Hylophilus amaurocephalus  GREY-EYED GREENLET.  Dry woods, scrubby pastures, forest edge.  Lowlands to 1800 m of e Brazil, from Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba and Bahia s to ne São Paulo and c Minas Gerais.
Hylophilus poicilotis  RUFOUS-CROWNED GREENLET.  Humid forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1800 m of n Bolivia, e Paraguay, n Argentina and s Brazil.  H. amaurocephalus and H. poicilotis differ in eye and bill color and vocalizations and are sympatric in s Minas Gerais and ne São Paulo (Willis 1991. Wilson Bull. 103:559-567).
Hylophilus thoracicus  LEMON-CHESTED GREENLET.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 750 m e of Andes in e Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas, e Peru, n Bolivia and w Amazonian and se Brazil from the upper Amazon basin e to w Pará and s to Acre, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, se Minas Gerais.

Hylophilus semicinereus  GREY-CHESTED GREENLET.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 400 m in e Colombia, s Venezuela, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil and extreme ne Bolivia.
Hylophilus pectoralis  ASHY-HEADED GREENLET.  Dense humid forest, edge, woods, towns, mangroves.  Lowlands to 400 m in e Venezuela, Guianas, n Bolivia and Amazonian,c Brazil.
Hylophilus sclateri  TEPUI GREENLET.  Humid forest.  Pantepui, 600-2000 m in s Venezuela, w Guyana and adjacent n Brazil on Cerro Uei-tepui.
Hylophilus muscicapinus  BUFF-CHEEKED GREENLET.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1100 m in s Venezuela, Guianas and Amazonian and c Brazil and ne Bolivia in ne Santa Cruz.  Incl. griseifrons.

Hylophilus brunneiceps  BROWN-HEADED GREENLET.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 400 m in se Colombia, s Venezuela and w Amazonian Brazil.  Populations of "inornatus" formerly included in brunneiceps are now considered considered conspecific with H. hypoxanthus, below.
Hylophilus hypoxanthus  DUSKY-CAPPED GREENLET.  Humid forest, second growth, fields.  Lowlands to 1200 m e of Andes from se Colombia and s Venezuela s to e Ecuador, e,c Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Hylophilus semibrunneus  RUFOUS-NAPED GREENLET.  Humid forest edge, second growth.  Foothills and mts., 400-2100 m in Colombia, nw Venezuela and e Ecuador.

Hylophilus aurantiifrons  GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET.  Forest, woods, mangroves, second growth.  Lowlands to 1900 m in Panama, n,e Colombia, w,n Venezuela and Trinidad.
Hylophilus flavipes  SCRUB GREENLET.  Arid scrub, thickets, mangroves, second growth, woods.  Lowlands to 1200 m in sw Costa Rica and Panama, incl. Coiba I.; lowlands to 1000 m in n,e Colombia, Venezuela (exc. Amazonas and c,s Bolívar, but incl. Margarita I.) and Tobago.  Geographic variation in song and eye color suggests that more than one species may be involved.
Hylophilus olivaceus  OLIVACEOUS GREENLET.  Woods, second growth, thickets.  Andes, 600-2500 m in e Ecuador and n Peru.
Hylophilus ochraceiceps  TAWNY-CROWNED GREENLET.  Humid forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1600 m from ne Oaxaca and s Veracruz (absent from Yucatán Pen.) s on the Gulf-Caribbean slope to Nicaragua; both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and from W,e Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of the Andes to e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil, n and s of the Amazon.  Geographic variation in eye color suggests that more than one species may be involved, but correlated behavioral differences are unknown.

Hylophilus decurtatus  LESSER GREENLET.  Forest edge, open woods.  Lowlands to 1500 m from e San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, ne Puebla, n Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche and Quintana Roo s to c Panama, w,n Colombia, w Ecuador and nw Peru.

 The minor subspecies group formerly was treated as a species, but intergrades with the decurtatus group in Panama.


Androphobus viridis  PAPUAN WHIPBIRD.  Forest.  Mts., 1400-2750 m in the Snow and Weyland mts. of w New Guinea.
Psophodes olivaceus  EASTERN WHIPBIRD.  Thickets in or near wet forest.  Ne Queensland from Cooktown and Atherton Tableland s to Townsville; from se Queensland n to Rockhampton area and s through e New S. Wales to se Victoria, w to Melbourne.  Incl. lateralis.
Psophodes nigrogularis  WESTERN WHIPBIRD.  Dense coastal thickets and mallee scrub.  Sw W. Australia, formerly n to Perth, now restricted to a few localities near Albany; se S. Australia (Eyre Peninsula, York Peninsula, Kangaroo I.) and extreme nw Victoria.

Psophodes occidentalis  CHIMING WEDGEBILL.  Mulga, arid scrub, savanna.  Arid w,c Australia from cs,c W. Australia between latitudes 20° and 30°S, e through s N. Territory and nw S. Australia (e to Oodnadatta) to extreme cw Queensland.  Previously placed in Sphenostoma.
Psophodes cristatus  CHIRRUPING WEDGEBILL.  Mulga, arid scrub, savanna.  Arid interior Australia in ne S. Australia (w to Oodnadatta), sw Queensland (e to Cunnamulla), w New S. Wales (e to Darling River) and extreme nw Victoria.
Cinclosoma punctatum  SPOTTED QUAIL-THRUSH.  Dry woods, stony hillsides in scrub.  Locally in se Australia from se Queensland (n to Rockhampton) s through e New S. Wales and s Victoria to se S. Australia, w to the Mt. Lofty Range; Tasmania.

Cinclosoma castanotus  CHESTNUT QUAIL-THRUSH.  Dry eucalypt woods, mallee, stony shrubland.  From sw W. Australia, n on the coast to Shark Bay but absent from sw and Nullarbor Plain; e across s N. Territory and n S. Australia to c,sw New S. Wales (e to area nw of Canberra) and nw Victoria.
 Hybridizes with C. cinnamomeum.

Cinclosoma castaneothorax  CHESTNUT-BREASTED QUAIL-THRUSH.  Arid scrub in sandy or stony areas, mulga woods, spinifex, saltbush.

 Usually considered conspecific with C. cinnamomeum, but there appear to be two species in this complex, with alisteri conspecific with C. cinnamomeum; see below.

 C. c. marginatum.  C Australia in c W. Australia in a narrow band w to Shark Bay; extreme sw N. Territory and extreme nw S. Australia.
 C. c. castaneothorax.  Sc Queensland n to Windorah and Blackall, and nc New S. Wales, s to Bourke.

Cinclosoma cinnamomeum  CINNAMON QUAIL-THRUSH.  Arid acacia, spinifex, saltbush.

 C. c. cinnamomeum.  N,ne Australia in cs,se N. Territory, cn,ne S. Australia, extreme sw Queensland n to Boulia, and extreme nw New S. Wales.
 C. c. alisteri.  Nullarbor Plain of se W. Australia and sw S. Australia.

Cinclosoma ajax  PAINTED QUAIL-THRUSH.  Forest floor.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m of w,c,se New Guinea on the w shores of Geelvink Bay and Triton Bay; Fly and Oriomo river valleys; from Hall Sound to Milne Bay.
Ptilorrhoa leucosticta  SPOTTED JEWEL-BABBLER.  Forest floor.  Mts., 1200-2600 m of New Guinea in the Tamrau, Arfak, Wandammen, Snow, Cyclops and Saruwaged mts., and the se ranges.
Ptilorrhoa caerulescens  BLUE JEWEL-BABBLER.  Forest floor.  Lowlands to 800 m on the w Papuan island of Misool and New Guinea.
Ptilorrhoa castanonota  CHESTNUT-BACKED JEWEL-BABBLER.  Forest floor.  Lower mt. slopes, 350-1450 m on the w Papuan island of Batanta and on New Guinea, including Yapen I.
Eupetes macrocerus  MALAYSIAN RAIL-BABBLER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1200 m of peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Ifrita kowaldi  IFRIT.  Forest tree trunks, branches.  Mts., 1450-2900 m of c,e New Guinea w to theWeyland Mts.  Affinities uncertain.


Corcorax melanorhamphus  WHITE-WINGED CHOUGH.  Forest, woods, roadsides.  From c Queensland n to middle Burdekin River, s through New S. Wales (mostly inland, absent from extreme nw) to Victoria and w through s S. Australia to extreme se W. Australia near Madura.
Struthidea cinerea  APOSTLEBIRD.  Open forest, woods.  Interior e Australia from nc N. Territory (an isolated population?) and n Queensland n to Staaten River and Atherton Tableland, s to n Victoria and se S. Australia, w to Mt. Lofty range and Adelaide.

Daphoenositta chrysoptera  VARIED SITTELLA.  Woods, forest, mallee, acacia scrub, towns. 

Geographic variation is complex and was the basis for dividing this species into several in the past. 
The Australian races are well-marked and often treated as species, but they interbreed in areas of contact.  
Daphoenositta has priority over Neositta as the generic name.

 D. c. papuensis.  Mts., 1050-2650 of New Guinea.
 D. c. leucoptera.  From the Kimberleys in ne W. Australia e across N. Territory (except extreme s) to nw,cw Queensland e to Winton.
 D. c. striata.  N Queensland from the Cape York Peninsula s to Normanton and Townsville.
 D. c. pileata.  W. Australia, exc. nw, e across extreme s N. Territory and S. Australia to sw Queensland, w New S. Wales and w Victoria.
 D. c. leucocephala.  Se Queensland n to Blackall and Mackay and ne New S. Wales s to the Clarence River.
 D. c. chrysoptera.  Extreme cs interior Queensland, e New S. Wales except ne, and c,e Victoria.  Includes albata known only from ne Queensland by 19th Century specimens.

Daphoenositta miranda  BLACK SITTELLA.  Trees, mossy forest.  Locally in mts., 1950-3650 m of c,e New Guinea in the Oranje and Nassau ranges, c highlands, and se ranges.


Mohoua albicilla  WHITEHEAD.  Forest, second growth.  New Zealand: s N. Island, Great and Little Barrier is., Arid, Kapiti is.  Sometimes lumped with ochrocephala.
Mohoua ochrocephala  YELLOWHEAD.  Forest.  New Zealand: South Island and Stewart Island.
Mohoua novaeseelandiae  PIPIPI.  Forest, second growth, exotic pines.  New Zealand: South Island and Stewart Island.  
Usually placed in Finschia
DNA hybridization suggests inclusion in Mohoua.


Falcunculus frontatus  CRESTED SHRIKE-TIT.  Dry forest, woods.  Locally in cn Australia in the Kimberleys in ne W. Australia and n N. Territory; from ne Queensland n to Atherton Tableland, s to s Victoria and se S. Australia, w to Yorke Peninsula; sw W. Australia from Geraldton and Norseman s to Albany.
Oreoica gutturalis  CRESTED BELLBIRD.  Dry woods, scrub, edge, mallee.  Arid regions of Australia and Tasmania, but absent from tropical and other wet areas.
Rhagologus leucostigma  MOTTLED WHISTLER.  Low forest trees, undergrowth.  Main mt. ranges, 1100-2900 m of New Guinea.


Pachycare flavogrisea  GOLDENFACE.  Forest.  Mts. 400-1750 m of New Guinea, but absent from the Bomberai Peninsula and the Cyclops and Adelbert mts.  Affinities unclear; may belong in the Petroicidae.
Hylocitrea bonensis  OLIVE-FLANKED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts. above 1200 m of Sulawesi.
Coracornis raveni  MAROON-BACKED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1600-2200 m of Sulawesi, exc. s.
Aleadryas rufinucha  RUFOUS-NAPED WHISTLER.  Forest undergrowth, ground.  Mts., 1350-3600 m of New Guinea.
Pachycephala olivacea  OLIVE WHISTLER.  Moist forest, thickets.  From extreme se Queensland in the McPherson Range, s through e New S. Wales and s Victoria to extreme se S. Australia; Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait.

Pachycephala rufogularis  RED-LORED WHISTLER.  Whipstick mallee and porcupine grass (Triodia).  Locally in sw New S. Wales e to Cocoparra Natl. Park; se S Australia near Bordertown and nw Victoria s to Whyperfeld Natl. Park.
Pachycephala inornata  GILBERT'S WHISTLER.  Dry mallee, mulga woods.  Locally in a narrow band from sw W. Australia w to Albany area, e through s S. Australia to sc New S. Wales, ne to Gilgandra, and n Victoria.
Pachycephala grisola  MANGROVE WHISTLER.  Mangroves, coastal forest, towns, scrub.  Lowlands to 1000 m, mostly coastal, from se India w to w Bengal and Bangladesh; s through w,s Burma, Andaman Is., and coastal se Asia, s to Malaya and e to s Vietnam and adj. islands, to Sumatra, Java, Borneo and most adj. islands n to the N. Natuna Is., e to Kangean Is., Bali and Lombok; Palawan I.(Philippines).

Pachycephala albiventris  GREEN-BACKED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Up to 2000 m on n,sc Luzon and Mindoro islands in the n,nc Philippines.
Pachycephala homeyeri  WHITE-VENTED WHISTLER.  Woods, scrub.  C,s Philippine islands of Cebu, Masbate, Negros, Panay, Sibuyan, Tablas, Ticao and Sulu Archipelago.
Pachycephala phaionotus  ISLAND WHISTLER.  Coastal scrub, mangroves.  Coastal lowlands in the n Moluccas on small islands from Mayu s to Moti and Damar, Banda and Seram Laut; Kai Is., Aru Is., and w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Kofiau, Schilpad, Salawati and Misool; and small islands in Geelvink Bay off nw New Guinea.

Pachycephala hyperythra  RUSTY WHISTLER.  Forest.  Lowlands, 200-1350 m in the Vogelkop; Wandammen and Weyland mts.; Huon Peninsula; and se ranges of New Guinea.
Pachycephala modesta  BROWN-BACKED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1450-3500 m from the Victor Emanuel Mts. e to the se ranges of New Guinea.
Pachycephala hypoxantha  BORNEAN WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 850-2450 m of Borneo.
Pachycephala sulfuriventer  SULPHUR-BELLIED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-2500 m of Sulawesi.
Pachycephala philippinensis  YELLOW-BELLIED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Philippine islands of Calayan, Camiguin Norte, Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Siquijor, Mindanao and Basilan.

Pachycephala meyeri  VOGELKOP WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 950-2550 in the Arfak and Tamrau mts. of w New Guinea; probably also in the Foya Mts.
Pachycephala griseiceps  GREY-HEADED WHISTLER.  Forest, mangroves, coastal scrub.  Lowlands to 1550 m in the Kai Is., Aru Is., and the w Papuan is. of Waigeo, Gebe, Batanta, Salawati, Misool, Gag; New Guinea incl. Meos Num and Yapen is.; D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Tagula I. in the Louisiade Arch.; ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula to Atherton Tableland and Rockingham Bay, incl. Hinchinbrook I.  Sometimes lumped with simplex, but they differ morphologically and vocally.
Pachycephala simplex  BROWN WHISTLER.  Forest, mangroves.  Coastally in the n N. Territory of Australia from Port Keats e to Melville I. and Groote Eylandt.

Pachycephala orpheus  FAWN-BREASTED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Up to 1200 m on Timor and Wetar islands in the Lesser Sundas.
Pachycephala pectoralis  GOLDEN WHISTLER. 

The populations of the Golden Whistler compose one of the most complex avian assemblages in the world.  
It includes more than 60 subspecies and the status of several taxa remains unclear. 
The subspecies vary more among themselves than do the species of many genera.  P. melanura often has been included in pectoralis and the separate status of soror is doubtful.  P. caledonica is probably conspecific with pectoralis P. balim may be a separate species, although often placed in pectoralis.  Because many are isolated on different islands some taxonomists might treat many populations as allospecies. 
The following geographic distributions are described under subspecific names but represent groups of subspecies.

 P. p. pectoralis.  Forest, second growth, mallee.  Larger islands and mainland areas from the Moluccas and islands off e,
s Sulawesi to e Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiade Arch., Bismarck Arch., Admiralty, Solomon, Santa Cruz, Banks and Loyalty is., Fiji, Vanuatu, Lord Howe Is., and sw,e,s Australia from ne Queensland near Cooktown, s through e New S. Wales to Victoria and se S. Australia, and Tasmania.
 P. p. balim.  Oranje Mts., 1375-2350 m on the n slopes of Mt. Wilhelmina in c New Guinea.
 P. p. xanthoprocta.  Norfolk Island.

Pachycephala soror  SCLATER'S WHISTLER.  Forest.  Main mt. ranges, 600-2450 m, usually between 1100-1900 m, of New Guinea and Goodenough I.
Pachycephala lorentzi  LORENTZ'S WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts. 1750-3675 m from the Snow Mts. e to Victor Emanuel and Hindenburg mts. of c New Guinea.
Pachycephala melanura  BLACK-TAILED WHISTLER.  Mangroves, coastal forest, second growth.  Coastal areas and small islands in s,se New Guinea from Merauke to Milne Bay incl. islands off the se; Bismarck Arch. from Long I. e mostly on smaller is. to Lihir and Nissan is; Whitney I. off Bougainville in the Solomon Is., islands in the Torres Strait; nw,n Australia from the Kimberleys in ne W. Australia e through n N. Territory to ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula se at least to Bowen and possibly farther on small islands; coastal nw W. Australia from King Sound to N.W. Cape.  Hybridizes with pectoralis on Whitney I. off s Bougainville.

Pachycephala caledonica  NEW CALEDONIAN WHISTLER.  Forest.  New Caledonia.  Closely related to pectoralis.
Pachycephala flavifrons  SAMOAN WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, towns.  On the w Samoan islands of Upolu and Savaii.
Pachycephala jacquinoti  TONGAN WHISTLER.  Low scrub, open forest.  On Vavau I. in the n Tonga Is.  Often lumped with pectoralis.
Pachycephala schlegelii  REGENT WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1350-3675 m from the Vogelkop to the se ranges of New Guinea; except the Adelbert Mts.  Sympatric with pectoralis and soror.

Pachycephala nudigula  BARE-THROATED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m on Sumbawa and Flores is. in the w Lesser Sunda Is.
Pachycephala implicata  HOODED WHISTLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-2450 m on Bougainville and Guadalcanal islands in the Solomon Is.
Pachycephala aurea  GOLDEN-BACKED WHISTLER.  Riparian second growth.  Foothills to 750 m on the s slopes of the Weyland and Snow mts.; n slopes from upper Ramu River to the Waria River; also the central ranges and the se ranges of New Guinea.
Pachycephala griseonota  DRAB WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, mangroves.  Sula Is. (e of Sulawesi); from Morotai s to Buru and Seram in the Moluccas; and the Kai Is. of Tual and Kai Cecil.

Pachycephala arctitorquis  WALLACEAN WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, mangroves.  Lesser Sunda islands of Romang, Moa, Damar and Babar; Tanimbar Is.; Tayandu I. in the Kai Is.
Pachycephala monacha  BLACK-HEADED WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, mangroves.  Up to 1600 m in the Aru Is.; c New Guinea usually above 750 m. from the Snow Mts. to the Owen Stanley Mts.
Pachycephala leucogastra  WHITE-BELLIED WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, mangroves.  Up to 600 m of cn,se New Guinea in the Sepik-Ramu river drainage; from Hall Sound to Port Moresby, incl. Rossel I.
Pachycephala rufiventris  RUFOUS WHISTLER.  Forest, woods, mangroves.  Lowlands in Australia (except Tasmania) and New Caledonia.

Pachycephala lanioides  WHITE-BREASTED WHISTLER.  Mangroves along tidal creeks.  Coastal n Australia from cw W. Australia s to Carnarvon, e to nw Queensland to Normanton.
Colluricincla umbrina  SOOTY SHRIKE-THRUSH.  Forest undergrowth.  Mts., 1450-2150 m in the Weyland, Snow, Hindenburg and Schrader mts. of c New Guinea.  This species formerly known as Pachycephala tenebrosa.
Colluricincla megarhyncha  LITTLE SHRIKE-THRUSH.  Forest, edge, undergrowth, mangroves.  Lowlands to 2150 m in New Guinea and adjacent islands; coastal ne Australia from ne Queensland s to ne New S. Wales; ne W. Australia w to n Kimberleys and n N. Territory e to Melville I. and Groote Eylandt.

Colluricincla boweri  BOWER'S SHRIKE-THRUSH.  Humid forest.  Highlands, usually above 300 m in ne Queensland on the Atherton Tableland from Cooktown to Townsville area.
Colluricincla woodwardi  SANDSTONE SHRIKE-THRUSH.  Cliffs, gorges, boulders in sandstone areas.  Locally in ne W. Australia w to Derby, nc,ne N. Territory and extreme nw Queensland.
Colluricincla harmonica  GREY SHRIKE-THRUSH.  Open forest, savanna, second growth, towns.  Up to 600 m, rarely higher, in e New Guinea w to the Ramu River and Merauke; Australia from Queensland s through c,e New S. Wales to Victoria and S. Australia w to Lake Eyre, Spencer Gulf, Yorke Peninsula and Kangaroo I.; Tasmania; W. Australia w to Broome and N. Territory e to Melville I. and Groote Eylandt and w Queensland.

Colluricincla tenebrosa  MORNINGBIRD.  Forest undergrowth, second growth.  Palau Is. from Babelthuap s to Peleliu.
Pitohui kirhocephalus  VARIABLE PITOHUI.  Thickets, forest.  Up to 1500 m in the Aru Is., w Papuan is. of Waigeo, Batanta and Salawati; New Guinea, incl. islands in Geelvink Bay, but absent from n slope between Collingwood Bay and Ramu River, and from the Huon Peninsula.
Pitohui dichrous  HOODED PITOHUI.  Forest edge, second growth.  Mts., 600-1700 m of New Guinea incl. Yapen I., locally to sea level where kirhocephalus is absent.
Pitohui incertus  WHITE-BELLIED PITOHUI.  Forest.  Up to 100 m of s New Guinea from the Noord River to the upper Fly River.

Pitohui ferrugineus  RUSTY PITOHUI.  Forest.  Up to 1000 m in the Aru Is.; w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Misool, and New Guinea incl. Yapen I.
Pitohui cristatus  CRESTED PITOHUI.  Forest.  Locally in mts., 400-1300 m, occasionally to sea level, of New Guinea in the Arfak Mts., Onin Peninsula; from the Weyland and Snow mts. to the c highlands and se ranges; lowlands near the Fly River.
Pitohui nigrescens  BLACK PITOHUI.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-2600 m of New Guinea from the Vogelkop to the se ranges.
Eulacestoma nigropectus  WATTLED PLOUGHBILL.  Forest undergrowth, thickets.  Mts. 1650-2750 m of New Guinea from the Weyland and Snow mts. to the Owen Stanley Mts.

*Turnagra capensis  PIOPIO.  Extinct.  New Zealand.  Affinities uncertain.

Subfamily CORVINAE

Platylophus galericulatus  CRESTED JAY.  Forest.  Up to 1000 m in the Malay Peninsula; Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.
Platysmurus leucopterus  BLACK MAGPIE.  Forest.  Up to 1000 m in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus  PINYON JAY.  Pinyon-juniper woods, pinyon-yellow pine.  C Oregon, s Idaho, ec Montana and w S. Dakota s to n Baja Calif., s Nevada, nw,ec Arizona, c New Mexico and w Oklahoma.  Occasionally irruptive in dispersal outside breeding range to coastal Calif., w Oregon, w Washington, sw British Columbia, n Idaho, nw Montana, w Great Plains, c Texas, se Arizona and nw Mexico.
Cyanocitta cristata  BLUE JAY.  Deciduous forest, woods, open forest, towns.  From ec British Columbia and c,se Alberta e across s Canada to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, s mainly e of the Rockies, to c,se Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida, exc. Florida Keys.  Occasional hybrids with stelleri in areas of contact in the e Rockies.

Cyanocitta stelleri  STELLER'S JAY.  Forest, usually coniferous, pine-oak woods.  From sc,se Alaska, w,se British Columbia, sw Alberta, w Montana, Wyoming, n Colorado and w Nebraska s to s California, Arizona, and through highlands, 1350-3350 m of Middle America (exc. Belize) to nc Nicaragua and e to ec Colorado, c New Mexico and w Texas.  See cristata.

 Most species and subspecies of Aphelocoma are not cooperative breeders, for exceptions see below.

Aphelocoma insularis  SANTA CRUZ JAY.  Chaparral, oak riparian woods.  Santa Cruz I. off s California.  Often treated as a subspecies of A. californica.
Aphelocoma californica  SCRUB JAY.  Riparian brush, scrub, woods, chaparral, pinyon-juniper, pine-oak, towns.

 A. c. californica.  From sw Washington s through w,c Oregon, Calif. and nw,wc Nevada to s Baja Calif.
 A. c. woodhouseii.  From se Oregon, s Idaho, w,s Colorado and w Oklahoma s to s Arizona and w,wc Texas, and Mexican highlands, 1000-2000 m to ne Sonora, Jalisco, c Guanajuato, México, Distrito Federal and Hidalgo.
 Peterson (1991. Condor 93:935-942) examined over 2600 specimens from southern and eastern California, southern Nevada and western Arizona, thus in the area where californica and woodhouseii are closest to one another.  Most intermediates came from the west side of the Owens Valley in eastern California, where the ranges of the two forms are separated by a barrier of unsuitable desert habitat.  Only a few specimens were intermediate and the rate of gene flow must be low.  These data might be used to support arguments both pro and con in relation to the taxonomic status of these populations.

 A. c. sumichrasti.  Highlands, 1000-2000 m of c Mexico from Tlaxcala and wc Veracruz s through Puebla to Oaxaca w of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.  May be a separate species.
 Burt and Peterson (1993. Auk 110:207-214) studied  a population of Aphelocoma cf. coerulescens (= A. californica sumichrasti in the present arrangement) in Oaxaca and found them to be cooperative breeders.

Aphelocoma coerulescens  FLORIDA JAY.  Scrubby woods.  Locally in c peninsular Florida.  Cooperative breeders.
Aphelocoma ultramarina  MEXICAN JAY.  Oak woods, pine-oak, juniper, scrub, dense second growth.  Highlands, 1200-1800 m from c Arizona, sw New Mexico, n Chihuahua, w Texas, n Coahuila, c Nuevo León and wc Tamaulipas
s to Colima, n Michoacán, México, n Morelos, Puebla and wc Veracruz.

Aphelocoma unicolor  UNICOLORED JAY.  Humid forest, pine-oak, dense second growth.  Mts., 1500-3400 m in sc Guerrero, México, Hidalgo, w Puebla, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras.  Some Mexican populations are genetically distinctive on the basis of allozyme comparisons, but those south of Mexico have not been studied.
Cyanolyca armillata  BLACK-COLLARED JAY.  Forest.  Andes, 1600-3250 m in Colombia, nw Venezuela and n Ecuador.
Cyanolyca turcosa  TURQUOISE JAY.  Forest.  Andes, 1500-3100 m in se Colombia, w,e Ecuador and nw Peru.
Cyanolyca viridicyana  WHITE-COLLARED JAY.  Forest.  Andes, 1700-3400 m in e Peru, n to Amazonas, and wc Bolivia in La Paz and Cochabamba provinces.

Cyanolyca cucullata  AZURE-HOODED JAY.  Humid forest, edge, oak woods.  Mts. 900-2100 m, from se San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, Veracruz, n,se Oaxaca and interior Chiapas s through Guatemala to w Honduras; Costa Rica, and w Panama.
Cyanolyca pulchra  BEAUTIFUL JAY.  Forest.  Andes, 900-2300 m in sw Colombia and w Ecuador.
Cyanolyca pumilo  BLACK-THROATED JAY.  Humid forest, pine-oak woods.  Mts., 1200-3050 m in Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras.
Cyanolyca nana  DWARF JAY.  Humid pine-oak and fir forest.  Mts. above 1500 m of se Mexico in Veracruz, Puebla and Oaxaca.
Cyanolyca mirabilis  WHITE-THROATED JAY.  Humid pine-oak forest.  Mts. to 3500 m of sw Mexico in Guerrero and Oaxaca.

Cyanolyca argentigula  SILVERY-THROATED JAY.  Humid forest, edge.  Mts. above 1200 m in Costa Rica and w Panama.
Cyanocorax melanocyaneus  BUSHY-CRESTED JAY.  Humid forest edge, woods, pine-oak, scrub.  Up to 2450 m in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and nc Nicaragua.
Cyanocorax sanblasianus  SAN BLAS JAY.  Open woods, coastal scrub, mangroves.  Pacific lowlands of w Mexico from Nayarit to w Guerrero.  C. sanblasianus, yucatanicus and beecheii  have been variously lumped, especially the first two, but they are allopatric and differ in behavior and morphology.
Cyanocorax yucatanicus  YUCATAN JAY.  Deciduous woods, coastal scrub.  Gulf-Caribbean lowlands up to 100 m in Tabasco, Yucatán Peninsula, n Guatemala and Belize.

Cyanocorax beecheii  PURPLISH-BACKED JAY.  Arid thorn scrub.  Pacific lowlands to 500 m of nw Mexico in s Sonora, Sinaloa and Nayarit.
Cyanocorax cyanomelas  PURPLISH JAY.  Woods.  Up to 2000 m e of the Andes in se Peru, n,e Bolivia, Paraguay, sw Brazil and ne Argentina.
Cyanocorax caeruleus  AZURE JAY.  Forest.  Up to 1000 m in se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Cyanocorax violaceus  VIOLACEOUS JAY.  Riverine woods, second growth.  Up to 1350 m e of the Andes from e Colombia, w,s Venezuela and sw Guyana s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Cyanocorax cristatellus  CURL-CRESTED JAY.  Low, thick woods.  Tableland to 1100 m in c,e Brazil, ne Bolivia and extreme ne Paraguay.

Cyanocorax heilprini  AZURE-NAPED JAY.  Humid forest, edge, savanna.  Up to 300 m e of the Andes in se Colombia, s Venezuela and nw Brazil.
Cyanocorax cayanus  CAYENNE JAY.  Humid forest, savanna.  Up to 1100 m e of the Andes in se Venezuela, Guianas and nw Brazil.
Cyanocorax affinis  BLACK-CHESTED JAY.  Humid forest, edge, woods.  Up to 2200 m in se Costa Rica, Panama, w,c,n Colombia and nw Venezuela.
Cyanocorax dickeyi  TUFTED JAY.  Humid forest, dense growth, pine-oak woods.  W slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental, 1350-2150 m in se Sinaloa, sw Durango and ne Nayarit.

Cyanocorax chrysops  PLUSH-CRESTED JAY.  Woods, low thick scrub.  Up to 2200 m e of the Andes in n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, n Argentina and Uruguay.
Cyanocorax cyanopogon  WHITE-NAPED JAY.  Woods, scrub.  Tableland to 1100 m in e Brazil.  Sometimes considered conspecific with chrysops.
Cyanocorax mystacalis  WHITE-TAILED JAY.  Arid scrub, dry forest, mesquite woods.  Up to 1200 m in the Pacific lowlands of sw Ecuador and nw Peru.

Cyanocorax yncas  GREEN JAY.  Humid forest, edge, dense second growth, pine-oak, scrub.
 The widely allopatric populations of Central America (luxuosus) and South America (yncas) sometimes have been treated as species.
 C. y. luxuosus.  Up to 1800 m from Nayarit, Nuevo León and s Texas, s on the Pacific slope to w Guatemala, and on the Gulf-Caribbean slope to Belize, e Guatemala and ne Honduras.
 C. y. yncas.  Mts. 900-3000 m from Colombia and w,n Venezuela s, mostly on the e slope of the Andes, through e Ecuador and c,e Peru to wc Bolivia.

Psilorhinus morio  BROWN JAY.  Open woods, forest edge, scrub.  From se Texas, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas s, incl. Yucatán Peninsula, to Costa Rica and nw Panama.  Includes C. mexicanus, formerly treated as a separate species but now considered to be a color morph.
Calocitta colliei  BLACK-THROATED MAGPIE-JAY.  Arid scrub, thorn forest, brush, open woods.  Pacific lowlands to 1650 m from s Sonora and w Chihuahua s to Nayarit, Jalisco and, possibly Guanajuato.  Often lumped with formosa.
Calocitta formosa  WHITE-THROATED MAGPIE-JAY.  Open woods, arid scrub, brush, mostly in semi-arid regions.  Pacific lowlands to 1250 m from Colima, Michoacán and w Puebla s to nw Costa Rica; locally in arid interior valleys on the Gulf-Caribbean drainage in Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras.

Garrulus glandarius  EURASIAN JAY.  Forest, woods, towns.  Variation within this species is complex and not completely understood; most groups intergrade or hybridize where they meet, but little is known about most of the contact zones.  Possibly more than one species could be recognized.  Geographic distribution under subspecies.

 G. g. glandarius.  From the British Isles, c,s Scandinavia and nw,c Russia e to the Ural Mts., s to n Mediterranean region, incl. most islands, Greece, Balkans and wc,sw Russia.
 G. g. cervicalis.  Nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia.
 G. g. atricapilla.  Sw Asia in Turkey, Near East, sw Russia (Crimea, Caucasus, Transcaucasus) and w,n Iran.
 G. g. hyrcanus.  N Iran.
 G. g. brandtii.  Ne Eurasia in ne Russia (n of glandarius), w,c,s Siberia, Mongolia, nw,ne China, Korea, s Kuril Is., and n Japan on Hokkaido.
 G. g. japonicus.  C,s Japan on Honshu s, including Sado I.
 G. g. bispecularis.  S Asia in n,e India, se Tibet, s,e China, Taiwan and nw Burma.
 G. g. leucotis.  Se Asia in sw China, Burma exc. nw, nw,ne,sw Thailand, c,s Laos and s Vietnam.

Garrulus lanceolatus  BLACK-HEADED JAY.  Open forest, farms.  Himalayas, 1500-3050 m from e Afghanistan e through n Pakistan and n India to c Nepal.
Garrulus lidthi  LIDTH'S JAY.  Dense oak forest.  N Ryukyu Is. of Amami-o-shima and Tokuno Shima.
Perisoreus infaustus  SIBERIAN JAY.  Coniferous forest.  From n,c Scandinavia e across n,c Russia and Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk and Sakhalin, s to s Russia from Altai e to Ussuriland, n Mongolia and Manchuria.
Perisoreus internigrans  SICHUAN JAY.  Coniferous forest.  Mts., 3350-4300 m of wc China in se Tsinghai, sw Kansu and Szechwan.  May be a race of infaustus.

Perisoreus canadensis  GREY JAY.  Coniferous forest.  From w,c Alaska and c Yukon e across n Canada to n Labrador and Newfoundland, s to n California, e Oregon, c Idaho, c Utah, ec Arizona, nc New Mexico, ec Colorado and sw S. Dakota; e of the Rockies to s Manitoba, n Minnesota, n Wisconsin, n Michigan, s Ontario, n New York, n New England, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

 The western obscurus subspecies group formerly was treated as a separate species, but is connected to the eastern canadensis group by intermediate races.

Urocissa ornata  CEYLON MAGPIE.  Dense evergreen forest.  Hills, 150-1800 m of Sri Lanka.
Urocissa caerulea  FORMOSAN MAGPIE.  Forest.  Hills, 300-1200 m, of Taiwan.
Urocissa flavirostris  GOLD-BILLED MAGPIE.  Humid forest.  Himalayas, 1600-3350 m from n Pakistan e through n India to se Tibet, sw China, w,ne Burma and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Urocissa erythrorhyncha  BLUE MAGPIE.  Forest, woods.  From the Himalayas of n India e to e Nepal and possibly Sikkim; from sw,c,e China s to e India and se Asia, except the Malay Peninsula.
Urocissa whiteheadi  WHITE-WINGED MAGPIE.  Forest.  Mts. of se Asia in se China, n,c Laos and n,c Vietnam.

Cissa chinensis  GREEN MAGPIE.  Humid forest, second growth.  Up to 2100 m of s Asia from the lower Himalayas of India, e to cs China, Burma, nw,ne,sw Thailand, Laos, n Vietnam, Malaya, Sumatra and nw Borneo.
Cissa hypoleuca  YELLOW-BREASTED MAGPIE.  Dense woodland.  Up to 1500 m of se Asia in s China, se Thailand, s Laos and s Vietnam.  Often considered a race of thalassina, but may be more closely related to chinensis.
Cissa thalassina  SHORT-TAILED MAGPIE.  Dense woodland.  Mts. of n Borneo and Java.
Cyanopica cyana  AZURE-WINGED MAGPIE.  Woods, towns. In two disjunct areas.  1. Sw Europe in ne,s Spain
and Portugal.  2. E. Asia in se Siberia from Lake Baikal e through Transbaicalia to Ussuriland, Mongolia, c,e China,
Inner Mongolia and Manchuria s to Szechwan, Hupeh and n Chekiang; n Korea and Japan on Honshu and Kyushu.

Dendrocitta vagabunda  RUFOUS TREEPIE.  Open woods.  Up to 2100 m in Pakistan, India n to the Himalayan slopes, Burma, Thailand (exc. c), Cambodia, c,s Laos and s Vietnam in Cochinchina.
Dendrocitta formosae  GREY TREEPIE.  Forest, bushes, farms.  Up to 2300 m in n,e India, Bangladesh, Burma, c,e China, Hainan, Taiwan, Andaman Is., nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam.  Possibly conspecific with occipitalis.
Dendrocitta occipitalis  SUNDA TREEPIE.  Woods.  Mts., 400-2300 m of Sumatra.
Dendrocitta cinerascens  BORNEAN TREEPIE.  Mts. of Borneo.  Has been treated as conspecific with occipitalis, but differs in the markings on the head and nape, plus the geographic isolation, suggests they are separate species, as proposed by B. King (pers. comm.).

Dendrocitta leucogastra  WHITE-BELLIED TREEPIE.  Dense forest, second growth.  Sw India in the w Ghats from Goa and w Mysore s to Kerala and w Tamil Nadu.
Dendrocitta frontalis  COLLARED TREEPIE.  Dense forest.  Up to 2100 m in ne India in the Himalayas w to Sikkim and s to Bangladesh and Manipur, n Burma and nw Vietnam.
Dendrocitta bayleyi  ANDAMAN TREEPIE.  Dense forest.  Andaman Islands.
Crypsirina temia  RACKET-TAILED TREEPIE.  Forest, brush.  Up to 1000 m in s,e Burma, incl. Tenasserim, Thailand, Indochina, Java and Bali.
Crypsirina cucullata  HOODED TREEPIE.  Dry forest, scrub.  Arid lowlands to 1000 m of c,n,s Burma.

Temnurus temnurus  RATCHET-TAILED TREEPIE.  Forest, bamboo. Lowlands on Hainan Island, c Laos and n,c Vietnam.
Pica pica  BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE.  Open woods, scrub, savanna.

 P. p. pica.  Palearctic from the British Isles and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and s Siberia to Amurland and Ussuriland, incl. Anadyrland and Kamchatka and s to n Mediterranean region (incl. Sicily and Cyprus), Turkey, Near and Middle East, sw Arabia, w,n Pakistan, nw India, c,e Burma, n Laos, n,c Vietnam and Taiwan.  W North America from s Alaska, s Yukon and n Alberta e to w Ontario, and s to ne,ec California, sc Nevada, sc Utah, extreme ne Arizona, n New Mexico, w,ne Oklahoma and w Kansas.
 P. p. mauritanica.  Nw Africa from ne Mauritania to Tunisia.  May be a separate species.  Differs from pica in having an area of blue skin behind the eye.

Pica nuttalli  YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE.  Open woods, scrub, savanna.  Interior and coastal valleys and foothills of c California.  Possibly conspecific with pica, but they are not in contact.

Zavattariornis stresemanni  STRESEMANN'S BUSH-CROW.  Thorn bush, acacia savanna.  S Ethiopia.

Podoces hendersoni  MONGOLIAN GROUND-JAY.  Stony, sandy desert, thickets.  Deserts of c Asia from extreme e Kazakhstan, Mongolia and nw China in n Sinkiang, n Kansu, n Tsinghai and Inner Mongolia.
Podoces biddulphi  XINJIANG GROUND-JAY.  Shrubby thickets.  Deserts and foothills of nw China in w Sinkiang.

Podoces panderi  TURKESTAN GROUND-JAY.  Shrubby desert.  Deserts of sc Asia in Turkestan e of the Caspian Sea and se of the Aral Sea; s of Lake Balkhash in se Kazakhstan.
Podoces pleskei  IRANIAN GROUND-JAY.  Arid thickets.  Deserts of c,e Iran.
Pseudopodoces humilis  TIBETAN GROUND-JAY.  Open, semi-arid steppes above treeline.  Himalayas, 4000-5200 m in w China, Tibet and ne India in n Sikkim.  Probably not a corvid and not typical for a starling; tentatively placed here pending better information.
Nucifraga columbiana  CLARK'S NUTCRACKER.  Coniferous forest, edge.  Mts., mainly the Sierra Nevada and the Rockies of North America from c British Columbia, sw Alberta, w,c Montana, sw S. Dakota and w,se Wyoming s to c,e California, n Baja California, ec Arizona and s New Mexico.

Nucifraga caryocatactes  SPOTTED NUTCRACKER.  Coniferous and mixed woods.  Mts. and high latitudes of Eurasia from s Scandinavia, the Alps and c,se Europe across c Russia and c,s Siberia to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and the Kuril Is., s to s Russia from the Altai s to Kirghiz steppes, Mongolia, China (exc. se); extreme ne Iran, e Afghanistan, n Pakistan and n India in the Himalayas, ne Burma, Taiwan, Korea and Japan.
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax  RED-BILLED CHOUGH.  Cliffs, stony mountains, rocky valleys.  Locally in the British Isles; Canary Is.; nw Africa in Morocco, n Algeria; mts. of c Ethiopia; n Mediterranean region including the Pyrenees, s Alps, Sardinia and Crete; e through Turkey, Near and Middle East, n Arabia, extreme s Russia in the Caucasus and Transcaucasus to Transcaspia and from Tadshikistan ne to e Kazakhstan, n Pakistan, India in the Himalayas e to Bhutan; Tibet, w,n,c China, Mongolia and cs Siberia.

Pyrrhocorax graculus  YELLOW-BILLED CHOUGH.  Rocky slopes, steppes, cliffs.  Locally in mts. of s Palearctic in the n Mediterranean region, including the Pyrenees, Alps, Corsica, Greece; nw Africa in Morocco; Turkey, w,n Iran, Caucasus, Transcaucasus, Transcaspia; from Tadshikistan ne to e Kazakhstan, extreme sw Siberia in the Altai; Himalayas of n Pakistan, n India, Tibet and nw China.
Ptilostomus afer  PIAPIAC.  Arid savanna with palms, often associated with large mammals.  Subsaharan Africa in from Senegambia, s Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Liberia (?introduced), s Niger, n Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. African Republic, s Chad, s Sudan, sw Ethiopia, Uganda and w Kenya.
Corvus monedula  EURASIAN JACKDAW.  Open woods, farms, towns.  From the British Isles and s Scandinavia e across c,s Russia to sw Siberia, e to Lake Baikal; s to Mediterranean region, incl. most islands exc. Corsica; nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia; Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, w,n Iran, n Afghanistan, n India (Kashmir), w Tibet and w China.

 An invasion into ne Canada was intentionally destroyed as a potential agricultural pest, but one pair is reported from ne Pennsylvania where it nests on a prison building.

Corvus dauuricus  DAURIAN JACKDAW.  Open woods, farms.  E Asia, e of the range of monedula, from s Siberia, Mongolia, c,n China, Inner Mongolia and s to Szechwan, Yunnan and Kweichow; se Tibet.  May be conspecific with monedula.
Corvus splendens  HOUSE CROW.  Towns, cities, near human habitation.  Up to 1500 m from coastal s Iran e
through Pakistan, India n to the Himalayas up to 6400 m; Sri Lanka; s Tibet, sw China, Burma, c Thailand; Laccadive 
and Maldive Is.
 Intro. Zanzibar, Djibouti, Egypt, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Tanzania, Mozambique, S. Africa,  Arabia, Mauritius, Malaya.  Breeding in Sudan, Djibouti, Yemen, Kenya, South Africa (small populations in Durban and Cape Flats), the Seychelles, Mascarene Is. and possibly elsewhere.

Corvus moneduloides  NEW CALEDONIAN CROW.  Woods, open area.  New Caledonia.  Intro. on Maré I. in the Loyalty Is.
Corvus enca  SLENDER-BILLED CROW.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Up to 1500 m in Malaya, incl. Riau Arch.; Sumatra, incl. Simeulue, Nias and Mentawai Is. and Riau Arch.; Borneo, Java, Bali, Sulawesi incl. most adj. islands; s Moluccas on Seram, Ambon, Buru; Philippines on ne Luzon, Mindoro, Calamian Is., Palawan, Balabac, Samar, Mindanao.
Corvus typicus  PIPING CROW.  Forest, edge, woods.  Up to 1200 m of c,s Sulawesi, incl. Muna and Butung islands.
Corvus unicolor  BANGGAI CROW.  Forest.  Banggai Is., off e Sulawesi.

Corvus florensis  FLORES CROW.  Forest.  Lowlands on Flores I., in the wc Lesser Sundas.
Corvus kubaryi  MARIANA CROW.  Forest, edge.  Guam and Rota islands in the Mariana Is.
Corvus validus  LONG-BILLED CROW.  Forest.  Islands of Morotai, Halmahera, Kayoa, Bacan and Obi in the Moluccas.
Corvus meeki  BOUGAINVILLE CROW.  Forest.  Bougainville and Shortland islands in the Solomon Is.
Corvus woodfordi  WHITE-BILLED CROW. Forest.  Choiseul, Santa Isabel and Guadalcanal is. in the Solomon Is.  C. meeki often included in woodfordi.
Corvus fuscicapillus  BROWN-HEADED CROW.  Forest.  Up to 500 m in the Aru Is. and w Papuan is. of Waigeo and Gemien; nw New Guinea on the lower Memberano River.

Corvus tristis  GREY CROW.  Forest.  Up to 1400 m in the w Papuan is. of Batanta and Salawati; New Guinea, incl. Yapen and Ron is., and the D'Entrecasteaux Archipelago.
Corvus capensis  CAPE CROW.  Grassland, semi-desert, farms.  Se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, ne Zaire, e Uganda, w,c Kenya and ce Tanzania; from wc,ne Angola, w Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana and extreme w Mozambique s to s S. Africa.
Corvus frugilegus  ROOK.  Open country, pastures, farms, woods.  From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia to sw Siberia; s to nc Spain, c France, Alps, Balkans, Turkey, n Iraq, nw Iran, s Russia, Mongolia and w,n,c China s to n Chekiang.  Absent from deserts, mountains and coniferous forest.
Corvus caurinus  NORTHWESTERN CROW.  Coastal tidelands, woods, farms.  Coastal areas from sc,se Alaska w to Kodiak I., s to nw Washington in the Puget Sound area.  May be conspecific with brachyrhynchos.

Corvus brachyrhynchos  AMERICAN CROW.  Open country, woods, farms, orchards, towns.  From se Alaska e of the range of caurinus, nc British Columbia, sw Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to s Newfoundland and s, except coastal Pacific nw, to n Baja California, c Arizona, s New Mexico, c,se Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida, exc. Florida Keys.
Corvus ossifragus  FISH CROW.  Beaches, shores, swamps, fields, uplands.  E,se U.S. from c,se New York and Massachusetts s to s Florida and w to s Texas, mainly coastal but inland along major waterways n to nw Louisiana, ec Oklahoma, along the Mississippi River to s Illinois and sw Kentucky, and to c parts of coastal states from Pennsylvania to Georgia.
Corvus imparatus  TAMAULIPAS CROW.  Dry woods, farms.  Up to 1000 m of ne Mexico from Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and s Texas in the lower Rio Grande Valley, s to San Luis Potosí and n Veracruz.

Corvus sinaloae  SINALOA CROW.  Woods, farms.  Pacific coastal lowlands up to 1000 m from s Sonora s to Nayarit and Colima.  Often lumped with imparatus from which it is morphologically indistinguishable, but vocally distinct.
Corvus palmarum  PALM CROW.  Pine forest, woods, arid brush, swamps.  W Cuba and Hispaniola.
Corvus jamaicensis  JAMAICAN CROW.  Woods, savanna, farms.  Jamaica, mainly in the uplands.
Corvus nasicus  CUBAN CROW.  Forest.  Cuba and the Isle of Pines; Caicos Is. in the s Bahamas.
Corvus leucognaphalus  WHITE-NECKED CROW.  Dense forest, woods.  Hispaniola, mainly in the uplands; Puerto Rico, at least formerly.

Corvus corone  CARRION CROW.  Various habitats exc. dense forest.

 C. c. corone.  CARRION CROW.  From Faroe Is., s Scotland, England and w Germany s to the Iberian Peninsula, s France, Alps from Switzerland and Austria to n Italy; w Czechoslovakia; from n Siberia e of the Yenesei R., e to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and the Kuril Is., s to s Russia, w to the Aral Sea, Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n India, w,c,n China, Korea and Japan.
 C. c. cornix.  HOODED CROW.  Ireland and n Scotland; from n Denmark and Scandinavia e across n Russia to w Siberia (Yenesei R.) mostly s of the Arctic Circle; s (e of the range of corone) to Italy, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, e Mediterranean region, Turkey, Near East, Nile Valley of Egypt, n Iraq, Iran, s Russia to the Aral Sea and Transcaspia.
 C. c. corone and C. c. cornix sometimes are treated as hybridizing species. 
They usually interbreed in areas of contact, as in s Scotland, Denmark, s Switzerland, n Italy and n Afghanistan, but the hybrid zones are narrow and relatively stable, although shifting slightly westward in Europe in recent years.  There are some areas, e.g. c Russia and Iran, where they are sympatric with little or no interbreeding.  This complex situation doesn't fit neatly into any species concept and these two taxa may be viewed either as two species, as subspecies of corone, or as "semispecies".
 Kryukov and Blinov (1994. J. für Orn. 135: Sonderheft p. 47) studied the zone of hybridization between the Ob and Yenesei rivers in Siberia.  The hybrid zone is ca. 150 km wide and introgression of plumage characters can be detected for 700 km.  Up to 30% of the birds in the center of the zone are intermediate and 11 color morphs were identified.  Genetic variability in allozymes and DNA increase within the hybrid zone.  There is no evidence of reduction of fertility or viability in mixed pairs, but evidence of positive assortative mating was found.  The two differ in migration behavior, wintering areas and habitat preferences.
 Rolando and Saino (1994. J. für Orn. 135: Sonderheft p. 48) analyzed the composition of breeding pairs in six areas in the alpine hybrid zone in alpine valleys and the Cuneo highlands of Italy. 
Their results indicate that positive assortative mating is present, i.e., mixed pairs are less frequent than would be expected if random mating was present.
Corvus macrorhynchos  LARGE-BILLED CROW.  Forest, edge, farms, towns.

 The two groups often are treated as separate species, but they are so variable that subspecific identity depends more on locality than morphology. 
Their vocalizations are said to differ, but seem variable in all populations.
 C. m. macrorhynchos.  From e Iran and n Afghanistan e through n Pakistan, n India in the Himalayas above 1800 m, Tibet and China to se Siberia to Sakhalin and the Kuril Is., Japan and the Ryukyu Is., and s through se Asia (exc. n Burma and n Thailand) to Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Lesser Sunda is. e to Wetar, Kisar and Timor; Philippines (exc. Palawan) and Taiwan.
 C. m. levaillantii  JUNGLE CROW.  Forest, farms, towns.  Up to 1800 m in c,e India e of the desert regions in the Indus River drainage; Sri Lanka; n Burma, n Thailand and Andaman Is.

Corvus orru  TORRESIAN CROW.  Open forest, woods, coastal scrub, beaches, farms.  Lowlands in the n Moluccas from Tidore and Halmerhera s to Obi; w Papuan is.; New Guinea and most nearby islands; D'Entrecasteaux, Louisiade and Bismarck archipelagos; Babar I. in the e Lesser Sundas; Tanimbar Is.  N,c Australia s to cw,cs W. Australia coastally to N.W. Cape, and interior nearly to the coast in the sc; nw S Australia, s N. Territory, s Queensland (exc. sw) and ne New S. Wales.

 Includes latirostris, which may be a separate species (B. King, pers. comm.).

Corvus bennetti  LITTLE CROW.  Arid woods.  Arid w, interior Australia n to n W. Australia from the Pilbara region to the Kimberleys, incl. coastal islands, c N. Territory, s,sc Queensland, n to Burketown and e to Cunnamulla and w New S. Wales.  Nomadic.
Corvus coronoides  AUSTRALIAN RAVEN.  Woods, savanna.  Interior sw,c,e Australia from sw W. Australia, n to the Murchison River, S. Australia, exc. nw; e N. Territory and Queensland, exc. e coastal region, s through se Australia.
Corvus mellori  LITTLE RAVEN. Alpine woodlands above 1600 m to forests and woods of foothills, almost treeless plains, scrubs, farms and coastal areas.  Se Australia in se S. Australia, New S. Wales, except nw, and Victoria, incl. King I. off nw Tasmania.  Nomadic.

Corvus boreus  RELICT RAVEN.  Wet sclerophyll woods on the fringes of e forested area of the New England tablelands..  Locally in ne New S. Wales from near Nowendoc in the s to n of Guyra, and from Armidale in the west to Dorrigo State Forest in the east.  Doubtfully separable from C. tasmanicus, but they are widely allopatric.
Corvus tasmanicus  FOREST RAVEN.  Wet sclerophyll woods on mainland; dry woods, coastal scrub, beaches and savanna in Tasmania.  Locally in se Australia in extreme se S. Australia and s Victoria e to Wilson's Promontory Natl. Park; Tasmania, King and Furneaux islands.
Corvus torquatus  COLLARED CROW.  Open lowlands, farms, usually near water, rice fields.  C,e,s China, Hainan I., n,c Vietnam and Taiwan.

Corvus hawaiiensis  HAWAIIAN CROW.  Moist woods, open areas.  Highlands, 300-2400 m on the Island of Hawaii.  Ca. 20 individuals known to survive in 1994.
Corvus cryptoleucus  CHIHUAHUAN RAVEN.  Open lowlands, deserts, plains.  From n Sonora, sc,se Arizona, c,ne New Mexico, ne Colorado, sc Nebraska and w Kansas s to Michoacán, Guanajuato, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, c,s Texas and w Oklahoma.
Corvus albus  PIED CROW.  Open country, often near human habitation; absent from extreme desert and dense forest.  From s Mauritania, Senegambia and Guinea e across s Mali, s Niger, c Chad and c Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, s (incl. Fernando Po, Pemba and Zanzibar islands) to s S. Africa; Aldabra, Assumption and Comoro islands and Madagascar.  Recorded in all subSaharan African countries.  Not recorded on Socotra I. or sw Arabia (Yemen).

Corvus ruficollis  BROWN-NECKED RAVEN.  Desert.  Cape Verde Is.; from the Sahara of n Africa, s to s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Nigeria, s Chad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, s,se Sudan, Somalia, n,c Kenya; e through Arabia, s Near East, s Iran and Afghanistan to w Pakistan.
Corvus corax  COMMON RAVEN.  Varied habitats, lowlands to Arctic, cliffs, plains, forest, conifers to desert.  Coasts of Greenland, Iceland and Faroes, and through Eurasia n to Arctic coasts and s to the Canary Is., n Africa from Morocco e to Egypt; Mediterranean region (absent from lowlands of most of w continental Europe n of c France and w of c Germany), Turkey, Near and Middle East, Pakistan, w,n India, s Tibet, w,c,ne China, se Siberia, Sakhalin, Kuril Is., Japan.  From w,n Alaska, incl. islands in the Bering Sea but absent from the Arctic coast; n Canada, incl. Arctic islands, s to Aleutian Is., w to Attu; s to Baja California, Revillagigedo Is., through highlands of Mexico and n C. America to nc Nicaragua, e to e edge of the Rockies, w Oklahoma and c Texas, and e of the Rockies s to s Canada, ne Minnesota, n Wisconsin, n Michigan, n New York, n New England, and in the Appalachians to e Tennessee, w N. Carolina and nw Georgia.  May include albus and ruficollis, but there seems to be overlap where they come in contact.

Corvus rhipidurus  FAN-TAILED RAVEN.  Arid rocky country, cliffs.  S Mali, s Niger, c,s Chad, se Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, nw Somalia, e Uganda, nw,c Kenya, ne Egypt (Sinai), Near East n to s Syria and Arabia.
Corvus albicollis  WHITE-NECKED RAVEN.  Rocks, cliffs, hills.  Ne,ce,se Zaire, Uganda and w,s Kenya s through Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and extreme e Botswana to e,s S. Africa, w to s Cape Province.
Corvus crassirostris  THICK-BILLED RAVEN.  Rocks, cliffs, open country.  Highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea; rarely vagrant in nw Somalia and se Sudan.


Melampitta lugubris  LESSER MELAMPITTA.  Forest floor in dense undergrowth.  Mts., 1450-3500 m, of New Guinea in the Arfak, Weyland and Nassau mts.; from Oranje Mts. to Huon Peninsula and Owen Stanley Mts.
Melampitta gigantea  GREATER MELAMPITTA. Forest floor; limestone sinks.  Locally in mts., 650-1400 m, of New Guinea in the Arfak Mts., Onin and Bomberai Peninsula; s slope of Nassau Mts.; Sepik-Ramu drainage; se ranges.
Loboparadisaea sericea  YELLOW-BREASTED BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Locally in highlands of New Guinea, 600-2000 m, in the Snow, Weyland and Herzog mts.; Huon Peninsula; e highlands.
Cnemophilus macgregorii  CRESTED BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest undergrowth, trees, moss forest.  Mts., 2400-3500 m, of e New Guinea from near Mt. Giluwe se to Wharton Range; not overlapping with loriae.
Cnemophilus loriae  LORIA'S BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Mts., 1450-3000 m, of c New Guinea from the Weyland Mts. to Owen Stanley Mts.

Macgregoria pulchra  MACGREGOR'S BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Podocarp forest.  Locally in mts., 2700-4000 m, of wc, se New Guinea in the Snow Mts. and the se ranges.
Lycocorax pyrrhopterus  PARADISE-CROW.  Forest, mangrove edge.  Lowlands to 1600 m of the n Moluccas on Morotai, Rau, Bacan, Halmahera and Obi.
Manucodia atra  GLOSSY-MANTLED MANUCODE.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m in New Guinea, Tagula I. and the Aru Is. and w Papuan is. of Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Gebe and Gemien.
Manucodia chalybata  CRINKLE-COLLARED MANUCODE.  Forest.  Up to 1800 m, usually 575-1400 m, in New Guinea and Misool I. in the w Papuan islands.

Manucodia comrii  CURL-CRESTED MANUCODE.  Forest.  Lowlands of the Trobriand Is., and of Fergusson, Goodenough and Normanby is. in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch. off se New Guinea.
Manucodia jobiensis  JOBI MANUCODE.  Forest.  Lowlands to 500 m of n New Guinea from Geelvink Bay, incl. Yapen I., e to Astrolabe Bay, upper Ramu River and Setekwa River.
Manucodia keraudrenii  TRUMPET MANUCODE.  Forest.  Up to 2000 m in the Aru Is., New Guinea mostly in the highlands, except Cyclops Mts. and Huon Peninsula; locally in lowlands; D'Entrecasteaux Arch. on Fergusson, Goodenough and Normanby islands.  N Queensland from Cape York and Claudie River, s to Chester River.
Semioptera wallacii  STANDARDWING or STANDARDWING BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Mts. of Halmahera and Bacan islands in the northern Moluccas.

Paradigalla carunculata  LONG-TAILED PARADIGALLA.  Forest.  1400-2200 m in the Arfak and w Snow mts. e to the Nassau mts. of w New Guinea.
Paradigalla brevicauda  SHORT-TAILED PARADIGALLA.  Forest, edge.  Mts., 1600-2675 m, of w,c New Guinea from the Weyland and Snow mts. e to Mt. Giluwe, Mt. Hagen and Bismarck and Schrader mts.
Epimachus fastuosus  BLACK SICKLEBILL.  Forest.  Mts., 1275-2550 m, of w,c New Guinea in the Arfak and Tamrau mts.; from Wandammen and Weyland mts. e to Sepik, Hagen, Bismarck and Hindenburg mts.; n coastal range.  Occurs below meyeri.

Epimachus meyeri  BROWN SICKLEBILL.  Mts., 1500-3050 m, of c,e New Guinea in the Weyland, Oranje, Hindenburg and Victor Emanuel mts.; c highlands; Herzog Mts.; se ranges.  Occurs above fastuosus where both present and at lower elevations where fastuosus is absent.
Epimachus albertisi  BLACK-BILLED SICKLEBILL.  Forest.  Mts., 600-2250 of New Guinea in the Arfak, Kumawa and Wandammen mts.; n slopes of the c ranges from Weyland and Foya mts. to Sepik mts., Huon Peninsula, Herzog Mts. and se ranges.
Epimachus bruijnii  PALE-BILLED SICKLEBILL.  Forest, near coastal rivers.  Lowlands to 200 m of nw New Guinea from se coast of Geelvink Bay e to Tami River and extreme nw Papua New Guinea.

Lophorina superba  SUPERB BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Mts., 975-2300 m of New Guinea.
Parotia sefilata  WESTERN PAROTIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1050-1800 m of w New Guinea in the Arfak, Tamrau and Wandammen mts.
Parotia carolae  CAROLA'S PAROTIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1150-1800 m of w,c New Guinea from the Weyland, Snow and Foya mts. e to the Victor Emanuel Mts.
Parotia lawesii  LAWES'S PAROTIA.  Forest.  Mts., 750-2300 m of e,se New Guinea from Mt. Giluwe and Hagen and Schrader mts. e to the Herzog Mts and s slopes of the Wharton and Owen Stanley mts.

Parotia helenae  EASTERN PAROTIA.  Forest.  Mts., 975-1800 m of se New Guinea on the n slopes of the Owen Stanley Mts.  P. lawesii and P. helenae are usually considered conspecific, but no hybrids are known although their ranges are in contact.
Parotia wahnesi  WAHNES'S PAROTIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1100-1700 m of se New Guinea in the Adelbert Mts. and the Huon Peninsula.
Ptiloris magnificus  MAGNIFICENT RIFLEBIRD.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1450 m in w,c New Guinea e to the Sepik River and Kratke Mts.; ne Australia in ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to Albatross Bay and the Chester River.
Ptiloris intercedens  EASTERN RIFLEBIRD.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m of e New Guinea w to Astrolabe Bay and Hall Sound.  Formerly included in magnificus.

Ptiloris victoriae  VICTORIA'S RIFLEBIRD.  Forest.  Ne Australia in Queensland fromCooktown to Townsville area.  Often lumped with paradiseus.
Ptiloris paradiseus  PARADISE RIFLEBIRD.  Forest.  Highlands to 1200 m of ne Australia in se Queensland n to Rockhampton area (at least formerly) and ne New South  Wales s to the Hunter River.
Cicinnurus magnificus  MAGNIFICENT BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Mts., 575-1600 m (rarely lower), of New Guinea incl. Yapen I., and the w Papuan islands of Salawati and probably Misool.
Cicinnurus respublica  WILSON'S BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest. Interior hills above 300 m on the w Papuan is. of Waigeo and Batanta.

Cicinnurus regius  KING BIRD-OF-PARADISE.Forest.  Lowlands to 850 m of New Guinea, incl. Yapen I., the Aru Is. and w Papuan islands of Batanta, Salawati and Misool.
Astrapia nigra  ARFAK ASTRAPIA.  Forest.  Mts. 1650-2250 m of nw New Guinea in the Arfak Mts. and probably the  Tamrau Mts.
Astrapia splendidissima  SPLENDID ASTRAPIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1800-3450 m of w,c New Guinea from the Weyland Mts. e to the Victor Emanuel Mts.
Astrapia mayeri  RIBBON-TAILED ASTRAPIA.  Forest.  Mts., 2375-3400 m of ec New Guinea from Mt. Hagen and Mt. Giluwe w to the e Victor Emanuel Mts.  Hybridizes with stephaniae on Mt. Hagen and Mt. Giluwe, although they are mostly separate in altitude.

Astrapia stephaniae  STEPHANIE'S ASTRAPIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1500-2450 m of e,se New Guinea from Mt. Giluwe and the Hagen and Schrader mts. e to the Herzog and Owen Stanley mts.  See A. mayeri.
Astrapia rothschildi  HUON ASTRAPIA.  Forest.  Mts., 1450-3500 m of se New Guinea on the Huon Peninsula.
Pteridophora alberti  KING-OF-SAXONY BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Humid forest.  Mts., 1450-2850 of c New Guinea from the Weyland and Snow mts. e to the Bismarck and Kratke mts.
Seleucidis melanoleuca  TWELVE-WIRED BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Swamp forest, riparian woods.  Lowlands of New Guinea, except n coast from Astrolabe Bay to Milne Bay;  Salawati I. in the w Papuan islands.

Paradisaea rubra  RED BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Lowlands to 600 m of Waigeo, Batanta and Gemien islands in the w Papuan islands.
Paradisaea minor  LESSER BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest, second growth.  Up to 1750 m of w,n New Guinea in the Vogelkop, and from Geelvink Bay, incl. Yapen I., e to Etna Bay and the upper Ramu River; Huon Peninsula.  Misool I. in the w Papuan islands.  See comments under P. apoda.
Paradisaea apoda  GREATER BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  Up to 1000 m of s New Guinea from the Mimika River e to the upper Fly River; Aru Is.  P. rubra, minor, apoda, raggiana and decora occupy allopatric ranges and interbreed where they come into contact.  They may be considered to be conspecific or as members of a superspecies.  They are closely related but male plumages differ enough for separation and for recognition of hybrids.  P. guilielmi may be included as an altitudinal representative.

Paradisaea raggiana  RAGGIANA BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest, second growth.  Up to 1750 m of ne, se New Guinea from Fly River area, Ramu River and Astrolabe Bay e to Milne Bay; Wahgi Valley.  Hybridizes with minor.
Paradisaea decora  GOLDIE'S BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  300-600 m on Fergusson and Normanby islands in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch. off se New Guinea.
Paradisaea guilielmi  EMPEROR BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest.  500-1800 m of se New Guinea on the Huon Peninsula; occurs above minor and raggiana but hybridizes with both at points of contact.

Paradisaea rudolphi  BLUE BIRD-OF-PARADISE.  Forest, edge.  Mts., 1100-2000 m of c, se New Guinea from Mt. Giluwe region and the Hagen Mts. e to the Herzog Mts. and se ranges.  Occurs above raggiana and minor but has hybridized with both at contact points.


Cracticus mentalis  BLACK-BACKED BUTCHERBIRD.  Savanna, edge, open woods.  Up to 675 m in se New Guinea from Merauke to Port Moresby; ne Queensland from Cape York s to Mitchell River and the Cooktown area.
Cracticus torquatus  GREY BUTCHERBIRD.  Open forest, woods, scrub.  W. Australia w to Port Hedland and through N. Territory e to Arnhem Land and to c,e Queensland and s through S. Australia, New S. Wales and Victoria; Tasmania.
Cracticus cassicus  HOODED BUTCHERBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Up to 1450 m in the Aru Is. and the w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Batanta, Gebe, Salawati and Misool; New Guinea, incl. Biak, Yapen and Numfor islands; Trobriand Is. and the D'Entrecasteaux Archipelago.

Cracticus louisiadensis  TAGULA BUTCHERBIRD.  Forest. Tagula I. off se New Guinea.  Possibly conspecific with cassicus.
Cracticus nigrogularis  PIED BUTCHERBIRD.  Woods, farms.  Australia except ne Queensland and extreme sw W. Australia and from se W. Australia e to Victoria; Tasmania.
Cracticus quoyi  BLACK BUTCHERBIRD.  Forest, mangroves.  Up to 1400 m in the Aru Is. and w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Salawati and Misool; New Guinea, incl. Yapen I.  Coasts and islands of n,ne Australia in the N. Territory from Port Keats e to Arnhem Land and Melville I., and n,e Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s, locally, to Rockhampton area.
Gymnorhina tibicen  AUSTRALASIAN MAGPIE.  Open woods, savanna, farms.

 The four taxa are treated as conspecific because they interbreed in some contact zones, however they do not hybridize in all areas of overlap.  Thus, their status as species or subspecies is uncertain but informative for what they illustrate about the nature of "species" and "subspecies".
 G. t. papuana.  Lowlands of sc New Guinea from the Digul River to the Oriomo River.
 G. t. tibicen.  Australia s to the ranges of the two following subspecies in sw, se Australia, absent from n coastal Australia from ne W. Australia in the Kimberleys, e to n,e Queensland n of Staaten River and Cardwell.
 G. t. dorsalis.  Sw W. Australia n to Murchison River and e to Esperance.
 G. t. hypoleuca.  Coastal se Australia from se New S. Wales n to Narooma, s to Victoria; Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait; and w to se S. Australia w to Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo I.

 G. t. tibicen and G. t. hypoleuca have been introduced to Taveuni I. in the Fiji Is. where they are interbreeding.  G. tibicen also introduced in New Zealand.

Strepera graculina  PIED CURRAWONG.  Forest, farms, towns.  N Queensland s to Princess Charlotte Bay and from e Queensland n to Cairns and w to Georgetown, s through e New S. Wales to s Victoria w to border of extreme se S. Australia.  Also on Lord Howe I.
Strepera fuliginosa  BLACK CURRAWONG.  Forest, farms.  Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait.
Strepera versicolor  GREY CURRAWONG.  Forest, woods, mallee.

 Intergradation occurs between all subspecies in areas of contact, but the Tasmanian race (arguta) is allopatric and may be a separate species.
 S. v. versicolor.  From s W. Australia n to Shark Bay, e across S. Australia (exc. ranges of other subspecies) to c,s New S. Wales (exc. sw) and Victoria.
 S. v. intermedia.  Se S. Australia on the Eyre Peninsula and the Yorke Peninsula.
 S. v. melanoptera.  Mallee and scrubby woods in se S. Australia, incl. Kangaroo I., extreme sw New S. Wales and extreme nw Victoria.
 S. v. arguta.  Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait.

Artamus fuscus  ASHY WOODSWALLOW.  Open country with palms, scrub, clearings.  Up to 2100 m from India and Sri Lanka, e through Nepal, Bangladesh and Burma to s China and s to se Asia, except peninsular Thailand and Malaya.
Artamus leucorynchus  WHITE-BREASTED WOODSWALLOW.  Forest, woods, mangroves, open areas with trees, towns.  Up to 2000 m of s Asia, Malay Arch., Australian region and sw Oceania in the Andaman Is., Malay Peninsula, Greater and Lesser Sundas and many adj. islands, Philippines, Palau Is. on Babelthuap, Moluccas, Kai and Aru islands, New Guinea and adj. islands, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is., Vanuatu, Banks Is., and n,e Australia from n W. Australia w to Shark Bay e across n N. Territory to Queensland, s to e S. Australia, n Victoria, Tasmania, and New S. Wales except se.
Artamus monachus  IVORY-BACKED WOODSWALLOW.  Forest, woods, open areas with trees.  Hills, 200-1100 m of Sulawesi, incl. Lembeh and Banggai and the Sula Is.

Artamus maximus  GREAT WOODSWALLOW.  Open country, forest edge.  Mts., 475-3600 m of New Guinea.
Artamus insignis  BISMARCK WOODSWALLOW.  Open country.  New Britain and New Ireland islands in the Bismarck Archipelago.
Artamus mentalis  FIJI WOODSWALLOW.  Forest, woods, mangroves, open areas with trees, towns.  N Fiji Islands from Yasawa and Viti Levu e to Qamea and Taveuni.
Artamus personatus  MASKED WOODSWALLOW.  Savanna woodland.  Australia, incl. King I. in Bass Strait, but absent from n N. Territory, Cape York Peninsula, sw W. Australia and Tasmania.
Artamus superciliosus  WHITE-BROWED WOODSWALLOW.  Savanna woodland.  Most of interior Australia except n N. Territory, Cape York Peninsula and sw W. Australia.  Regular breeder in e Australia from n Queensland (Mitchell R.) s through New S. Wales and e S. Australia to Victoria; casual or irregular breeder w to W. Australia and to King I. in Bass Strait and n Tasmania.  Nomadic.

Artamus cinereus  BLACK-FACED WOODSWALLOW.  Savanna woodland.

 The two subspecies groups sometimes are treated as species, but a variable hybrid zone occurs between them in Queensland.
 A. c. cinereus.  Timor, Leti and Sermata islands in the Lesser Sundas; Australia (except coastal sw W. Australia, n,e Queensland and coastally from se Queensland s to Victoria and se S. Australia).
 A. c. albiventris.  Ne Australia in n,e Queensland s to Normanton and Rockhampton.

Artamus cyanopterus  DUSKY WOODSWALLOW.  Forest, woods, orchards.  From sw W. Australia, n to Moora, e through s S. Australia to Victoria and Tasmania; n through s,ne New S. Wales to e Queensland, n to Cairns and the Atherton Tableland.
Artamus minor  LITTLE WOODSWALLOW.  Forest, savanna, breeds in rocky country.  N,c Australia s to c W. Australia to the Murchison R., n S. Australia, n New S. Wales and se Queensland (exc. coastal e Queensland); casual breeder in s S. Australia and w Victoria.  Nomadic.
Pityriasis gymnocephala  BORNEAN BRISTLEHEAD.  Forest, possibly mainly peat forest.  Lowlands to 1200 m of Borneo.  Formerly placed in the "Prionopidae" (a composite, invalid group), Laniidae or Sturnidae.  DNA hybridization data showed that Pityriasis is an artamine (Ahlquist, Sheldon and Sibley 1984. J. für Orn. 125:129-140).

Peltops blainvillii  LOWLAND PELTOPS.  Tall trees at forest edge.  Up to 600 m in New Guinea and the w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Salawati and Misool.  DNA hybridization showed that the two species of Peltops are artamines.  (Sibley and Ahlquist 1984. Emu 84:181-183).
Peltops montanus  MOUNTAIN PELTOPS.  Tall trees at forest edge.  Mts., 550-3000 m of New Guinea.  P. montanus occurs above blainvillii.

         Passeriformes 08
© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi