Superfamily PASSEROIDEA:
The Passeroidea includes six families:  
Alaudidae: larks; Nectariniidae: sugarbirds, flowerpeckers, sunbirds, spiderhunters; Melanocharitidae: berrypeckers, longbills;  Paramythiidae: Crested Berrypecker, Tit Berrypecker; Passeridae: sparrows, petronias, rock sparrows, snowfinches, wagtails, pipits, accentors, weavers, malimbes, queleas, fodies, bishops, widowbirds, waxbills, munias, etc.
Fringillidae:  Olive Warbler, serins, siskins, goldfinches, finches, seedeaters, grosbeaks, redpolls, bullfinches, Hawaiian honeycreepers, buntings, longspurs, emberizine sparrows, towhees, brush-finches, cardinals, wood-warblers, tanagers, conebills, South American seedeaters, Galapagos finches, saltators, oropendolas, caciques, New World orioles, troupials, New World blackbirds, meadowlarks, grackles, cowbirds.
Family ALAUDIDAE:  Larks.  Most species of larks occur in Africa and Eurasia.  The widespread Horned Lark or Shore Lark (Eremophila alpestris) has also colonized the New World, and the Australian Lark (Mirafra javanica) occurs in Australia and New Guinea.
 Larks differ from other oscine passerines in lacking an ossified syringeal pessulus and in having the tarsi rounded behind ("latiplantar").  The tarsi have scutes on the posterior surface, as well as on the anterior, and the hallux (hind toe) tends to be long and nearly straight, an adaptation related to their terrestrial habits.  The latiplantar tarsus and the ossified syringeal pessulus have been the basis for viewing the larks as a "primitive" group and for their isolation at the beginning of the sequence of passerine families in virtually all classifications since 1839.  These characters define the Alaudidae, but they are derived conditions that evolved after the larks diverged from the other passeroids.  The evidence for this was revealed by DNA comparisons.  Some larks have finch-like bills, which has been the basis for associating the Alaudidae with the Fringillidae in some classifications.  The larks resemble the wagtails and pipits (Motacillidae) in their terrestrial habits and the two groups have been placed next to one another in some classifications.  Because both larks and swallows have been viewed as "primitive" (see Hirundinidae) they have usually been assigned as the first two families of oscines in many classifications (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990:664-665 provide details).

Larks are open country birds, often occurring in desert, semi-desert, rocky or grassy environments.  Their plumages tend to match these backgrounds, thus to be pale grayish, brownish or buffy above, paler below; often with streaks or black markings that disrupt the outline of the body.  A few species are black or mostly so, some are crested.  The sexes are alike.  Food mainly seeds and insects.  Nest a shallow depression on the ground, usually lined with plant material, hair, etc., often with a rim of clods or pebbles; often in or under a grass clump or rock; some with partial domes.  Eggs 2-5, variable, gray, greenish, pink, speckled with rufous/brown spots.

Mirafra:  Larks.  Grassland, plains, desert, savanna.  Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Australia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Mirafra passerina  MONOTONOUS LARK.  Grass, bushes, trees, edge.  S Angola (vagrant?), ne Namibia, Botswana, s Zambia, w Zimbabwe s to n S. Africa.  Closely related to cantillans and javanica.
Mirafra cantillans  SINGING LARK.  Dry grassy plains.  Sw Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, s Niger, n Nigeria, Cameroon and s Chad to C. African Rep., s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, w Somalia and s Arabia, s to Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania; Pakistan and India.
Mirafra javanica  AUSTRALASIAN LARK.  Grassland, plains.  Up to 600 m in w,c,e,se Burma, nw,ne,se,c Thailand, Cambodia, c,s Laos, s Vietnam; Java, Lesser Sunda Is., w,s Borneo, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro, Negros, Mindanao); n,ne,s New Guinea, and locally in nw,n,e,se,cw Australia.

Mirafra cheniana  LATAKOO LARK.  Open grassland.  Sw Zimbabwe, e,c Botswana and ne S. Africa.
Mirafra albicauda  WHITE-TAILED LARK.  Moist open savanna.  S Chad, Sudan, w Ethiopia (?), ne Zaire, Uganda, Kenya and ne,c,s Tanzania.
Mirafra hova  MADAGASCAR LARK.  Open grassland, bushes.  Up to 1800 m on Madagascar.  Affinities uncertain, may be a Calandrella.
Mirafra cordofanica  KORDOFAN LARK.  Arid grassland, sandy soil.  A narrow belt from s Mauritania, Mali and Senegambia e through s Niger and Chad to n Sudan.
Mirafra williamsi  WILLIAMS' LARK.  Dry short-grass plains with black soil.  600-1350 m, near Marsabit and the Did Galgalla Deserts, and between Gara Tula and Isiolo, Kenya.  Sometimes included in M. cordofanica.  Voice unknown.

Mirafra pulpa  FRIEDMANN'S LARK.  Brushy grassland.  600-900 m; sw Ethiopia and three, perhaps four, sites in Kenya.  Includes M. candida.
Mirafra hypermetra  RED-WINGED LARK.  Grassland.  Arid lowlands to 1200 m in c,s Ethiopia, s Sudan, s Somalia, Uganda, n,e Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Mirafra somalica  SOMALI LONG-BILLED LARK.  Red soil desert.  Somalia.
Mirafra ashi  ASH'S LARK.  Red soil desert.  Known only from s Somalia.  A recently discovered sibling species of M. somalica, with which it is sympatric.

Mirafra africana  RUFOUS-NAPED LARK.  Grass, savanna, open marshland.  Locally in sw Mali, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, c Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, sw C. African Rep., n,se Sudan, c Ethiopia, Somalia; from Gabon and Congo to Angola; s,ne Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, c,w Kenya and Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, to c Namibia, s Botswana, Mozambique and e S. Africa.  Hybridizes with hypermetra in s Sudan, e Uganda, but they are sympatric in Kenya apparently without interbreeding.
Mirafra sharpii  SOMALI LARK.  Plains of n Somalia.  May be conspecific with africana and so recommended by several authors (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Mirafra angolensis  ANGOLA LARK.  Moist grassland.  Highlands of nw,wc,e Angola, se Zaire, sw Tanzania and nw Zambia.

Mirafra rufocinnamomea  FLAPPET LARK.  Savanna.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, n Cameroon; s Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Chad, C. Afr. Rep., c,s Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia, s to Angola, ne Namibia, Zambia, n Botswana, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne S. Africa.
Mirafra apiata  CLAPPER LARK.  Grass, bushes, rocky slopes.  Zmbia, Namibia, Botswana, S. Africa (exc. ne, se coastal).
Mirafra collaris  COLLARED LARK.  Dry acacia savanna. Somalia, se Ethiopia and ne Kenya.
Mirafra africanoides  FAWN-COLORED LARK.  Dry thorn scrub, grassland.  C,s Ethiopia (above 1200 m), Somalia, Uganda, w,c Kenya, ne Tanzania; from s Angola, sw Zambia, Botswana, c,s Zimbabwe and s Mozambique s to s Namibia and n S. Africa.
Mirafra alopex  ABYSSINIAN LARK.  Dense thorn scrub.  Local, below 300 m in e Ethiopia and nw Somalia.  Often included in M. africanoides, but morphologically and ecologically distinct.
Mirafra erythroptera  INDIAN LARK.  Arid scrub, stony plains, farms.  Pakistan and w,c India.
Mirafra assamica  RUFOUS-WINGED LARK.  Grassland, farms, plains.  Up to 600 m in c,e India, Ceylon, w,c,e Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, s Laos and s Vietnam.
Mirafra rufa  RUSTY LARK.  Bushes in rocky areas, acacia savanna.  Se Mali, s Niger and c,s Chad e to
w,n Sudan.
Mirafra gilletti  GILLETT'S LARK.  Bushes, rocky areas, acacia savanna.  Somalia, e Ethiopia and n, ne Kenya.
Mirafra degodiensis  DEGODI LARK.  Bushes in rocky areas.  Described in 1975 based on two specimens from se Ethiopia.  Recently rediscovered in the field (Ash and Gullick. 1990. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 110:90-93).  May be conspecific with M. gilletti.
Mirafra poecilosterna  PINK-BREASTED LARK.  Bushes, rocky areas, acacia savanna.  Se Sudan, s Ethiopia, Somalia, ne Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Mirafra naevia  BRADFIELD'S LARK.  Bushes in rocky areas, acacia savanna.  From Congo River mouth s through coastal Angola and Namibia and w,c Botswana to w S. Africa.  May be a race of M. sabota.
Mirafra sabota  SABOTA LARK.  Bushes in rocky areas, acacia savanna.  E Botswana, sw Zimbabwe, se Angola, s Mozambique and ne S. Africa. 
Pinarocorys:  Larks. Stony, open bush, clearings, grass, farms.  W,c,s Africa.  Sometimes merged into Mirafra.  The two species sometimes are merged into nigricans.

19 cm.  Dark brown above; black and white facial pattern; whitish-buff below with brown spots from chest to upper belly; rump rufous in erythropygia.

Pinarocorys erythropygia  RUFOUS-RUMPED LARK.  Se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Zaire, Chad, c,s Sudan, nw Uganda.  Intra-African migrant.
Pinarocorys nigricans  DUSKY LARK.  Sw,cs,se Zaire, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, wc Tanzania, Malawi (?), and s Mozambique s to c Namibia, c Botswana and ne S. Africa.  Intra-African migrant.
 Heteromirafra:  Larks. Grassland.  Ne,e,s Africa.

14 cm.  Small, large-headed, short-tailed; Above mottled and streaked with black and buffy-white; buffy below with brown spots on lower neck and chest.  The three species are similar, allopatric and sometimes combined in one species (ruddi).  Sometimes merged into Mirafra.

Heteromirafra archeri  ARCHER'S LARK.  Highlands, 1500 m, of cs Ethiopia.
Heteromirafra sidamoensis  SIDAMO LARK.  Somalia.  Known from two specimens.  (The ranges indicated for archeri and sidamoensis in Dowsett and Forbes-Watson, 1993, p. 189, are reversed; see Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire, 1993, p. 348 for correct ranges, as above).
Heteromirafra ruddi  RUDD'S LARK.  E South Africa in se Transvaal, Swaziland, e Orange Free State, ne Natal, Lesotho and e Cape Province.
Certhilauda:  Larks.  Some species have been placed in Ammomanes.  Arid regions of s Africa.

15-19 cm.  Bill long; brown, gray or rufous above, mottled with paler feather edgings; white to rufous below with spots or mottling.

Certhilauda curvirostris  LONG-BILLED LARK.  Rocky areas; short grass.  Cw,sw Angola, w,s Namibia and S. Africa, except n,e Transvaal, e Natal and e Cape Prov.
Certhilauda chuana  SHORT-CLAWED LARK.  Open thorn scrub.  Se Botswana and ne S. Africa.
Certhilauda erythrochlamys  DUNE LARK.  Red sand dunes with Aristida grass.  W Namibia.   Sometimes treated as a race of albescens, but Crowe, et al. (1994. pp. 229-234 in Forey, et al. Systematics and Conservation Evaluation.  Syst. Assoc. Special Vol. 50. Clarendon Press) found discriminant analysis of morphology and song, and mtDNA profiles, distinguish this species from the next three, which also differ in habitat.

Certhilauda albescens  KAROO LARK.  Shrubby semi-desert.  Sw Namibia and w,c S. Africa.
Certhilauda cavei  CAVE'S LARK.  Succulent Karoo desert.  Mouth of the Orange River, sw Namibia.

A newly recognized species.  Crowe, et al. (op.cit.) found this lark, formerly included in C. albescens, to be morphologically and vocally distinct, and its mtDNA profile differs from that of C. erythrochlamys to the north and C. albescens to the south.

Certhilauda burra  FERRUGINOUS LARK or RED LARK.  Patches of red Kalahari sand.  Se Namibia and nw S. Africa.

The taxonomic status of this species has been uncertain, ranging from treatment as a race of C. albescens to a monotypic genus.  Crowe, et al. (op. cit.) found that its mtDNA profile is distinct from that of the C. albescens complex and placed it in the genus Pseudammomanes.

Chersomanes albofasciata  SPIKE-HEELED LARK.  15 cm.  Sometimes placed in Certhilauda.  Grassland, dry sandy plains.  Sw,c,ne Angola, Namibia, c,s Botswana and S. Africa (exc. se).  A disjunct breeding population in ne Tanzania (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).

Bill long, tail short; russet brown with black streaks above; rump rufous; tail dark with white tips; chin, throat white, breast, belly russet-brown; geographically variable.

Eremopterix:  Sparrow-Larks.  Arid, open areas with sparse vegetation, grass, thorn scrub, desert.  Subsaharan Africa, Cape Verde Is., Arabia to India, Sri Lanka.

13 cm.  Short, stout, finch-like bills, short tails.  Sexes differ.  Males russet-brown or gray-brown above with blackish underparts; most with white patches on black head.  Females paler, mottled  brownish.

Eremopterix leucotis  CHESTNUT-BACKED SPARROW-LARK.  Sw Mauritania, Senegambia, e to n Nigeria, s Chad, c,s Sudan, Ethiopia, s Somalia, ne Uganda, Kenya, ne Tanzania; s Angola, n Namibia, Botswana, s,e Zambia, Malawi, w,s Mozambique, Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa.
Eremopterix australis  BLACK-EARED SPARROW-LARK.  S Namibia, s Botswana, and nc S. Africa.
Eremopterix verticalis  GREY-BACKED SPARROW-LARK.  W,s Angola, Namibia, sw Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana to s South Africa.
Eremopterix leucopareia  FISCHER'S SPARROW-LARK.  Ne Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, ce Zaire, n Zambia, n Malawi.
Eremopterix signata  CHESTNUT-HEADED SPARROW-LARK.  Stony desert.  Se Sudan, s,c,e Ethiopia, Somalia, n,nc,ne Kenya.
Eremopterix nigriceps  BLACK-CROWNED SPARROW-LARK.  Cape Verde Is.; Sahel from s Mauritania and s Mali to se Egypt, n,c Sudan, ne Ethiopia, n,ne,se Somalia, sw,s Arabia, Socotra I.; se Iraq, s Iran, s Pakistan and w India.
Eremopterix grisea  ASHY-CROWNED SPARROW-LARK.  Up to 1000 m in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Ceylon.
 Ammomanes:  Larks. Sandy or stony desert, stony plains, dry grassland, rocky hills, farms.  Africa, Arabia to India.

13-15 cm.  Plumages tend to be pale buffy above, whitish below; bill short; tail medium-short, blackish with white areas.

Ammomanes cincturus  BAR-TAILED DESERT LARK.  Cape Verde Is.; Sahara from Mauritania and Morocco to Egypt, n,c Sudan and Arabian desert, s to Yemen; s to c Mali, c Niger, c Chad; n Iraq, c,e Iran, s Afghanistan and s Pakistan.
Ammomanes phoenicurus  RUFOUS-TAILED LARK.  Dry grassland, stony plains.  Peninsular India.
Ammomanes deserti  DESERT LARK.  Stony desert, rocky hills.  Sahara Desert s to c Mauritania, se Mali, s Niger, c Chad, c Sudan, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and n Somalia; Sinai Pen. and Arabia; Jordan e to Transcaspia, Pakistan and nw India.
Ammomanes grayi  GRAY'S LARK.  Sandy desert.  Sw Angola and w Namibia.

Alaemon:  Hoopoe-Larks. Desert.  N Africa, Cape Verde Is., Arabia, s Asia.
 19 cm.  Long, slightly decurved bill; gray and sand-colored above, pale rump, streaked breast, white belly; wings black and white; tail with white on outer rectrices.  Nest sometimes above ground in a grass tuft.

Alaemon alaudipes  GREATER HOOPOE-LARK.  Cape Verde Is., Sahara s to sw Mauritania, Senegambia, c Mali, c Niger, s Chad, c Sudan, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, nw Somalia and Arabia; Near East n to c Syria, e to Pakistan and w India.
Alaemon hamertoni  LESSER HOOPOE-LARK.  Ne Somalia inland from n coast where alaudipes occurs, but ranges to the coast in e Somalia.  Sometimes lumped with alaudipes.
Ramphocoris clotbey  THICK-BILLED LARK.  17 cm.  Stony desert.  N edge of Sahara Desert from c Mauritania, nw Niger and Morocco to Algeria, Tunisia and nw Libya; n Egypt, s Syria, nw Arabia.  Vagrant records in s Mauritania and Yemen.

Short, large, finch-like bill.  Male sandy-colored above; black facial area with a white spot; pale circumorbital area; throat white; buffy-white below with black spots; wings dark brown with large white patch; white on outer rectrices.  Female more rufescent and less spotted below.

Melanocorypha:  Larks. Arid open country, grass, fields, plains; some near water.  N Africa, s Europe, Near and Middle East, to India, China, sw Siberia, Mongolia.

16-21 cm.  Finch-billed, medium tail length; mottled rufescent to buffy-brown above; streaked or spotted breast, white below.

Melanocorypha calandra  CALANDRA LARK.  Morocco to ne Libya; s France to Balkans, Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, w,n Iran, n Afghanistan, s Russia, w Turkestan.  Black area on side of neck; tail with white tips/outer webs.
Melanocorypha bimaculata  BIMACULATED LARK.  Up to 2750 m in e,se Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, w,sc,n Iran, n Afghanistan, s Russia, Aral Sea area, Turkestan, to w China.  Winters s to ne Africa, Arabia and s Asia e to Pakistan and w India. 
Melanocorypha maxima  TIBETAN LARK.  Plains, rocky uplands, swamps.  Himalayas to 4350 m in n India, s Tibet and w,wc China. 
Melanocorypha mongolica  MONGOLIAN LARK.  High plains.  Sw Siberia, Mongolia and n China.

Melanocorypha leucoptera  WHITE-WINGED LARK.  Dry grassy plains.  Se Russia, n Caspian and Aral seas, Kazakhstan and sw Siberia.
Melanocorypha yeltoniensis  BLACK LARK.  Grassy plains, usually near water.  S Russia to Kazakhstan and sw Siberia.  Breeding male dull black; female brownish-gray with dark mottling, whitish/brown below, underwing coverts black.
Calandrella:  Larks. Dry, open grassland, bare ground, rocky areas, desert.  Africa, Arabia, e,s Eurasia.

14-17 cm. Sparrow-size larks with narrow, conical bills.  Brownish, grayish or rufescent above with streaks/mottling; pale supercilium; whitish/buffy below, some species with breast streaks; white in tail.
 The populations of Calandrella are similar in color and size and their assignment as species or subspecies is unclear.  Some authors merge allopatric populations into a single species, others treat them as separate species.  The following arrangement recognizes several allopatric forms as species which are included in a single species by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1990, p. 348). 

Calandrella brachydactyla  GREATER SHORT-TOED LARK.  N Africa from n Mali and s Morocco to n Egypt; s,se Europe; Turkey, Near East, Iran, Afghanistan, s Russia, sw Siberia, Mongolia, n,sw China, probably n India.  This and the next two species sometimes are treated as races of C. cinerea, or the next two species are treated as races of brachydactyla.
Calandrella blanfordi  BLANFORD'S LARK.  N Ethiopia, nw Somalia, sw Arabia, usually above 900 m.
Calandrella erlangeri  ERLANGER'S LARK.  Highlands of Ethiopia.  Has been included in C. somalica.

Calandrella cinerea  RED-CAPPED LARK.  N Nigeria and from sw,s,ne Zaire, Uganda, w Kenya, w Tanzania, Malawi and w Mozambique, s to s S. Africa.
Calandrella acutirostris  HUME'S LARK.  Mts., 3000-4900 m in ne Iran, nc,e Afghanistan, e Turkestan, Tadzhikistan, w China, and Himalayas of n Pakistan, n India and Tibet.  Occurs above C. brachydactyla.
Calandrella rufescens  LESSER SHORT-TOED LARK.  Includes pispoletta.  Canary Is., Iberian Peninsula, n Africa; and from c,s,e Turkey, Near East and n Arabia across Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, s Russia to Aral Sea and L. Balkhash.

Calandrella cheleensis  ASIAN SHORT-TOED LARK.  Arid steppe, salt desert.  Sc Asia in Turkestan, e Kazakhstan, w,n,ne China, w Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, s Siberia and ne Tibet.  Sometimes treated as a race of rufescens, but they are marginally sympatric in s Russia.
Calandrella raytal  INDIAN SHORT-TOED LARK.  Riparian sand banks, salt pans, coastal flats.  Se coastal Iran, s,e Afghanistan, w,n,ne India and w Burma.
Calandrella somalica  RUFOUS SHORT-TOED LARK.  Desert, dry plains.  N Somalia and sc Ethiopia.  Sometimes included in rufescens.

Calandrella athensis  ATHI SHORT-TOED LARK.  Open, nearly bare ground, grassland.  Sc,se Kenya and ne Tanzania.  Often included in somalica
and sometimes in rufescens, but it also has been treated as a race of cinerea.
Spizocorys:  Larks.  Grassland, desert, acacia savanna.  Africa.  Small; heavy finch-like bill; short tail; brownish/buffy above, streaked/spotted with blackish; supercilium whitish or buffy; throat white; whitish/buffy below; usually streaked breast; tail blackish with white areas.
Spizocorys conirostris  PINK-BILLED LARK.  Angola (?), Namibia (exc. w), w Zambia, w,s Botswana and S. Africa.

Spizocorys sclateri  SCLATER'S LARK.  Desert.  Wc,s Namibia and nw S. Africa (nw,c Cape Prov.).
Spizocorys obbiensis  OBBIA LARK.  Desert.  Coastal ce Somalia, from Obbia s to Mogadishu area.  This and the next two species sometimes are included in Eremalauda.
Spizocorys personata  MASKED LARK.  Desert, acacia savanna.  Sw,se Ethiopia and cn Kenya.
Spizocorys fringillaris  BOTHA'S LARK.  Open, short grassland.  Ec S. Africa in s Transvaal and n Orange Free State.
Eremalauda:  Larks.  Arid habitats.  Africa. 14 cm.  Finch-like bill.

Eremalauda starki  STARK'S LARK.  Dry grassland, desert edge.  Sw Angola, Namibia, w,s Botswana and nw S. Africa.
Eremalauda dunni  DUNN'S LARK.  Desert.  Southern edge of Sahara from s Mauritania e to c Mali, s Niger, s Chad to s Egypt and n,c Sudan; w Arabia.
Chersophilus duponti  DUPONT'S LARK. Scrub, Artemisia, grassland.  S Spain; from e Morocco to c,s Algeria, c Tunisia and w,ne Libya to nw Egypt.

16 cm.  Bill long, decurved; brownish/rufous above; whitish below with streaks/spots on neck, breast; white outer rectrices.

Galerida:  Larks.  Dry open country, rocky areas, scrub, grassland, farms.  Eurasia, Africa.

13-20 cm.  Bill variable, but not decurved.  Crest varies in length.  Generic assignments vary but species names and English names may provide clues.  Galerida is sometimes merged into Alauda.

Galerida cristata  CRESTED LARK.  Dry, open areas.  S Sweden e across Russia to s Siberia, s to n Africa from Morocco to Egypt, Turkey, Near East, Arabia, Iran, nw India, Turkestan, n China, Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea; sub-Saharan Africa from s Mauritania, Senegambia and Sierra Leone e across Mali, Niger, Ghana and n Nigeria to n Sudan, n,sc Ethiopia, n Somalia and n Kenya.

Geographically variable in dorsal color which usually matches the local soil color: mottled brown, sandy, rufescent, grayish to blackish above; paler below with streaked breast; tail medium.

Galerida theklae  THEKLA LARK. Dry, rocky country.  Se Spain, s France, Balearic Is.,; from n Mauritania and Morocco e to n Algeria, Tunisia, n Libya and nw Egypt; highlands of Ethiopia, Eritrea, n Somalia and cn Kenya.  Difficult or impossible to distinguish from cristata in the field except by habitat and distribution.  Both species are geographically variable in color.  Sometimes included in malabarica.
Galerida malabarica  MALABAR LARK.  Dry, open, rocky areas.  Up to 1800 m of w pen. India.
Galerida deva  TAWNY LARK.  Bare, stony country, scrub, farms.  India.
Galerida modesta  SUN LARK.  Dry rocky ground, grass savanna.  Senegambia, Guinea and Sierra Leone e to s Mali, n Ghana, s Niger, n,c Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and C. African Rep. to n, ne Zaire, c,s Sudan and nw Uganda.

Galerida magnirostris  LARGE-BILLED LARK.  Open country with sparse vegetation, farmlands.  South Africa in w Transvaal, Orange Free State, Lesotho and Cape Prov., except extreme e coast.
Pseudalaemon fremantlii  SHORT-TAILED LARK.  Rocky ground, short grass plains, coastal grassland, gravels and bare ground.  Somalia, s,e Ethiopia, n,c,s Kenya and cn Tanzania.  Sometimes included in Galerida.
Lullula arborea  WOOD LARK.  Grassland with small trees, woodland edges.  S Britain, s Scandinavia and c Russia, s to n Morocco, n Algeria, n Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon, n Iraq, w,n Iran, w,s Russia and w Transcaspia.  Lullula is a poorly-defined genus; sometimes included in Alauda.

Alauda:  Skylarks, Larks. Grass, fields, tundra, marshy areas, sand dunes, desert.  Eurasia, Japan, Philippines; Cape Verde Is.  Similar to Galerida and Lullula.

12-17 cm.  Small to medium-sized larks with short to medium length crests, short or medium bill.

Alauda arvensis  EURASIAN SKYLARK.  Grassland, tundra, wet areas, sand dunes.  Lowlands and mts. from w,n,s Europe e to nw,c Russia, c Siberia and Kamchatka; s to Azores; mts. from Morocco to Tunisia and nw Libya; Mediterranean is., Turkey, Lebanon, w,n Iran, n Afghanistan, s Russia, nw China, Mongolia, Manchuria, n Korea, se Siberia and Kuril Is.  Intro. sw Canada, Hawaiian Is., New Zealand, se Australia.
Alauda japonica  JAPANESE SKYLARK.  Grasslands, farms.  Japan on Hokkaido, Sado, Kyushu, Honshu.  Similar to arvensis and often treated as a subspecies, but may be closer to gulgula.  B. King (pers. comm.) recommends treatment as a race of A. arvensis.
Alauda gulgula  ORIENTAL SKYLARK.  Grass, fields, desert, marsh, dunes.  Lowlands and mts. of c,e Eurasia from Aral Sea area, Turkestan, e Kazakhstan, e Iran and Afghanistan, e to Pakistan, India, Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, w,c,s China, c,se Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Taiwan; Philippine Is. of Luzon, Sibuyan, Ticao, Negros, Bohol, Mindanao.  Sympatric with arvensis in se Russia and n Afghanistan.
Alauda razae  RAZO LARK.  Arid open country on small, waterless Razo I. in the Cape Verde Is.
Eremophila:  Horned Larks. Open country, often arid, stony, sandy, shores, farms.  Most of Eurasia, N. Africa, Arabia, N. America; mts. of ce Colombia.

14-17 cm.  Black tufts ("horns") on sides of crown of males; black facial and breast patches; dorsal coloration varies with soil colors in some areas; mainly buffy to grayish or reddish-brown above; whitish below except for black breast patches; tail with white outer rectrices.  Face and throat yellow in alpestris, black and white in bilopha.

Eremophila alpestris  HORNED LARK.  From Franz Josef Land, c,n Norway, n Sweden and n Finland e across n Russia (incl. Novaya Zemlya) to n,e Siberia, s to s,se Europe, c Turkey, Lebanon, n Israel, Middle East, s Russia, Turkestan, n Kazakhstan, s Siberia and Mongolia, w,c,n China to Himalayas up to 5500 m in n Pakistan, n India and Tibet.  Nw Africa in Atlas Mts. of Morocco above 1800 m.  W,n Alaska, n Canada to n Baffin I., n Quebec, n Labrador and Newfoundland, s to s Baja Calif., c Sonora, Mexican highlands to w Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, to sea level at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and to the Gulf Coast and se U.S. in sw, nw Louisiana, c Missouri, s Tennessee, n Alabama and S. Carolina.  Mts., 2500-3000 m of ce Colombia in Cundinamarca and Boyacá.
Eremophila bilopha  TEMMINCK'S LARK.  14 cm.  Stony or sandy desert.  Locally in lowlands in Mauritania, e Morocco, n Algeria, Tunisia, n Libya, n Egypt, n Arabia, Syria and sw Iraq.  Sometimes considered conspecific with E. alpestris.

Family NECTARINIIDAE:  Sugarbirds, Sunbirds, Spiderhunters, Flowerpeckers, Mistletoebird, Berrypeckers.
 The taxonomic history of the nectarivorous passeroids is complex.  In many classifications the Nectariniidae, Dicaeidae, Meliphagidae (honeyeaters) and Zosteropidae (white-eyes) were assumed to be closely related because of similar tongue structures adapted for nectar feeding.  Thus, unrelated species were placed together on the basis of convergently similar tongues and assembled into the same, or adjacent, families or subfamilies.  
(See discussion under Family MELIPHAGIDAE).  
The following arrangement is based on DNA hybridization evidence and departs from past classifications in several ways.  It seems clear that the sunbirds and honeyeaters are not close relatives, but the relationships among the Nectariniidae, Melanocharitidae and Paramythiidae remain  uncertain.  (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990:665-670 provide details).

Subfamily PROMEROPINAE:  Sugarbirds  occur in southern Africa.  Their relationships have been the subject of extensive debate and speculation.  They obviously evolved in Africa, but in the structure of the tongue, nest construction and some aspects of behavior they resemble the honeyeaters (Meliphagidae); in other characters they are similar to the sunbirds.  On the basis of tongue structure they have been placed in the Meliphagidae, the Nectariniidae and the monotypic family Promeropidae; on protein evidence in the Sturnidae, and on syringeal structure in the "Turdidae-Muscicapidae complex".  DNA hybridization comparisons indicate that they are nectariniids, but distinct enough to be assigned to a subfamily (Sibley and Ahlquist (1990:670-675).

Promerops gurneyi  GURNEY'S SUGARBIRD. Protea heathland.  Mts. in ce Zimbabwe, cw Mozambique and e. S. Africa.
Promerops cafer  CAPE SUGARBIRD.  Protea heathland.  Mts. of s S. Africa.  Hybridizes occasionally with P. gurneyi in e Cape province.  These two "semispecies" have been treated as races of cafer.

Subfamily NECTARINIINAE:  Flowerpeckers, Mistletoebird, Sunbirds, Spiderhunters.
 These groups occur in Africa, southeastern and eastern Asia, including the islands of the southwest Pacific; one species in northeastern Australia.  They usually have been associated with one another; often with the flowerpeckers in the family Dicaeidae.  Tongue structure has been used as the basis for classification, but nectar-adapted tongues occur in several groups of distantly-related birds and it is apparent that convergent evolution accounts for some of the similarities.

Tribe DICAEINI:  Flowerpeckers occur in southern and southeastern Asia; on islands from the Philippines to Borneo, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Australia and the Solomon Is.
 Bill short, varying from thick to sharp and pointed; tail short.  They are small, active and some are brightly colored with orange and red.  They eat insects and small fruits, especially the berries of the mistletoe genus Loranthus.  The mistletoe seeds pass rapidly through the digestive tract and stick to the branches of trees, thus the birds disperse the seeds of the plant parasite and contribute to their own food supply.  
The purse-shaped nest has a side opening and is made of leaves and grass bound together with cobwebs and suspended from a leafy twig.  Eggs of most species white, unmarked.

Prionochilus olivaceus  OLIVE-BACKED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m of  Philippine Is. of e. Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao, Basilan.
Prionochilus maculatus  YELLOW-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1500 m of Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. nearby is., Borneo and N. Natuna Is.
Prionochilus percussus  CRIMSON-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. nearby is.,  Borneo, N. Natuna Is. and Java.
Prionochilus plateni  PALAWAN FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, gardens.  Sw Philippine Is. of  Calamian Is., Palawan, Balabac.
Prionochilus xanthopygius  YELLOW-RUMPED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth, scrub.  Borneo and Natuna Besar Is.
Prionochilus thoracicus  SCARLET-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo.
Dicaeum annae  GOLDEN-RUMPED FLOWERPECKER.  Open Forest, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1000 m of  c Lesser Sunda Is. of  Sumbawa and Flores.
Dicaeum agile  THICK-BILLED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands. Lowlands to 1800 m in ne Pakistan, India, Burma (exc. w, ne), Indochina (exc. n Vietnam), n Sumatra, w Java and Sunda Is. of Sumba, Flores, Alor and Timor.
Dicaeum aeruginosum  STRIPED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Lubang, Romblon, Sibuyan, Palawan, Cebu, Negro and Mindanao.  Sometimes treated as a race of D. agile.
Dicaeum everetti  BROWN-BACKED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in s Malaya, Riau Arch. and n Borneo, incl. nearby is.
Dicaeum proprium  WHISKERED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth. Mts. above 900 m of Philippine Is. of Mindanao.
Dicaeum chrysorrheum  YELLOW-VENTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1500 m from ne India, sw China S to Sumatra, Borneo and Java.

Dicaeum melanoxanthum  YELLOW-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Himalayas, 750-2450 m, ne India, sw China and e Burma; n Thailand, n Laos, n Vietnam, possibly only as migrants.
Dicaeum vincens  WHITE-THROATED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest. Hills to 1000 m of Sri Lanka.
Dicaeum aureolimbatum  YELLOW-SIDED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, towns.  Lowlands to 2000 m on Sulawesi and  nearby is.
Dicaeum nigrilore  OLIVE-CAPPED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Mts. above 1000 m on Philippine Is. of Mindanao.
Dicaeum anthonyi  FLAME-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER.  Mossy forest.  Mts, 800-2100 m of Philippine Is. of n Luzon and Mindanao.

Dicaeum bicolor  BICOLORED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1500 m of Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Negros, Guimaras, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Dinagat, Mindanao.
Dicaeum quadricolor  CEBU FLOWERPECKER.  Forest. Philippine I. of  Cebu.  Thought to have been extinct since 1906 following deforestation of Cebu, but recently reported from remnant forest patches.
Dicaeum australe  RED-STRIPED FLOWERPECKER. Forest, edge, farmlands. Philippines.
Dicaeum retrocinctum  SCARLET-COLLARED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, edge, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1000 m of Philippine Is of Mindoro.  Closely related to, and possibly conspecific with,  D. australe.

Dicaeum trigonostigma  ORANGE-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest edge, clearings, second growth.  Lowlands to 1200 m from e India, e Bangladesh, e Assam, Burma, (exc. ne, c) and pen. Thailand s through Malaya and Tioman I. to Sumatra and nearby is., Borneo and nearby is., Java and Bali; Phillipine. Is and Sulu Arch., except Palawan and Calamian Is.; extirpated on Cebu I. circa 1910.
Dicaeum hypoleucum  BUZZING FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1800 m of Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Panaon, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu Arch.
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos  PALE-BILLED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, assoc. with misletoe, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1200 m in India, Nepal, Bhutan, w Bangladesh; to 2100 m. in Sri Lanka; and w,e,s, Burma.

Dicaeum concolor  PLAIN FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 2100 m of sw India; ne India, c Nepal s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, E to se China and Taiwan, S through Burma  (exc. s), Thailand (exc. c,pen.), Laos, n, c Vietnam, Malaya, Andaman Is., Sumatra, Borneo, N. Natuna Is., Java and Bali.
Dicaeum pygmaeum  PYGMY FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 2000 m of Philippines, exc. Sulu Arch.
Dicaeum nehrkorni  CRIMSON-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest. Mts., 700-2600 m of Sulawesi.
Dicaeum erythrothorax  FLAME-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 750 m of Molucca Is. of  Morotai, Halmahera, Bacan, Obi, Buru.

Dicaeum vulneratum  ASHY FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Mid-mountain zone, 300-2100 m of s Molucca Is. of  Seram, Ambon, Saparau, Seram Laut.
Dicaeum pectorale  OLIVE-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands of  w New Guinea, incl. nearby is.
Dicaeum geelvinkianum  RED-CAPPED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, savanna.  Lowlands to 1950 m (exc. Vogelkop and D'Entrecasteaux Arch.).  Often considered conspecific  D. pectorale.
Dicaeum nitidum  LOUISIADE FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands of is. in se New Guinea.  Often considered conspecific  D. geelvinkianum.
Dicaeum eximium  RED-BANDED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Bismarck Arch.
Dicaeum aeneum  MIDGET FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Solomon Is.
Dicaeum tristrami  MOTTLED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, second growth. Se Solomon I. of San Cristobal.
Dicaeum igniferum  BLACK-FRONTED FLOWERPECKER.  Open forest, shrubs.  Lowlands of c Lesser Sunda Is. of  Sumbawa, Flores, Pantar, Alor.  Possibly conspecific  D. maugei.
Dicaeum maugei  RED-CHESTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest edge, open forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 2000 m of Wallacea on is. in Flores Sea and Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Penida, Lombok, Sawu, Roti, Semau, Timor, Romang, Moa, Damar, Babar.
Dicaeum ignipectus  FIRE-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Mts , 800-3000 m in n,e India, Kashmir, se Tibet, s China, Taiwan, Burma, (exc. c,), n Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, (exc. Cochinchina) and Malay Pen.; se Thailand, Cambodia; n Sumatra; Philippine Is of Luzon, Samar, Negros, Mindanao.
B. King (pers. comm.) recommends species status for beccarii of n Sumatra; it lacks the red breast patch of ignipectus.

Dicaeum monticolum  BLACK-SIDED FLOWERPECKER.  Mossy forest.  Mts. above 750 m of n Borneo.
Sometimes treated as a race of D. celebicum or of D. ignipectus; all of the species from ignipectus through hirundinaceum, may be races of the latter.
Dicaeum celebicum  GREY-SIDED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1000 m of  Sulawesi, incl. nearby is..
Dicaeum sanguinolentum  BLOOD-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest.  Lowlands and mts. of Java and w,c Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Sumba, Flores, Timor.
Dicaeum hirundinaceum  MISTLETOEBIRD.  Forest, woodland, assoc.  mistletoe. S.  Wallacea Is.; nomadic in Australia, (exc. Tasmania) and is. in Torres Strait.  
May be conspecific  D. ignipectus, D. monticolum, D. celebicum.
Dicaeum cruentatum  SCARLET-BACKED FLOWERPECKER.  Forest, open woodland, groves, farmlands, mangroves, scrub.  Lowlands to 1200 m from e India, Nepal E to Arunachal Pradesh, s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland; se China, S to Sumatra and Borneo, incl. Karimata Is.
Dicaeum trochileum  SCARLET-HEADED FLOWERPECKER.  Second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands of Sumatra, se Bornea, Java and w Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Lombok.  Possibly conspecific  D. cruentatum.

Tribe NECTARINIINI:  Sunbirds and Spiderhunters occur in Africa, Madagascar and southern and southeastern Asia to the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Is. and northeastern Australia.   
They have long, slender decurved bills with which they probe in flowers for nectar using their tubular tongues; also take insects and pollen.  Many plant species are adapted to attract these species as pollination agents.  Plumages are glossy metallic, often green or blue, some yellow or red.  Nests of sunbirds are beautiful pendant structures of fine grass and other soft materials, including plant down and cobwebs, with a side entrance; suspended from a branch, palm frond, telephone wire, etc.  Spiderhunter nests are sewn to the underside of 
large leaves using cobwebs to attach the nest.
Anthreptes fraseri  SCARLET-TUFTED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Guinea, s Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo to  nw Angola.  See A. axillaris.
Anthreptes axillaris  GREY-HEADED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Zaire, Uganda and Tanzania.  
Sometimes treated as a race of A. fraseri, but not known to intergrade.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) include axillaris in fraseri, noting that axillaris is "no more than an incipient species" and that the possible area of contact has not been explored. 
Anthreptes reichenowi  PLAIN-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Forest, rivers.  Coastal areas of se Kenya, ne Tanzania; locally in e Zimbabwe, s Mozambique; possibly in ne S. Africa.
Anthreptes anchietae  ANCHIETA'S SUNBIRD.  Brachystegia woodland.  C, ne Angola, se Zaire, Zambia, sw Tanzania, Malawi and n Mozambique.
Anthreptes simplex  PLAIN SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. Nais Is., and Borneo, incl. N. Natuna Is.
Anthreptes malacensis  PLAIN-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Mangrove, scrubs, farmlands.  Coastal lowlands to 1000 m in w,s Burma, c,se,pen. Thailand, Cambodia, s Laos, s Vietnam, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Lesser  Sunda Is., Sulawesi and  Philippine Is. of  Calamian Is., Palawan, Balabac,  Sibutu, Luzon, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, ne Mindanao.
Anthreptes rhodolaema  RED-THROATED SUNBIRD. Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo.

Anthreptes singalensis  RUBY-CHEEKED SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth, towns.  Lowlands to 1000 m from e, se India, e Napal, Bangladesh, Manipur, Nagaland and sw China  s, (exc. ne,e Burma) to Sumatra, incl. nearby is., Borneo, incl. N. Natuna and Banggi Is. and Java.
Anthreptes gabonicus  MOUSE-BROWN SUNBIRD. Mangroves, creeks.  Coastal area in Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda and nw Zaire.
Anthreptes longuemarei  WESTERN VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Woodland edge, savanna.  Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, Burundi, Uganda, ne,ce,se Zaire, sw, se, ce Tanzania and s to sw,ce,e Angola, Zambia, e Zimbabwe, Malawi and c,ne Mozambique.

Anthreptes orientalis  KENYA VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Arid thorn savanna.  Se Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia s to n Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Anthreptes neglectus  ULUGURU VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge.  Locally in lowlands, mostly coastal, of se Kenya, ne Tanzania and n Mozambique.
Anthreptes aurantium  VIOLET-TAILED SUNBIRD.  Riparian forest.  Cameroon e to C. African Rep. and ne Zaire and s to Gabon, Congo, Angola and s Zaire.
Anthreptes pallidigaster  AMANI SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m in se Kenya and ne Tanzania.

Anthreptes rectirostris  GREEN SUNBIRD.  Forest clearings, edge, second growth.  S Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, s. Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, and w Kenya s to nw Angola, sw,cs,ce Zaire and extreme nw Tanzania.
Anthreptes rubritorques  BANDED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth.  Mts., 900-1500 m of ne Tanzania in Nguru and Uluguru mts.  Sometimes treated as a race of A. rectirostris.
Anthreptes collaris  COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest clearings, riparian woodland, second growth.  S Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n Zaire, extreme s Sudan, s Ethiopia, s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, s to c,e,se Angola, ne Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, (exc. sw, c), Mozambique and e S. Africa.
Anthreptes platurus  PYGMY SUNBIRD.  Arid acacia savanna.  Extreme sw Mauritania, Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Niger, Benin, n,c Nigeria, Camaroon, c,s Chad and n C. African Rep. to w,s Sudan, (exc. Nile V.), (?Ethiopia), extreme ne Zaire, n Uganda and nw Kenya.
Anthreptes metallicus  NILE VALLEY SUNBIRD.  Arid acacia savanna.  C,e Sudan, Nile V., n to n Egypt, n,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and sw Arabia, from Mecca s to w Yemen and Aden.
Hypogramma hypogrammicum  PURPLE-NAPED SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m from n,c,s Burma and sw China s through nw,pen. Thailand, Indochina, (exc. Cambodia), through Malaya to Sumatra, Borneo and N. Natuna Is.
Nectarinia seimundi  LITTLE GREEN SUNBIRD.  Second growth, clearings, edge.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,e Zaire, extreme s Sudan, e Uganda, Rwanda, s to nw Angola and sw,cs,ce Zaire.
Nectarinia batesi  BATES'S SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, clearings, second growth.  Ivory Coast, Ghana, s. Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, c,ce,se Zaire, e Angola and nw Zambia.
Nectarinia olivacea  OLIVE SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth.  Sw Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan and sw,c Ethiopia and s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania s to c Angola, c,n Zambia, e Zimbabwe, Mozambique 

       Passeriformes 23
© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi