Degano, Lodovico (?-?). Italian. Doctor of medicine.
Demeste, Jean (1744-1783). Belgian. Chemist and military physician, Liège.
Demidoff, Grigorij (?-?). Russian. Together with his brother Pavel Grigorevich he was Linnaeusís student in Uppsala in 1760-1761.
Demidoff, Pavel Grigorevich (1738-1826). Russian. Russian nobleman. Together with his brother Grigorij he was Linnaeusís student in Uppsala in 1760-1761. He created a natural history museum in Moscow which was later given to the University of Moscow.
Derham, William (1657-1735). British. Clergyman, scientist. Author of Physico-theology (1713).
Deschisaux, Pierre (1687-1730). French. Botanist and physician, created a botanical garden at St Petersburg.
Dietrich, Adam (1711-1782). German. Botanist, Ziegenhain near Jena.
Dillenius, Johann Jacob (1684-1747). Studied at Giessen. Sherardian professor of botany at Oxford.
Dioscorides, Pedianos (1st century AD). Greek. Naturalist and botanist.
Döbeln, Johan Jacob (1674-1743). Swedish. Professor of medicine at Lund.
Döderlé, Baron de (?-?).
Dodoëns, Rembert (1518-1585). German. Frisian, imperial physician. Also known as Dodonaeus.
Dohna, Fredric Carl (1722-1784). Swedish. Count. Lieutenant general of the Kingís Life Regiment.
Domasjnev, Sergej Gerasimovitj de (1743-1795). Russian. Chamberlain at the Russian imperial court. Director of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.
Donati, Vitaliano (1713-1763). Italian. Naturalist, professor of natural history, Turin. Travelled in the Balkans and in the Orient.
Donell, James (17??-17??). Irish. Physician.
Dreyer & Zelling. Swedish. Merchants in Stockholm.
Drury, Dru. (17??-17??). British. Goldsmith.
Du Fay de Cisternay, Charles-François (1698-1739). French. Director of the Jardin des plantes in Paris.
Du Pitot, Henri (1695-1771). French. Chemist, physicist, engineer. Assistant to René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur in the chemical laboratory of Académie Royale des Sciences. Director of public works, superintendent of the Canal du Languedoc.
Duchesne, Antoine Nicolas (1747-1827). French. Naturalist and horticulturist, Versailles.
Dufay, Antoine (17??-17??). French. Physician. President of the Académie des sciences when Linnaeus visited Paris in 1738.
Duhamel Du Monceau, Henri-Louis (1700-1782).
Duvernoy, Jean Jacques (1709-1805). French. Writer, tutor to the Russian empress, the wife of Paul I.
Duvernoy, Johann (1691-1759). German. Professor of anatomy, Tübingen. Albrecht von Hallerís teacher. Also known as du Vernoi.
Eding, Peder Wilhelm (?-?). Danish.
Edwards, George (1693-1773). British. Ornithologist and artist. Visited the Netherlands, France and Scandinavia. Best known for his History of birds (1747-1751).
Ehrencrona, Carl Gustaf Gammal (1710-1781). Swedish. Courtier and councillor.
Ehrenpreus, Carl Diedric (1692-1760). Swedish. Count, councillor of the realm, chancellor of Uppsala University.
Ehrensvärd, Augustin (1710-1772). Swedish. Count, field-marshal. The founder of the fort of Sveaborg (Finland).
Ehrensvärd, Gustaf Johan (1746-1783). Swedish. Nobleman, author and diplomat.
Ehret, Georg Dionysius (1710-1770). German. Moved to England in 1736. Artist, illustrator and botanist known for his illustrations to Linnaeusís Hortus Cliffortianus, Browneís Civil and natural history of Jamaica, Ellisís History of corallines. Together with his benefactor, Christopher Jacob Trew, he published Plantae selectae (1750).
Ehrhart, Jacob Friedrich (1742-1795). Botanist. Studied under Linnaeus in Uppsala 1773-1776. Became botanist to the prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Eichrodt (?-?). German. Physician at Durlach in the end of the 1730s.
Ekeberg, Carl Gustaf (?-?). Swedish. Captain, employed by the Swedish East India Company.
Ekeblad, Claes (1708-1771). Swedish. Count, councillor of the realm, chancellor of Åbo University.
Ekevurtzel, Gabriel (?-1748). Swedish. Civil servant, official in the Swedish War Office.
Ellis, John (1711-1776). British. Merchant and naturalist, expert on zoophytes.
Elvius, Pehr (1710-1749). Swedish. Engineer and mathematician, secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Engel, Samuel (?-?). Swiss. Geographer and economist.
Engenhagen, Johann Heinrich (17?-17?). German. Doctor of medicine.
Ens, Abram (?-1770). Dutch. Doctor of medicine at Leiden and Utrecht, later in Russia.
Erhard, Johann Balthasar (1700-1756). German. Physician of Memmingen.
Erichson, Jo (?-?). Swedish.
Erxleben, Johann Christopher Polycarpus (?-?). German.
Essen, Immanuel Justus (1719-1780). German. Clergyman?
Fabricius, Johan (1697-1775). Danish. Physician at Tönder, later in Copenhagen.
Fabricius, Johan Christian (1745-1808). Danish. Professor of economy and natural history in Copenhagen. Linnaeusís pupil 1762-1764.
Fabricius, Johann Albert (1668-1736). German. Philologist, theologian, professor of philosophy, Hamburg.
Fagraeus, Jonas Theodor (1729-1797). Swedish. Physician at Alingsås.
Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel (1690-1740). German. Physician active in Holland. Constructor of scientific instruments. Best known for the construction of the mercury thermometer.
Falck, Johan Peter (1732-1774). Swedish. Professor of botany and curator of the botanical garden of St Petersburg.
Falkenberg, Melcher (1722-1795). Swedish. Count. Chancellor of Lund University.
Farsetti, Filippo (1705-1774). Italian. Venetian antique dealer and collector.
Feldmann, Bernard (1701-1777). German. Physician, botanist. Studied at Leiden. Personal physician of Frederick the Great.
Ferber, Johan Eberhard (1678-1761). Swedish. Pharmacist and physician in Karlskrona and at the spa of Ronneby. He kept a botanical garden and was a collector of natural history specimens. Father of Johan Jacob Ferber.
Ferber, Johan Jacob (1743-1790). Swedish. Professor of chemistry at Mitau, of mineralogy at St Petersburg. Superintendent of the board of mines, Berlin.
Fernow, Erik (1735-1791). Swedish. Clergyman from the province of Värmland. His local history collection is preserved as the Archivum Wermelandicum. Also known as Fernström.
Ferrner, Bengt (1724-1802). Swedish. Astronomer at Uppsala University. Tutor of crown prince Gustav of Sweden. Also known as Ferner.
Fersen, Fredrik Axel von, the Elder (1719-1794). Swedish. Count, major-general, head of the House of Nobles, Stockholm.
Feuillée, Louis Econches (1660-1732). French. Clergyman, explorer, astronomer and botanist. Also known as Feuillet.
Feyler (?-?). German.
Fick, Christian Fredrik (1746-?). Swedish. Surgeon in the Imperial Russian Navy.
Fiera, Giovanni Battista (1469-1538). Italian. Physician and botanist, Mantova.
Filenius, Petrus Nikolaus (1704-1780). Swedish. Bishop of Linköping. Studied in England, professor of Oriental languages at Lund.
Fischer, Johann Bernhard von (1685-1772). German. Physician, president of the Russian National Health Service, Moscow, personal physician of Empress Anna.
Fjellström, Johan (1699-1760). Swedish. Physician of the admirality at Karlskrona in 1737, brother of Pehr Fjellström.
Fjellström, Pehr (Peter) (?-?). Swedish. Physician at Lycksele, vicar there in 1739, published a grammar and the New testament in Lappish. Brother of Johan Fjellström.
Flodin, Carl Clemens (1752-1822). Swedish. Physician and surgeon.
Flodman, Johannes Svenonis (1728-1777). Swedish. Clergyman.
Formey, Jean-Henri-Samuel (1711-1797). German. Journalist and publisher. Calvinist pastor at Brandenburg, professor of eloquence, later of philosophy, at Berlin.
Forsberg, Gabriel (1722-1788). Swedish. Merchant at Jönköping. Carl Peter Thunbergís stepfather.
Forsskål, Pehr (1732-1763). Swedish. Naturalist and explorer. Linnaeusís student, professor in Denmark in 1759. Joined a Danish expedition to Egypt and Arabia in 1761. Died at Jerîm, Arabia.
Forster, Johann Reinhold (1729-1794). German. Naturalist and voyager. Visited St Petersburg, Moscow, Saratov and Constantinople before he went to England. In 1772 he took part in Cookís second voyage. Moved to Halle in 1780 to become director of the botanical garden.
Fothergill, John (1712-1780). British. Physician and collector of natural history objects. Studied in Holland, France and Germany. His cabinet of zoological and mineralogical specimens as well as his botanical garden at Upton were well known.
Foucard (?-?). French.
Fougt, Abraham (?-?). Swedish. Clergyman at Torneå. Visited by Linnaeus in 1732.
Franc, Pehr Christian (1716-1767). Swedish. Public official.
Franck, Johan (1590-1661). Swedish. Professor of medicine in Uppsala.Olof Rudbeck the Elderís teacher. Also known as Franckenius.
François de Neuchateau, Nicolas Louis, comte de (1750-1828). French. Minister of the interior under Napoleon I.
Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790). American. Publicist, scientist and statesman.
Fredrik August II of Sachsen, king August III of Poland (1696-1763). Polish. Reigned in Poland from 1733.
Fredrik I, king of Sweden (1676-1751). Swedish. Reigned 1720-1751. Married to Ulrika Eleonora.
Fredrik Wilhelm I, king of Prussia (1688-1740). German. Reigned from 1713. Son of Frederik I.
Friedrich I, king of Prussia (1657-1713). German. Reigned from 1688.
Frisch, Johann Leonhard (1666-1743). German. High school rector in Berlin. Also known as Frischius.
Frondin, Berge (1718-1783). Swedish. Doctor of history and political science at Uppsala. Librarian at the university library.
Froppes, Jacob (?-?). Sea captain.
Fuchs, Leonhard (1501-1566). German. Botanist and physician. Professor of medicine at Ingolstadt, later at Tübingen.
Funck, Alexander (1716-1797). Swedish. Baron, councillor of the board of mines.
Funck, Carl (1708-1783). Swedish. Baron, colonel and councillor of the realm.
Funck, Johan (1703-1773). Swedish. Nobleman. Chamberlain. Governor of the province of Westrobothnia and of Uppsala in 1762.
Gabriel (?-?). Capucin friar.
Gachet (17??-17??). Swiss. Bookseller, Berne.
Gadd, Pehr Adrian (1727-1797). Swedish. Professor of chemistry at Åbo.
Gagnebin de La Ferrière, Abraham (1707-1800). Swiss. Physician and botanist, one of Albrecht von Hallerís correspondents.
Gahn, Hans Jakob (1719-1782). Swedish. Treasurer, Voxna Bruk in Sweden. Father of Nenrik Gahn.
Gahn, Henrik (1747-1816). Swedish. Physician. Linnaeusís student. Founder of the Swedish Society of Medical Sciences in 1807.
Gahne, Joan (1722-?). Swedish. Clergyman.
Garden, Alexander (1730-1791). Doctor of medicine, South Carolina.
Gaub, Hieronymus David (1705-1780). German. Physician, professor of chemistry and medicine at Leiden. Also known as Gaubius.
Gauché, Joseph (?-?). French. Professor of mathematics.
Geier, Johann Daniel (1660-1735). German. Physician and writer.
Geiser (?-?). Superintendent. His name appears in a letter regarding the transportation of herbs from Linnaeus to the royal garden at the Trianon.
Gemeinhart, Johann Caspar (17??-17??). German. Physician.
Genzmer, Gottlob Burchart (1716?-1771). German. Pastor at Mecklenburg.
Genzmer, V. L. (?-?). German.
Geoffroy, Etienne François (1672-1731). French. Chemist, physician. Professor of medicine at the Collège Royal, and in chemistry at the Jardin des plantes. Father of Etienne Louis Geoffroy.
Georgi, Johann Gottlieb (1729-1802). German. Chemist, St Petersburg.
Gerard (?-?). French. Secretary of the cardinal of the court in Paris?
Gérard, Louis (1733-1819). French. Botanist, Cotignac, Provence.
Gerber, Traugott (?-1743). German. Botanist.
Geringius, Andreas (?-?). Swedish. Hatter in Stockholm.
Gesner, Johann Albrecht (1694-1760). German. Physician of the Duke of Würtenberg.
Gesner, Johann Matthias (1691-1761). German. Philosopher and philologist. Professor in Göttingen. Also known as Gessner.
Gesner, Johannes (1709-1790). Swiss. Naturalist, Zürich. Also known as Gessner.
Gesner, Konrad (1516-1565). Swiss. Physician, botanist, zoologist, bibliographer, Lausanne. Also known as Gessner.
Gesner, Wilhelm Friedrich Immanuel (1734-1801). German.
Gevvoise (?-?). Doctor of medicine.
Gilibert, Jean-Emmanuel (1741-1814). French. Physician and botanist. Active in Grodno, Poland, and in Wilna, Lithuania, before he returned to his native town, Lyon. Mayor of Lyon in 1793, later professor of natural history.
Ginanni, Giuseppe (1692-1753). Italian. Botanist, Ravenna. Also known as Zinanni.
Giseke, Paul Dietrich (1745-1796). German. Physician, Hamburg. Admirer of Linnaeus, whose system he used and explained in a number of works.
Gjörwell, Carl Christoffer (1731-1811). Swedish. Author, publisher, royal librarian.
Gleditsch, Johann Gottlieb (1714-1786). German. Botanist and sylviculturist in Berlin, disciple of Anton Wilhelm Platz and Johann Ernst Hebenstreit, supervisor of Caspar Boseís garden 1731-1735, professor at the Collegium Medico-Chirurgicum in 1746.
Gmelin, Johann Georg (1709-1755). German. Voyager, botanist and chemist. At the initiative of empress Anna of Russia he spent ten years (1733-1743) exploring Siberia. In 1749 he became professor of botany and chemistry at Tübingen. Together with his nephew Samuel Gottlieb he wrote Flora Sibirica (1747-1769).
Gmelin, Samuel Gottlieb (1743-1774). German. Professor of botany at the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St Petersburg. In 1764 he travelled in Eastern Russia and the provinces south of the Caspian sea. He completed the Flora Sibirica (1747-1769) of his uncle Johann Georg Gmelin.
Goeckel, Philip Caspar (1710-1752). German. Physician, Nuremberg.
Goetten, Gabriel Wilhelm (1708-1781). German. Theologian, Hannover.
Gordon, James (?-?). British.
Gorter, David de (1707 or 1717-1783). Dutch. Botanist and physician. Succeeded his father Johan van Gorter as the personal physician of empress Elisabeth of Russia.
Gouan, Antoine (1733-1821). French. Botanist, Montpellier. Student under Sauvages. Director of the botanical garden in 1767, later professor of botany and medicine. Although an admirer of Linnaeus he tried to develop a hybrid of his system of classification.
Gran, Ola (1688-1759). Swedish. Clergyman. Vicar of Lycksele 1716-1739. Also known as Graan.
Grew, Nehemiah (1641-1712). British. Plant-anatomist and physician. Together with Marcello Malpighi one of the founders of microscopic plant anatomy. Associated with the Royal Society.
Grill, Antoni (1705-?). Swedish. Merchant in Amsterdam.
Grill, Claes (1705-1767). Swedish. Merchant, owner of the iron works of Söderfors, Österby and Iggesund. Director of the Swedish East India Company. Also known as an art collector and patron of arts and sciences.
Grimaldi, Jeronimo, marquis of (1720-1786). Spanish. Spanish ambassador in Stockholm.
Grimm, Johann Friedrich Carl (1737-1821). German. Physician. Personal physician to the duke of Saxe-Gotha.
Gronovius, Johan Frederik (1690-1762). Dutch. Naturalist, senator of Leiden. Linnaeusís benefactor and friend. Published Flora Virginica (1743, 1762) together with John Clayton.
Gronovius, Laurens Theodor (1730-1777). Dutch. Naturalist. Senator of Leiden. Son of Johan Frederik Gronovius.
Grönvall, Anders (1671-1758). Swedish. Professor of ethics and political science at Uppsala.
Groot, Gemt de (?-?). Dutch. Printer in Leiden.
Groot, Johan Wilhelm de (?-?). Dutch. Printer in Leiden.
Grooth, Carl von (1684-1758). Swedish. Governor of the province of Uppsala.
Groth, Stina (?-?). Swedish. Renowned for helping a wanted regimental clerk, H. Lindbaum, to esape to Norway, a crime for which she was prosecuted. Married to the clergyman Peter Allstadius.
Grundel, Jacob (1657-1737). Swedish. Nobleman. Governor of the province of Westrobothnia.
Guerin, Louis Philippe (?-?). French. Librarian.
Guettard, Jean Etienne (1715-1786). French. Naturalist, geologist and mineralogist. Director of the museum of natural history objects of the duke of Orléans. Best known for his geological and mineralogical studies of France.
Gundelsheimer, Michael (?-?). German. Published a dissertation on meteorology (1664) in Wittenberg.
Gunnerus, Johan Ernst (1718-1773). Norwegian. Bishop of Trondheim. Together with Schönning and Peter Friederich Suhm he founded the Norwegian Society of Sciences. Author of Flora Norvegica (1766-1776).
Gunnerus, Nic. Dorph. (1751-1789). Norwegian. Nephew of Johan Ernst Gunnerus.
Gustav III, king of Sweden (1746-1792). Swedish. Reigned 1771-1792.
Gyllenborg, Carl (1679-1746). Swedish. Chancellor of Uppsala University.
Gyllenborg, Carl Johan (1741-1811). Swedish. Count and lawyer, president of the administrative court of appeal. Linnaeusís student in 1748.
Gyllenborg, Henning Adolph (1713-1775). Swedish. Count, councillor of the realm. Student at Uppsala and member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Gyllengrip, Gabriel (1687-1753). Swedish. Nobleman, governor of the province of Westrobothnia.
Gyllenhaal, Leonhard (1752-1840). Swedish. Military and entomologist. Studied botany and entomology under Linnaeus and Carl Peter Thunberg.
Gynther, August (?-?). Danish. Pharmacist, Copenhagen. Owner of Paul Hermannís collections from Ceylon and Malabar. Linnaeus used them for Flora Zeylanica (1747). After Gyntherís death the collections were sold to Joseph Banks.
Haartman, Johan Johansson (1725-1787). Swedish. Professor of medicine at Åbo. Linnaeusís student. Accompanied Carl Gustaf Tessin on his journey through Sweden and arranged Tessinís collection of minerals. He also translated Systema naturae into Swedish.
Hagström, Johan Otto (1716-1792). Swedish. Physician and naturalist. Linnaeusís student. Linnaeus wrote the introduction to his Pan apum (1768), on bee-pollinated flowers. He was one of the tutors of Carl Linnaeus the Younger.
Haid, Johann Gottfried (1710-1776). German. Engraver. Also known as Hayd.
Håkansson, Olof (1695-1769). Swedish. Spokesman of the peasants during the sessions of the Swedish parliament.
Halenius, Engelbert (1700-1767). Swedish. Bishop of Skara, politician.
Hales, Stephen (1677-1761). British. Clergyman, physician and naturalist. Pioneer in experimental plant physiology.
Haller, Albrecht von (1708-1777). Swiss. Naturalist and poet, professor of medicine, botany, anatomy and surgery at Göttingen 1736-1753.
Haller, Gottlieb Emanuel von (1735-1786). Swiss. Historian and statesman. Son of Albrecht von Haller and Marianne Wyss.
Hallman, Daniel Zacharias (1722-1782). Swedish. Clergyman. Pastor at the Swedish legation in Madrid, dean at Strängnäs. Linnaeusís student in 1744-1746.
Hallman, Johan Gustaf, the Elder (1726-1797). Swedish. Physician. At the recommendation of Linnaeus Hallman travelled in Europe to study the mullberry tree. In charge of the mullberry plantation in Stockholm.
Hamberger, Georg Erhard (1697-1755). German. Professor at Jena. One of Albrecht von Hallerís critics regarding physiological matters.
Hammarsinus, Johannes (?-?). Swedish.
Hammer, Christopher (1720-1804). Norwegian. Judge of the supreme court.
Hannaeus, Georg (1705-1750). German. Doctor of medicine in 1735 in Copenhagen, physician.
Hanovius, Michael Christopher (1695-1773). German. Professor of philosophy and librarian, Danzig.
Hårleman, Carl (1700-1753). Swedish. Nobleman, architect, royal superintendent.
Hasselgreen, Carl Benjamin (1718-1773). Swedish. Merchant in Amsterdam. One of the partners of the trading house Jan & Carl Hasselgreen.
Hasselgreen, Jan (1709-1772). Swedish. Merchant in Amsterdam. One of the partners of the trading house Jan & Carl Hasselgreen.
Hasselquist, Fredrik (1722-1752). Swedish. Physician and naturalist, explorer. Studied under Linnaeus and Lars Roberg 1741-1749. Went to Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Rhodes and the island of Chios. Died near Smyrna.
Hauber, Eberhard David (1695-1765). German. Pastor in Copenhagen.
Havrincour, Louis Cardevac de (1707-1767). French. Diplomat in Stockholm 1749-1762.
Hebenstreit, Johann Ernst (1703-1757). German. Anatomist and explorer. Professor in Leipzig in 1729. Travelled in North Africa 1731-1735.
Hederström, Hans (1710-1792). Swedish. Clergyman.
Hedlinger, Johan Carl (1691-1771). Swiss. Engraver and medallist in Swedish service from 1718. Commissioned by the Danish royal court in 1732 and the Russian imperial court in 1735-1737.
Heger, Thomas (?-?). Dutch. Merchant. Friend of Johannes Burman.
Heidenstam, Peter von (1708-1783). Swedish. Personal physician of Adolf Fredrik. Named Petersen before enoblement.
Heilmann, N. (?-?).
Heimrich, Ernst Fr. Just. de. Nob. de Heimenthal (?-?). German. Swedish agent in Hessen.
Heinze, Johann Georg (?-?). Also known as Heinsius.
Heinze, Johann Heinrich (1719-1801). German. Doctor of medicine at Halle, physician. Also known as Heinsius.
Heinzelmann, Johann Gottfried (?-?). German. Botanist. Travelled in eastern Russia.
Heister, Elias Friedrich (1715-1740). German. Botanist. Son of Lorenz Heister.
Heister, Lorenz (1683-1758). German. Anatomist and surgeon, considered the father of German surgery. Professor of anatomy and surgery in 1720, of theoretical medicine and botany at Helmstädt in 1730. He rejected Linnaeusís sexual system.
Hellström (?-?). Swedish.
Helwing, Georg Andreas (1668-1748). German. Clergyman, Angerburg (Prussia).
Hemmingson, Ulrich (1698-1766). Swedish. Major in the Dutch East India Company.
Henckel, Johann Friedrich (1678-1744). Chemist, mineralogist. Councillor of mining and mine physician at Freiberg.
Herman, Christopher (?-?). Swedish. Gardener at the Uppsala University Botanical Garden.
Hermann, Paul (1646-1695). German. Botanist, physician at Batavia, professor of botany at Leiden. Also known as Hermannus.
Hernandez, Francisco (1514-1578). Spanish. Physician and naturalist. Explorer of South America.
Hernquist, Peter (1726-1808). Swedish. Veterinarian. Studied at Uppsala under Linnaeus, at Greifswald, Lyon and Paris. He established Swedenís first school of veterinary medicine at Skara.
Herrmann, Johann (1738-1800). German. Botanist and chemist. Professor of medicine at Strasbourg.
Hesselius, Johan (1687-1752). Swedish. Physician. Regional physician of Närke-Västmanland.
Heucher, Johann Heinrich von (1677-1747). German. Botanist and physician, professor of botany at Wittenberg in 1709, later at Dresden. Physician-in-ordinary to August II of Poland-Sachsen.
Hiärne, Gustaf Adolf (1715-1805). Swedish. Chancellor of Lund University.
Hildebrand, Henric Jacob (1707-1775). Swedish. Diplomat. Swedish envoy in Spain.
Hill, John (1716-1775). British. Pharmacist, physician and supervisor of the botanical gardens at Kew.
Hiort af Ornäs, Hans Gustaf (1725-1791). Swedish. Nobleman. Civil servant.
Hiorter, Olof (1696-1750). Swedish. Professor of astronomy at Uppsala 1732-1737.
Hjortberg, Gustaf Fredrik (1724-1776). Swedish. Chaplain on board ships of the Swedish East India Company. Dean at Vallda (south of Gothenburg).
Hof, Sven (1703-1786). Swedish. Philologist, Skara.
Hoffman (?-?). German. Military surgeon.
Hoffmann, Friedrich (1660-1742). German. Professor of medicine at Halle. Also known as Hoffmann.
Hoffmann, Mauritius (Moritz) (1622-1698). Swiss. Professor of medicine, Altdorf.
Höijer, Michael Eurenius (?-1757). Swedish. District judge at Kalix in Lapland. Linnaeus mentions him as an erudite man whose house he visited for six days in 1732.
Hollsten, Jonas (1717-1789). Swedish. Schoolmaster, dean, botanist. Linnaeusís student.
Holm, Jörgen Tyge (1726-1759). Danish. Professor of economy and natural history, Copenhagen. Linnaeusís student 1750-1751, 1754-1757. Also known as Georg Tycho Holm.
Hope, Jo. (1725-1786). British. Doctor of medicine, professor of botany, Edinburgh.
Höpken, Anders Johan von (1712-1789). Swedish. Count and statesman. One of the founders of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Hoppius, Christian Emanuel (1736-?). Russian. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Horn, Arvid Bernhard (1664-1742). Swedish. Politician and statesman. President of the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala.
Horn af Rantzien, Gustaf Jacob (1706-1756). Swedish. Nobleman. Civil servant, chamberlain and marshal of the court. Executed after the conspiracy against the Swedish parliament in 1756.
Horrebow, Christian (1718-1776). Danish. Professor of astronomy, Danish cabinet minister, Copenhagen.
Houston, William (1695-1733). British. Surgeon. Studied at Leiden under Boerhaave. Went with the South Sea Company to Central America and the West Indies.
Houttuyn, Maartin (1720-?). Dutch. Doctor of medicine.
Huber, Johannes Jacobus (1707-1778). German. Anatomist, botanist. Professor at Kassel. Albrecht von Hallerís assistant.
Huddersford, Guils (?-1772). British. President of Trinity College, Oxford. Antiquarian.
Hudson, William (1730-1792). British. Pharmacist at Westmoreland.
Hugo de, Augustus Ludovicus (?-?). Linnaeusís student.
Humble, Johan (1701-1774). Swedish. Army surgeon. Friend of Linnaeus.
Hüpsch, Johann Wilhelm Carl Adolph de, baron de Loutzen (1729?-1805). German.
Ihre, Johan (1707-1780). Swedish. Philologist. Professor of Latin and later of eloquence and political science at Uppsala.
Ike, David Gottlieb (?-?). German.
Imperatorskaja akademija nauk. Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, founded in 1725. Also known as Academia scientiarum imperialis Petropolitana.
Iselin, Jean-Rodolphe (1705-1779). Swiss. Professor of law, historian. Also known as Iselius.
Ivanovna, Anna (1693-1740). Russian. Empress of Russia. A patron of botanists.
Jacobus, Ferdinand (?-?). German.
Jacquin, Nicolas Joseph, baron von (1727-1817). Dutch. Botanist. In 1755 at the order of emperor Franz I of Austria he went to the Antilles and South America. In 1763 he became professor of mineralogy and chemistry at Chemnitz, later professor of botany at Vienna and director of the botanical garden at Schönbrunn.
Jamjouglow, Paul (?-1784). German. Doctor of medicine, Hamburg.
Jampert, Christian Friedrich (1727-1758). German. Associate professor of medicine at Halle.
Jänisch, Gottfried Jacob (?-1784). German. Doctor of medicine, Hamburg. Also known as Jaenisch.
Jardin des plantes, Paris. The Jardin des plantes was founded in 1597 to produce flower models for the manufacturing of tapestry in Paris. In 1626 it became a garden for medical and pharmaceutical plants. In 1739 it was again transformed to le Jardin du roi, where also a natural history museum was built. Later in the eigteenth century a zoological garden and a library were added. Also known as Jardin du roi.
Jennings, John (1729-1773). Swedish. Owner of iron works, merchant and politician. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Johrenius, Martin Daniel (?-1718). German. Professor of botany at Frankfurt/Oder.
Jörlin, Engelbert (1733-1810). Swedish. Botanist. Linnaeusís student. Teacher at Lund University. Travelled in Europe. Linnaeusís intention to send him to Cape was never realised.
Jungermann, Ludwig (1572-1653). German. German doctor of medicine in 1609, professor of medicine and botany at Giessen in 1614, professor of anatomy at Altdorf in 1625.
Jungius, Joachim (1587-1657). German. Botanist, professor of mathematics, Rostock.
Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1686-1758). French. Botanist, professor of botany, Paris. Brother of Bernard and Joseph de Jussieu. Joseph Pitton de Tournefortís successor.
Jussieu, Bernhard de (1699-1777). French. Professor of botany, brother of Antoine and Joseph de Jussieu. Demonstrator at the Jardin des plantes. Sébastien Vaillantís successor.
Jussieu, Joseph de (1704-1779). French. Botanist, mathematician, explorer. Member of the French expedition in South America 1735. Brother of Antoine and Bernard de Jussieu.
Kähler, Mårten (1728-1773). Swedish. Physician, orator and poet. Studied under Linnaeus and Nils Rosén von Rosenstein. Served as physician of the admirality at Karlskrona.
Kallström, Andreas (?-?). Swedish. Gardener in London.
Kalm, Pehr (1716-1779). Swedish. Botanist and traveller, professor of natural history at Åbo. Disciple of Linnaeus. Travelled in North America 1748-1751.
Kalmeter, Johan Olof (1747-1776). Swedish. Shipís mate. Nephew of Linnaeusís wife.
Kammarkollegium. The Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. Also known as Cammar-Collegium.
Kämpfer, Engelbert (1651-1716). German. Physician, botanist and explorer. Travelled in Asia. Known for his works on Japan and Japanese natural history.
Kannegiesser, Gottlieb Heinrich (1712-1792). German. Professor of medicine, Kiel.
Kanold, Johann (1679-1729). German. Doctor of medicine in Jena. Editor of works in natural history.
Kanslikollegium. The Swedish Government Offices. Also known as Cancellie-Collegium.
Karamyschew, Aleksandr Matveevich (1744-1791). Russian. Disciple of Linnaeus.
Karl XI, king of Sweden (1655-1697). Swedish. Reigned 1660-1697.
Karl XII, king of Sweden (1682-1718). Swedish. Reigned 1697-1718.
Kast, G. L. (?-?).
Kerckring, Theodor (1640-1693). German. Physician, Hamburg.
Kesselting, Johann Heinrich (1713-1741). German. Professor of medicine, Königsberg. Also known as Kesselring.
Kiesewetter, Gottfried (?-?). Academy bookseller 1735-1757, publisher of Linnaeusís Philosophia botanica (1751).
Kirsten, van (?-?). Dutch. Resident in the Cape Province.
Kising (?-?). German.
Kjörning, Georg von (1743-1791). Swedish. Secretary at the Swedish legation in St Petersburg.
Klefeker, Johann Matthias (1698-1775). German. Lawyer and bibliographer, Hamburg.
Klein, Jacob Theodor (1685-1759). German. Naturalist, Dresden and Danzig. Director of the Danziger Naturforscher- Gesellschaft. One of Linnaeusís opponents.
Klemke, J. M. (?-?).
Kleynhoff, Christian (?-?). Dutch.
Klinckowström, Johan Mauritz (1692-1768). Swedish. Nobleman, major general.
Klingenberg, Carl (?-1757). Swedish. Secretary of Uppsala University.
Klingenstierna, Samuel (1698-1765). Swedish. Physicist and mathematician, professor of experimental physics at Uppsala.
Knaut, Christopher (1638-1694). German. Botanist, Halle.
Kniphof, Johann(es) Hieronymus (1704-1763). German. Professor of botany at Erfurt.
Koch (?-?). German. Doctor of medicine.
Koenig (?-?). Hamburg.
Kohl, Johann Peter (1698-1778). German. Professor of ecclesiastical history at St Petersburg. Later author and journalist in Hamburg.
Köhler, Johann Tobias (1720-1768). German. Professor of philosophy at Göttingen.
Kölpin, Alexander Bernhard (1739-1801). German. Professor of medicine an natural history at Greifswald. Later royal medical counsellor of Prussia and town physician of Stettin.
König, Amand. (?-?). German. Printer, Strasbourg.
König, Johan Fredrik (Johann Friedrich) (1690-1759). Swedish. Post-commissary in Hamburg.
König, Johan Gerhard (1728-1785). Danish. Physician, born in Polish Livonia. Private pupil of Linnaeus in 1757. Visited Iceland. Went to Tranquebar in India, to Thailand and Ceylon. He died on his way to Tibet.
Königsmarck, Hans Kristofer von (1600-1663). Swedish. Count, field marshal.
Koulas, David Samuel (1699-1769). Swedish. Physician, Malmö.
Kramer, G. H. (?-?). Military surgeon at Temeswar, Hungary (now in Romania).
Kramer, Johann (?-?). German. Student in Leiden. Also known as Cramer.
Krascheninnikov, Stephan Petrovich (1713-1755). Russian. Professor of natural history, St Petersburg. Went with Johann Georg Gmelin to Siberia and came as the only member of the expedition to Kamchatka.
Kratzenstein, Christian Gottlieb (1723-1795). Danish. Physician and physicist. Professor in Halle, from 1754 professor of experimental physics at Copenhagen.
Krause, Christian Ludwig (?-1773?). German. Gardener, Berlin. Author of Unterricht von der Gärtnerei (1773).
Krüger, Samuel Gottlieb (?-?). Swedish. Commissioner?
Kruse, C. F. (?-1799). Russian. Personal physician to the Russian czar.
Kruse, J. G. (?-?). Dutch.
Kuhn, Adam (1741-1817). American. Physician, Philadelphia. Studied under Linnaeus at Uppsala University in 1762-1763. Linnaeusís only American student.
Kulm, Johann Adam (1689-1745). German. Anatomist, professor of medicine, Danzig. Also known as Kulmus.
Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademien. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Founded in 1739.
Kungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i Uppsala. The Royal Society of Sciences at Uppsala was founded in 1728. Also known as Societas regia literaria et scientiarum.
La Faille, Clément de (1718-1782). French. Naturalist. Secretary of the Académie de belles-lettres and of the Société díagriculture de la Généralité de La Rochelle.
La Rose (?-?). French. Physician.
Laan, Adolf van der (1684-1740). Dutch. Artist and engraver. Made the plates for Linnaeusís Musa Cliffortiana and the frontispiece of Flora Lapponica.
Lagerberg, Anna Chatarina (1738-1794). Swedish. Married to E. C. Drangel, district judge.
Lagerflycht, Johan (1701-1774). Swedish. Baron, president of the circuit appeal-court at Åbo, Finland, in 1768.
Lagerström, Magnus (1691-1759). Swedish. Director of the Swedish East India Company.
Laine, David (?-?). French. Bookseller.
Lamerle, C. (?-?). French. Bookseller and typefounder.
Lamonius, Christ. Gerh. (?-?).
Landberg, Johan (?-1733). Swedish. Treasurer of Uppsala University.
Lange, Johann Joachim (1670-1744). German. Professor of theology at Halle.
Langebek, Jacob (1710-1775). Danish. Historian. Librarian and archivist, counsellor of state.
Langen, J. G. L. (?-?). Danish.
Lanmary, de (?-?). French. Minister in Stockholm.
Latourette, Marc Antoine Louis Claret de Fleurieu de (1729-1793). French. Writer, naturalist and collector.
Laugier (?-?). Friend of François Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages living in Leiden?
Lawson, Isaac (?-1747). British. Scottish botanist and physician.
Laxman, Erik (1738-1796). Swedish. Lutheran pastor at the Kolyvanian mines and ironworks in Siberia. Professor and councellor of the Russian Board of Mines, St Peterburg.
Layard, Daniel Peter (?-1802). British. Physician.
Le Monnier, Louis Guillaume (?-?). French. Physician and naturalist. Professor of botany at the Jardin des plantes in Paris. Personal physician of Louis XV.
Le Monnier, Pierre-Charles (1715-1799). French. Astronomer. Member of the French expedition to Lapland in 1736-1737 to determine the shape of the earth.
Leche, Johan (1704-1764). Swedish. Botanist, plant collector and physician. Studied the flora of Scania. His herbarium was bought by Joseph Banks. Professor of medicine at Åbo.
Lecluse, Charles de (1525-1609). French. Botanist, director of the imperial gardens in Vienna, professor at Leiden. Also known as Clusius.
Lee, James (1715-1795). British. Market gardener, Hammersmith (London).
Leetström, Peter (1712-1748). Swedish. Physician of the court. Assessor of the Collegium Medicum.
Lehmann, Johann Gottlieb (?-1767). German. Mineralogist. Professor of chemistry and director of the Natural History Museum of St Petersburg.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von (1646-1716). German. Philosopher
Leopoldinisch-Carolinische Akademie der Naturforscher. The Leopoldine-Caroline Academy of naturalists was founded in 1652 in Schweinfurt, Germany. From 1670 it published the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physico Academiae naturae curiosorum sive Ephemerides Germanicae, often just called Ephemerides, the first medical and natural history periodical. Also known as Academia Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolina Naturae Curiosorum.
Lerche, Johann Jacob (1703-1780). German. Naturalist. Military physician in Russian service at Astrakan. Travelled in Persia.
Leske, Nathanael Gottfried (1757-1786). German. Professor of economy at Leipzig, later of natural history at Marburg.
Lesser, Friedrich Christian (1692-1754). German. Naturalist, clergyman, Nordhausen.
Lettsom, John Coakley (1744-1815). British. Physician, London. Born on the Little van Dyke island in the West Indies.
Lexell, Anders Johan (1740-1784). Swedish. Astronomer, mathematician. Professor of astronomy at St Petersburg. Succeded Leonard Euler as professor of mathematics at the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg.
Leysser, Friedrich Wilhelm A. (1731-1815). German. Counsellor of war to the king of Prussia.
Lidbeck, Erik Gustaf (1724-1803). Swedish. Professor of natural history and economy at Lund. Studied under Linnaeus. Accompanied Linnaeus as secretary on his Västgöta journey in 1746.
Lidenius, Abraham (?-1728). Swedish. Clergyman. In 1712 minister at the Swedish congregation in Pennsylvania. In 1726 dean in Umeå.
Lidenius, Johan Abraham (?-1768). Swedish. Clergyman. In 1755 minister at the Swedish congregation in Pennsylvania. Son of Abraham Lidenius.
Lieberkühn, Johann Natanael (1711-1756). German. Physician, Berlin.
Lilliestråle, Joachim Wilhelm (1721-1807). Swedish. Chancellor of justice, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Lilljenberg, Jean Georg (1713-1798). Swedish. Count, governor of the province of Åbo and Björneborg (Finland). President of the Bergskollegium. Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Lind, James (?-1794). British. Physician.
Lindecrantz, Erik Magnus (1729-1788). Swedish. Physician. Also known as Lindcrantz.
Lindern, Franz Balthasar von (?-?). German. Botanist
Lindgren, Elias (?-?). Swedish.
Lindwall, Johan (1743-1796). Swedish. Physician and botanist. Student at Åbo under Pehr Adrian Gadd and Pehr Kalm and at Uppsala under Linnaeus. Provincial physician of the province of Blekinge.
Linnaea, Christina Brodersonia (1688-1733). Swedish. Linnaeusís mother, married to Nils Linnaeus.
Linnaeus, Carl (1707-1778). Swedish. Also known as Carl von Linné.
Linnaeus, Nils Ingemarsson (1674-1748). Swedish. Vicar of Stenbrohult, Småland. Linnaeusís father.
Linnaeus, Samuel (1718-1797). Swedish. Dean of Stenbrohult. Linnaeusís brother.
Linnaeus, Sara Lisa (1716-1806). Swedish. Linnaeusís wife. Daughter of Johan Moraeus and Elisabet Hansdotter Moraea. Also known as Sara Lisa Moraea.
Linnaeus the Younger, Carl (1741-1783). Swedish. Botanist. Linnaeusís son and successor. Attended his fatherís lectures, had private tutors (Löfling, Rolander, Solander and Falk, all Linnaeusís students). Demonstrator of botany at Uppsala. Also known as Carl von Linné the Younger.
Linné-trädgården. The Uppsala University Botanical Garden was founded by Olof Rudbeck the Elder in 1655. Also known as Hortus botanicus Upsaliensis.
Lischwitz, Johann Christopher (1693-1743). German. Professor of botany at Leipzig, later professor of medicine at Kiel.
List, Georg Diedrich Carl (?-1789). German. Doctor of medicine.
Lithén, Mårten (1706-1776). Swedish. Physician. Professor of medicine at Uppsala.
Ljungberg, Jonas (?-1761). Swedish. Clergyman, Umeå. Brother-in-law of Petrus Artedi.
Loeselius, Johannes (1607-1655). German. Botanist and physician. Professor of medicine in Königsberg 1639-1655.
Löfling, Pehr (1729-1756). Swedish. Botanist and explorer. Studied under Linnaeus. Went to Spain in 1751 and took part in the Spanish expedition to Venezuela in 1754, where he died.
Logan, James (1674-1751). American. Governor of Pennsylvania. Amateur naturalist and scientist. Published works on astronomy, botany and optics.
Logie, Alexander (?-?). Swedish. Lived in Algier. Brother of Fredrik Logie.
Logie, Fredrik (1739-1785). Swedish. Studied under Linnaeus in Uppsala. Army officer. Forwarded to Linnaeus the natural history specimens sent by his brother Alexander from Algier.
Loten, Johan Gid. (?-?). Dutch. Governor of Ceylon.
Louis XIV, king of France (1638-1715). French. Reigned 1661-1715.
Louis XV, king of France (1710-1774). French. Reigned 1715-1774.
Lovisa Ulrika, queen of Sweden (1720-1782). Swedish. Sister of Fredric II of Prussia. Married to Adolf Fredrik. Mother of Gustav III.
Löwenhielm, Carl Gustaf (1701-1768). Swedish. Nobleman, politician and public official, member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Luchtmans, Johannes (1726-1809). Dutch. Bookseller and publisher at Leiden. Together with his brother Samuel he took over his fatherís bookshop and publishing house in 1755.
Luchtmans, Samuel (1725-1780). Dutch. Bookseller and publisher. Together with his brother Johannes he took over his fatherís bookshop and publishing house at Leiden in 1755.
Ludolf the Elder, Job (1624-1704). Orientalist from Erfurt.
Ludolff, Michael Matthias (1705-1756). German. Professor of botany and medicine, Berlin.
Ludwig, Christian Gottlieb (1709-1773). German. Physician. Professor of medicine in Leipzig. One of Linnaeusís early opponents.
Ludwig, Gerard, the Younger (?-?).
Lunds Universitet. The University of Lund was founded in 1686.
Lunell, Christian (?-?). Swedish. Teacher at Kristianstad.
[sito web non rintracciabile
web page now not found]