The Passeroidea includes six families:
Alaudidae: larks; Nectariniidae:
sugarbirds, flowerpeckers, sunbirds, spiderhunters; Melanocharitidae:
berrypeckers, longbills; Paramythiidae:
Crested Berrypecker, Tit Berrypecker; Passeridae:
sparrows, petronias, rock sparrows, snowfinches, wagtails, pipits,
accentors, weavers, malimbes, queleas, fodies, bishops, widowbirds, waxbills,
Fringillidae: Olive Warbler, serins,
siskins, goldfinches, finches, seedeaters, grosbeaks, redpolls, bullfinches,
Hawaiian honeycreepers, buntings, longspurs, emberizine sparrows, towhees,
brush-finches, cardinals, wood-warblers, tanagers, conebills, South American
seedeaters, Galapagos finches, saltators, oropendolas, caciques, New World
orioles, troupials, New World blackbirds, meadowlarks, grackles, cowbirds.
Family ALAUDIDAE: Larks.
Most species of larks occur in Africa and Eurasia. The widespread
Horned Lark or Shore Lark (Eremophila alpestris) has also colonized the
New World, and the Australian Lark (Mirafra javanica) occurs in Australia
and New Guinea.
Larks differ from other oscine passerines in lacking an ossified
syringeal pessulus and in having the tarsi rounded behind ("latiplantar").
The tarsi have scutes on the posterior surface, as well as on the anterior,
and the hallux (hind toe) tends to be long and nearly straight, an adaptation
related to their terrestrial habits. The latiplantar tarsus and the
ossified syringeal pessulus have been the basis for viewing the larks as
a "primitive" group and for their isolation at the beginning of the sequence
of passerine families in virtually all classifications since 1839.
These characters define the Alaudidae, but they are derived conditions
that evolved after the larks diverged from the other passeroids.
The evidence for this was revealed by DNA comparisons. Some larks
have finch-like bills, which has been the basis for associating the Alaudidae
with the Fringillidae in some classifications. The larks resemble
the wagtails and pipits (Motacillidae) in their terrestrial habits and
the two groups have been placed next to one another in some classifications.
Because both larks and swallows have been viewed as "primitive" (see Hirundinidae)
they have usually been assigned as the first two families of oscines in
many classifications (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990:664-665 provide details).
Larks are open country birds, often occurring in desert, semi-desert,
rocky or grassy environments. Their plumages tend to match these
backgrounds, thus to be pale grayish, brownish or buffy above, paler below;
often with streaks or black markings that disrupt the outline of the body.
A few species are black or mostly so, some are crested. The sexes
are alike. Food mainly seeds and insects. Nest a shallow depression
on the ground, usually lined with plant material, hair, etc., often with
a rim of clods or pebbles; often in or under a grass clump or rock; some
with partial domes. Eggs 2-5, variable, gray, greenish, pink, speckled
with rufous/brown spots.
Mirafra: Larks. Grassland, plains, desert, savanna.
Africa, Madagascar, Asia, Australia, New Guinea, Philippines.
Mirafra passerina MONOTONOUS LARK. Grass, bushes,
trees, edge. S Angola (vagrant?), ne Namibia, Botswana, s Zambia,
w Zimbabwe s to n S. Africa. Closely related to cantillans and javanica.
Mirafra cantillans SINGING LARK. Dry grassy plains.
Sw Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, s Niger,
n Nigeria, Cameroon and s Chad to C. African Rep., s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea,
w Somalia and s Arabia, s to Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania; Pakistan and
Mirafra javanica AUSTRALASIAN LARK. Grassland, plains.
Up to 600 m in w,c,e,se Burma, nw,ne,se,c Thailand, Cambodia, c,s Laos,
s Vietnam; Java, Lesser Sunda Is., w,s Borneo, Philippines (Luzon, Mindoro,
Negros, Mindanao); n,ne,s New Guinea, and locally in nw,n,e,se,cw Australia.
Mirafra cheniana LATAKOO LARK. Open grassland.
Sw Zimbabwe, e,c Botswana and ne S. Africa.
Mirafra albicauda WHITE-TAILED LARK. Moist open
savanna. S Chad, Sudan, w Ethiopia (?), ne Zaire, Uganda, Kenya and
Mirafra hova MADAGASCAR LARK. Open grassland, bushes.
Up to 1800 m on Madagascar. Affinities uncertain, may be a Calandrella.
Mirafra cordofanica KORDOFAN LARK. Arid grassland,
sandy soil. A narrow belt from s Mauritania, Mali and Senegambia
e through s Niger and Chad to n Sudan.
Mirafra williamsi WILLIAMS' LARK. Dry short-grass
plains with black soil. 600-1350 m, near Marsabit and the Did Galgalla
Deserts, and between Gara Tula and Isiolo, Kenya. Sometimes included
in M. cordofanica. Voice unknown.
Mirafra pulpa FRIEDMANN'S LARK. Brushy grassland.
600-900 m; sw Ethiopia and three, perhaps four, sites in Kenya. Includes
Mirafra hypermetra RED-WINGED LARK. Grassland.
Arid lowlands to 1200 m in c,s Ethiopia, s Sudan, s Somalia, Uganda, n,e
Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Mirafra somalica SOMALI LONG-BILLED LARK. Red soil
Mirafra ashi ASH'S LARK. Red soil desert.
Known only from s Somalia. A recently discovered sibling species
of M. somalica, with which it is sympatric.
Mirafra africana RUFOUS-NAPED LARK. Grass, savanna,
open marshland. Locally in sw Mali, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Ivory Coast, c Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, sw C. African Rep., n,se Sudan,
c Ethiopia, Somalia; from Gabon and Congo to Angola; s,ne Zaire, Rwanda,
Uganda, c,w Kenya and Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, to c Namibia,
s Botswana, Mozambique and e S. Africa. Hybridizes with hypermetra
in s Sudan, e Uganda, but they are sympatric in Kenya apparently without
Mirafra sharpii SOMALI LARK. Plains of n Somalia.
May be conspecific with africana and so recommended by several authors
(D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Mirafra angolensis ANGOLA LARK. Moist grassland.
Highlands of nw,wc,e Angola, se Zaire, sw Tanzania and nw Zambia.
Mirafra rufocinnamomea FLAPPET LARK. Savanna.
Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Togo, Benin, Nigeria, n Cameroon; s Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Chad, C. Afr.
Rep., c,s Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia, s to Angola, ne Namibia, Zambia,
n Botswana, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe,
Mozambique and ne S. Africa.
Mirafra apiata CLAPPER LARK. Grass, bushes, rocky
slopes. Zmbia, Namibia, Botswana, S. Africa (exc. ne, se coastal).
Mirafra collaris COLLARED LARK. Dry acacia savanna.
Somalia, se Ethiopia and ne Kenya.
Mirafra africanoides FAWN-COLORED LARK. Dry thorn
scrub, grassland. C,s Ethiopia (above 1200 m), Somalia, Uganda, w,c
Kenya, ne Tanzania; from s Angola, sw Zambia, Botswana, c,s Zimbabwe and
s Mozambique s to s Namibia and n S. Africa.
Mirafra alopex ABYSSINIAN LARK. Dense thorn scrub.
Local, below 300 m in e Ethiopia and nw Somalia. Often included in
M. africanoides, but morphologically and ecologically distinct.
Mirafra erythroptera INDIAN LARK. Arid scrub, stony
plains, farms. Pakistan and w,c India.
Mirafra assamica RUFOUS-WINGED LARK. Grassland,
farms, plains. Up to 600 m in c,e India, Ceylon, w,c,e Burma, Thailand,
Cambodia, s Laos and s Vietnam.
Mirafra rufa RUSTY LARK. Bushes in rocky areas,
acacia savanna. Se Mali, s Niger and c,s Chad e to
Mirafra gilletti GILLETT'S LARK. Bushes, rocky areas,
acacia savanna. Somalia, e Ethiopia and n, ne Kenya.
Mirafra degodiensis DEGODI LARK. Bushes in rocky
areas. Described in 1975 based on two specimens from se Ethiopia.
Recently rediscovered in the field (Ash and Gullick. 1990. Bull. Brit.
Orn. Club 110:90-93). May be conspecific with M. gilletti.
Mirafra poecilosterna PINK-BREASTED LARK. Bushes,
rocky areas, acacia savanna. Se Sudan, s Ethiopia, Somalia, ne Uganda,
Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Mirafra naevia BRADFIELD'S LARK. Bushes in rocky
areas, acacia savanna. From Congo River mouth s through coastal Angola
and Namibia and w,c Botswana to w S. Africa. May be a race of M.
Mirafra sabota SABOTA LARK. Bushes in rocky areas,
acacia savanna. E Botswana, sw Zimbabwe, se Angola, s Mozambique
and ne S. Africa.
Pinarocorys: Larks. Stony, open bush, clearings, grass,
farms. W,c,s Africa. Sometimes merged into Mirafra. The
two species sometimes are merged into nigricans.
19 cm. Dark brown above; black and white facial pattern; whitish-buff
below with brown spots from chest to upper belly; rump rufous in erythropygia.
Pinarocorys erythropygia RUFOUS-RUMPED LARK. Se Guinea,
Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Mali,
Burkina Faso, s Niger, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Zaire, Chad, c,s Sudan,
nw Uganda. Intra-African migrant.
Pinarocorys nigricans DUSKY LARK. Sw,cs,se Zaire,
Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, wc Tanzania, Malawi (?), and s Mozambique s to
c Namibia, c Botswana and ne S. Africa. Intra-African migrant.
Heteromirafra: Larks. Grassland. Ne,e,s Africa.
14 cm. Small, large-headed, short-tailed; Above mottled and streaked
with black and buffy-white; buffy below with brown spots on lower neck
and chest. The three species are similar, allopatric and sometimes
combined in one species (ruddi). Sometimes merged into Mirafra.
Heteromirafra archeri ARCHER'S LARK. Highlands, 1500
m, of cs Ethiopia.
Heteromirafra sidamoensis SIDAMO LARK. Somalia.
Known from two specimens. (The ranges indicated for archeri and sidamoensis
in Dowsett and Forbes-Watson, 1993, p. 189, are reversed; see Dowsett and
Dowsett-Lemaire, 1993, p. 348 for correct ranges, as above).
Heteromirafra ruddi RUDD'S LARK. E South Africa
in se Transvaal, Swaziland, e Orange Free State, ne Natal, Lesotho and
e Cape Province.
Certhilauda: Larks. Some species have been placed
in Ammomanes. Arid regions of s Africa.
15-19 cm. Bill long; brown, gray or rufous above, mottled with
paler feather edgings; white to rufous below with spots or mottling.
Certhilauda curvirostris LONG-BILLED LARK. Rocky
areas; short grass. Cw,sw Angola, w,s Namibia and S. Africa, except
n,e Transvaal, e Natal and e Cape Prov.
Certhilauda chuana SHORT-CLAWED LARK. Open thorn
scrub. Se Botswana and ne S. Africa.
Certhilauda erythrochlamys DUNE LARK. Red sand dunes
with Aristida grass. W Namibia. Sometimes treated as
a race of albescens, but Crowe, et al. (1994. pp. 229-234 in Forey, et
al. Systematics and Conservation Evaluation. Syst. Assoc. Special
Vol. 50. Clarendon Press) found discriminant analysis of morphology and
song, and mtDNA profiles, distinguish this species from the next three,
which also differ in habitat.
Certhilauda albescens KAROO LARK. Shrubby semi-desert.
Sw Namibia and w,c S. Africa.
Certhilauda cavei CAVE'S LARK. Succulent Karoo desert.
Mouth of the Orange River, sw Namibia.
A newly recognized species. Crowe, et al. (op.cit.) found this
lark, formerly included in C. albescens, to be morphologically and vocally
distinct, and its mtDNA profile differs from that of C. erythrochlamys
to the north and C. albescens to the south.
Certhilauda burra FERRUGINOUS LARK or RED LARK. Patches
of red Kalahari sand. Se Namibia and nw S. Africa.
The taxonomic status of this species has been uncertain, ranging from
treatment as a race of C. albescens to a monotypic genus. Crowe,
et al. (op. cit.) found that its mtDNA profile is distinct from that of
the C. albescens complex and placed it in the genus Pseudammomanes.
Chersomanes albofasciata SPIKE-HEELED LARK. 15 cm.
Sometimes placed in Certhilauda. Grassland, dry sandy plains.
Sw,c,ne Angola, Namibia, c,s Botswana and S. Africa (exc. se). A
disjunct breeding population in ne Tanzania (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Bill long, tail short; russet brown with black streaks above; rump rufous;
tail dark with white tips; chin, throat white, breast, belly russet-brown;
Eremopterix: Sparrow-Larks. Arid, open areas with
sparse vegetation, grass, thorn scrub, desert. Subsaharan Africa,
Cape Verde Is., Arabia to India, Sri Lanka.
13 cm. Short, stout, finch-like bills, short tails. Sexes
differ. Males russet-brown or gray-brown above with blackish underparts;
most with white patches on black head. Females paler, mottled
Eremopterix leucotis CHESTNUT-BACKED SPARROW-LARK.
Sw Mauritania, Senegambia, e to n Nigeria, s Chad, c,s Sudan, Ethiopia,
s Somalia, ne Uganda, Kenya, ne Tanzania; s Angola, n Namibia, Botswana,
s,e Zambia, Malawi, w,s Mozambique, Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa.
Eremopterix australis BLACK-EARED SPARROW-LARK.
S Namibia, s Botswana, and nc S. Africa.
Eremopterix verticalis GREY-BACKED SPARROW-LARK.
W,s Angola, Namibia, sw Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana to s South Africa.
Eremopterix leucopareia FISCHER'S SPARROW-LARK.
Ne Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, ce Zaire, n Zambia, n Malawi.
Eremopterix signata CHESTNUT-HEADED SPARROW-LARK.
Stony desert. Se Sudan, s,c,e Ethiopia, Somalia, n,nc,ne Kenya.
Eremopterix nigriceps BLACK-CROWNED SPARROW-LARK.
Cape Verde Is.; Sahel from s Mauritania and s Mali to se Egypt, n,c Sudan,
ne Ethiopia, n,ne,se Somalia, sw,s Arabia, Socotra I.; se Iraq, s Iran,
s Pakistan and w India.
Eremopterix grisea ASHY-CROWNED SPARROW-LARK. Up
to 1000 m in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Ceylon.
Ammomanes: Larks. Sandy or stony desert, stony plains,
dry grassland, rocky hills, farms. Africa, Arabia to India.
13-15 cm. Plumages tend to be pale buffy above, whitish below;
bill short; tail medium-short, blackish with white areas.
Ammomanes cincturus BAR-TAILED DESERT LARK. Cape
Verde Is.; Sahara from Mauritania and Morocco to Egypt, n,c Sudan and Arabian
desert, s to Yemen; s to c Mali, c Niger, c Chad; n Iraq, c,e Iran, s Afghanistan
and s Pakistan.
Ammomanes phoenicurus RUFOUS-TAILED LARK. Dry grassland,
stony plains. Peninsular India.
Ammomanes deserti DESERT LARK. Stony desert, rocky
hills. Sahara Desert s to c Mauritania, se Mali, s Niger, c Chad,
c Sudan, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and n Somalia; Sinai Pen. and Arabia;
Jordan e to Transcaspia, Pakistan and nw India.
Ammomanes grayi GRAY'S LARK. Sandy desert.
Sw Angola and w Namibia.
Alaemon: Hoopoe-Larks. Desert. N Africa, Cape Verde
Is., Arabia, s Asia.
19 cm. Long, slightly decurved bill; gray and sand-colored
above, pale rump, streaked breast, white belly; wings black and white;
tail with white on outer rectrices. Nest sometimes above ground in
a grass tuft.
Alaemon alaudipes GREATER HOOPOE-LARK. Cape Verde
Is., Sahara s to sw Mauritania, Senegambia, c Mali, c Niger, s Chad, c
Sudan, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, nw Somalia and Arabia; Near East
n to c Syria, e to Pakistan and w India.
Alaemon hamertoni LESSER HOOPOE-LARK. Ne Somalia
inland from n coast where alaudipes occurs, but ranges to the coast in
e Somalia. Sometimes lumped with alaudipes.
Ramphocoris clotbey THICK-BILLED LARK. 17 cm.
Stony desert. N edge of Sahara Desert from c Mauritania, nw Niger
and Morocco to Algeria, Tunisia and nw Libya; n Egypt, s Syria, nw Arabia.
Vagrant records in s Mauritania and Yemen.
Short, large, finch-like bill. Male sandy-colored above; black
facial area with a white spot; pale circumorbital area; throat white; buffy-white
below with black spots; wings dark brown with large white patch; white
on outer rectrices. Female more rufescent and less spotted below.
Melanocorypha: Larks. Arid open country, grass, fields,
plains; some near water. N Africa, s Europe, Near and Middle East,
to India, China, sw Siberia, Mongolia.
16-21 cm. Finch-billed, medium tail length; mottled rufescent
to buffy-brown above; streaked or spotted breast, white below.
Melanocorypha calandra CALANDRA LARK. Morocco to
ne Libya; s France to Balkans, Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, w,n Iran, n Afghanistan,
s Russia, w Turkestan. Black area on side of neck; tail with white
Melanocorypha bimaculata BIMACULATED LARK. Up to
2750 m in e,se Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, w,sc,n Iran, n Afghanistan, s
Russia, Aral Sea area, Turkestan, to w China. Winters s to ne Africa,
Arabia and s Asia e to Pakistan and w India.
Melanocorypha maxima TIBETAN LARK. Plains, rocky
uplands, swamps. Himalayas to 4350 m in n India, s Tibet and w,wc
Melanocorypha mongolica MONGOLIAN LARK. High plains.
Sw Siberia, Mongolia and n China.
Melanocorypha leucoptera WHITE-WINGED LARK. Dry grassy
plains. Se Russia, n Caspian and Aral seas, Kazakhstan and sw Siberia.
Melanocorypha yeltoniensis BLACK LARK. Grassy plains,
usually near water. S Russia to Kazakhstan and sw Siberia.
Breeding male dull black; female brownish-gray with dark mottling, whitish/brown
below, underwing coverts black.
Calandrella: Larks. Dry, open grassland, bare ground,
rocky areas, desert. Africa, Arabia, e,s Eurasia.
14-17 cm. Sparrow-size larks with narrow, conical bills. Brownish,
grayish or rufescent above with streaks/mottling; pale supercilium; whitish/buffy
below, some species with breast streaks; white in tail.
The populations of Calandrella are similar in color and size
and their assignment as species or subspecies is unclear. Some authors
merge allopatric populations into a single species, others treat them as
separate species. The following arrangement recognizes several allopatric
forms as species which are included in a single species by Dowsett and
Dowsett-Lemaire (1990, p. 348).
Calandrella brachydactyla GREATER SHORT-TOED LARK.
N Africa from n Mali and s Morocco to n Egypt; s,se Europe; Turkey, Near
East, Iran, Afghanistan, s Russia, sw Siberia, Mongolia, n,sw China, probably
n India. This and the next two species sometimes are treated as races
of C. cinerea, or the next two species are treated as races of brachydactyla.
Calandrella blanfordi BLANFORD'S LARK. N Ethiopia,
nw Somalia, sw Arabia, usually above 900 m.
Calandrella erlangeri ERLANGER'S LARK. Highlands
of Ethiopia. Has been included in C. somalica.
Calandrella cinerea RED-CAPPED LARK. N Nigeria and
from sw,s,ne Zaire, Uganda, w Kenya, w Tanzania, Malawi and w Mozambique,
s to s S. Africa.
Calandrella acutirostris HUME'S LARK. Mts., 3000-4900
m in ne Iran, nc,e Afghanistan, e Turkestan, Tadzhikistan, w China, and
Himalayas of n Pakistan, n India and Tibet. Occurs above C. brachydactyla.
Calandrella rufescens LESSER SHORT-TOED LARK. Includes
pispoletta. Canary Is., Iberian Peninsula, n Africa; and from c,s,e
Turkey, Near East and n Arabia across Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, s Russia
to Aral Sea and L. Balkhash.
Calandrella cheleensis ASIAN SHORT-TOED LARK. Arid
steppe, salt desert. Sc Asia in Turkestan, e Kazakhstan, w,n,ne China,
w Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, s Siberia and ne Tibet. Sometimes treated
as a race of rufescens, but they are marginally sympatric in s Russia.
Calandrella raytal INDIAN SHORT-TOED LARK. Riparian
sand banks, salt pans, coastal flats. Se coastal Iran, s,e Afghanistan,
w,n,ne India and w Burma.
Calandrella somalica RUFOUS SHORT-TOED LARK. Desert,
dry plains. N Somalia and sc Ethiopia. Sometimes included in
Calandrella athensis ATHI SHORT-TOED LARK. Open,
nearly bare ground, grassland. Sc,se Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Often included in somalica
and sometimes in rufescens, but it also has been treated as a race
Spizocorys: Larks. Grassland, desert, acacia savanna.
Africa. Small; heavy finch-like bill; short tail; brownish/buffy
above, streaked/spotted with blackish; supercilium whitish or buffy; throat
white; whitish/buffy below; usually streaked breast; tail blackish with
Spizocorys conirostris PINK-BILLED LARK. Angola
(?), Namibia (exc. w), w Zambia, w,s Botswana and S. Africa.
Spizocorys sclateri SCLATER'S LARK. Desert.
Wc,s Namibia and nw S. Africa (nw,c Cape Prov.).
Spizocorys obbiensis OBBIA LARK. Desert. Coastal
ce Somalia, from Obbia s to Mogadishu area. This and the next two
species sometimes are included in Eremalauda.
Spizocorys personata MASKED LARK. Desert, acacia
savanna. Sw,se Ethiopia and cn Kenya.
Spizocorys fringillaris BOTHA'S LARK. Open, short
grassland. Ec S. Africa in s Transvaal and n Orange Free State.
Eremalauda: Larks. Arid habitats. Africa.
14 cm. Finch-like bill.
Eremalauda starki STARK'S LARK. Dry grassland, desert
edge. Sw Angola, Namibia, w,s Botswana and nw S. Africa.
Eremalauda dunni DUNN'S LARK. Desert. Southern
edge of Sahara from s Mauritania e to c Mali, s Niger, s Chad to s Egypt
and n,c Sudan; w Arabia.
Chersophilus duponti DUPONT'S LARK. Scrub, Artemisia,
grassland. S Spain; from e Morocco to c,s Algeria, c Tunisia and
w,ne Libya to nw Egypt.
16 cm. Bill long, decurved; brownish/rufous above; whitish below
with streaks/spots on neck, breast; white outer rectrices.
Galerida: Larks. Dry open country, rocky areas, scrub,
grassland, farms. Eurasia, Africa.
13-20 cm. Bill variable, but not decurved. Crest varies
in length. Generic assignments vary but species names and English
names may provide clues. Galerida is sometimes merged into Alauda.
Galerida cristata CRESTED LARK. Dry, open areas.
S Sweden e across Russia to s Siberia, s to n Africa from Morocco to Egypt,
Turkey, Near East, Arabia, Iran, nw India, Turkestan, n China, Mongolia,
Manchuria, Korea; sub-Saharan Africa from s Mauritania, Senegambia and
Sierra Leone e across Mali, Niger, Ghana and n Nigeria to n Sudan, n,sc
Ethiopia, n Somalia and n Kenya.
Geographically variable in dorsal color which usually matches the local
soil color: mottled brown, sandy, rufescent, grayish to blackish above;
paler below with streaked breast; tail medium.
Galerida theklae THEKLA LARK. Dry, rocky country.
Se Spain, s France, Balearic Is.,; from n Mauritania and Morocco e to n
Algeria, Tunisia, n Libya and nw Egypt; highlands of Ethiopia, Eritrea,
n Somalia and cn Kenya. Difficult or impossible to distinguish from
cristata in the field except by habitat and distribution. Both species
are geographically variable in color. Sometimes included in malabarica.
Galerida malabarica MALABAR LARK. Dry, open, rocky
areas. Up to 1800 m of w pen. India.
Galerida deva TAWNY LARK. Bare, stony country, scrub,
Galerida modesta SUN LARK. Dry rocky ground, grass
savanna. Senegambia, Guinea and Sierra Leone e to s Mali, n Ghana,
s Niger, n,c Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and C. African Rep. to n, ne Zaire,
c,s Sudan and nw Uganda.
Galerida magnirostris LARGE-BILLED LARK. Open country
with sparse vegetation, farmlands. South Africa in w Transvaal, Orange
Free State, Lesotho and Cape Prov., except extreme e coast.
Pseudalaemon fremantlii SHORT-TAILED LARK. Rocky
ground, short grass plains, coastal grassland, gravels and bare ground.
Somalia, s,e Ethiopia, n,c,s Kenya and cn Tanzania. Sometimes included
Lullula arborea WOOD LARK. Grassland with small
trees, woodland edges. S Britain, s Scandinavia and c Russia, s to
n Morocco, n Algeria, n Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon, n Iraq, w,n Iran, w,s
Russia and w Transcaspia. Lullula is a poorly-defined genus; sometimes
included in Alauda.
Alauda: Skylarks, Larks. Grass, fields, tundra, marshy
areas, sand dunes, desert. Eurasia, Japan, Philippines; Cape Verde
Is. Similar to Galerida and Lullula.
12-17 cm. Small to medium-sized larks with short to medium length
crests, short or medium bill.
Alauda arvensis EURASIAN SKYLARK. Grassland, tundra,
wet areas, sand dunes. Lowlands and mts. from w,n,s Europe e to nw,c
Russia, c Siberia and Kamchatka; s to Azores; mts. from Morocco to Tunisia
and nw Libya; Mediterranean is., Turkey, Lebanon, w,n Iran, n Afghanistan,
s Russia, nw China, Mongolia, Manchuria, n Korea, se Siberia and Kuril
Is. Intro. sw Canada, Hawaiian Is., New Zealand, se Australia.
Alauda japonica JAPANESE SKYLARK. Grasslands, farms.
Japan on Hokkaido, Sado, Kyushu, Honshu. Similar to arvensis and
often treated as a subspecies, but may be closer to gulgula. B. King
(pers. comm.) recommends treatment as a race of A. arvensis.
Alauda gulgula ORIENTAL SKYLARK. Grass, fields,
desert, marsh, dunes. Lowlands and mts. of c,e Eurasia from Aral
Sea area, Turkestan, e Kazakhstan, e Iran and Afghanistan, e to Pakistan,
India, Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, w,c,s China, c,se Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
and Taiwan; Philippine Is. of Luzon, Sibuyan, Ticao, Negros, Bohol, Mindanao.
Sympatric with arvensis in se Russia and n Afghanistan.
Alauda razae RAZO LARK. Arid open country on small,
waterless Razo I. in the Cape Verde Is.
Eremophila: Horned Larks. Open country, often arid, stony,
sandy, shores, farms. Most of Eurasia, N. Africa, Arabia, N. America;
mts. of ce Colombia.
14-17 cm. Black tufts ("horns") on sides of crown of males; black
facial and breast patches; dorsal coloration varies with soil colors in
some areas; mainly buffy to grayish or reddish-brown above; whitish below
except for black breast patches; tail with white outer rectrices.
Face and throat yellow in alpestris, black and white in bilopha.
Eremophila alpestris HORNED LARK. From Franz Josef
Land, c,n Norway, n Sweden and n Finland e across n Russia (incl. Novaya
Zemlya) to n,e Siberia, s to s,se Europe, c Turkey, Lebanon, n Israel,
Middle East, s Russia, Turkestan, n Kazakhstan, s Siberia and Mongolia,
w,c,n China to Himalayas up to 5500 m in n Pakistan, n India and Tibet.
Nw Africa in Atlas Mts. of Morocco above 1800 m. W,n Alaska, n Canada
to n Baffin I., n Quebec, n Labrador and Newfoundland, s to s Baja Calif.,
c Sonora, Mexican highlands to w Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, to sea level at
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and to the Gulf Coast and se U.S. in sw, nw
Louisiana, c Missouri, s Tennessee, n Alabama and S. Carolina. Mts.,
2500-3000 m of ce Colombia in Cundinamarca and Boyacá.
Eremophila bilopha TEMMINCK'S LARK. 14 cm.
Stony or sandy desert. Locally in lowlands in Mauritania, e Morocco,
n Algeria, Tunisia, n Libya, n Egypt, n Arabia, Syria and sw Iraq.
Sometimes considered conspecific with E. alpestris.
Sugarbirds, Sunbirds, Spiderhunters, Flowerpeckers, Mistletoebird, Berrypeckers.
The taxonomic history of the nectarivorous passeroids is complex.
In many classifications the Nectariniidae, Dicaeidae, Meliphagidae (honeyeaters)
and Zosteropidae (white-eyes) were assumed to be closely related because
of similar tongue structures adapted for nectar feeding. Thus, unrelated
species were placed together on the basis of convergently similar tongues
and assembled into the same, or adjacent, families or subfamilies.
(See discussion under Family MELIPHAGIDAE).
The following arrangement is based on DNA hybridization evidence and
departs from past classifications in several ways. It seems clear
that the sunbirds and honeyeaters are not close relatives, but the relationships
among the Nectariniidae, Melanocharitidae and Paramythiidae remain
uncertain. (Sibley and Ahlquist 1990:665-670 provide details).
Sugarbirds occur in southern Africa. Their relationships have
been the subject of extensive debate and speculation. They obviously
evolved in Africa, but in the structure of the tongue, nest construction
and some aspects of behavior they resemble the honeyeaters (Meliphagidae);
in other characters they are similar to the sunbirds. On the basis
of tongue structure they have been placed in the Meliphagidae, the Nectariniidae
and the monotypic family Promeropidae; on protein evidence in the Sturnidae,
and on syringeal structure in the "Turdidae-Muscicapidae complex".
DNA hybridization comparisons indicate that they are nectariniids, but
distinct enough to be assigned to a subfamily (Sibley and Ahlquist (1990:670-675).
Promerops gurneyi GURNEY'S SUGARBIRD. Protea heathland.
Mts. in ce Zimbabwe, cw Mozambique and e. S. Africa.
Promerops cafer CAPE SUGARBIRD. Protea heathland.
Mts. of s S. Africa. Hybridizes occasionally with P. gurneyi in e
Cape province. These two "semispecies" have been treated as races
Flowerpeckers, Mistletoebird, Sunbirds, Spiderhunters.
These groups occur in Africa, southeastern and eastern Asia,
including the islands of the southwest Pacific; one species in northeastern
Australia. They usually have been associated with one another; often
with the flowerpeckers in the family Dicaeidae. Tongue structure
has been used as the basis for classification, but nectar-adapted tongues
occur in several groups of distantly-related birds and it is apparent that
convergent evolution accounts for some of the similarities.
Tribe DICAEINI: Flowerpeckers
occur in southern and southeastern Asia; on islands from the Philippines
to Borneo, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch., Australia
and the Solomon Is.
Bill short, varying from thick to sharp and pointed; tail short.
They are small, active and some are brightly colored with orange and red.
They eat insects and small fruits, especially the berries of the mistletoe
genus Loranthus. The mistletoe seeds pass rapidly through the digestive
tract and stick to the branches of trees, thus the birds disperse the seeds
of the plant parasite and contribute to their own food supply.
The purse-shaped nest has a side opening and is made of leaves and
grass bound together with cobwebs and suspended from a leafy twig.
Eggs of most species white, unmarked.
Prionochilus olivaceus OLIVE-BACKED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, edge, second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m of Philippine
Is. of e. Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao, Basilan.
Prionochilus maculatus YELLOW-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1500 m of Malay Pen., Sumatra,
incl. nearby is., Borneo and N. Natuna Is.
Prionochilus percussus CRIMSON-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl.
nearby is., Borneo, N. Natuna Is. and Java.
Prionochilus plateni PALAWAN FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth, gardens. Sw Philippine Is. of Calamian Is.,
Prionochilus xanthopygius YELLOW-RUMPED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest edge, second growth, scrub. Borneo and Natuna Besar Is.
Prionochilus thoracicus SCARLET-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, second growth. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo.
Dicaeum annae GOLDEN-RUMPED FLOWERPECKER. Open Forest,
farmlands. Lowlands to 1000 m of c Lesser Sunda Is. of
Sumbawa and Flores.
Dicaeum agile THICK-BILLED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth, farmlands. Lowlands to 1800 m in ne Pakistan, India, Burma
(exc. w, ne), Indochina (exc. n Vietnam), n Sumatra, w Java and Sunda Is.
of Sumba, Flores, Alor and Timor.
Dicaeum aeruginosum STRIPED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth, farmlands. Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro,
Lubang, Romblon, Sibuyan, Palawan, Cebu, Negro and Mindanao. Sometimes
treated as a race of D. agile.
Dicaeum everetti BROWN-BACKED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in s Malaya, Riau Arch. and n Borneo,
incl. nearby is.
Dicaeum proprium WHISKERED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth. Mts. above 900 m of Philippine Is. of Mindanao.
Dicaeum chrysorrheum YELLOW-VENTED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, second growth, farmlands. Lowlands to 1500 m from ne India,
sw China S to Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Dicaeum melanoxanthum YELLOW-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest. Himalayas, 750-2450 m, ne India, sw China and e Burma; n
Thailand, n Laos, n Vietnam, possibly only as migrants.
Dicaeum vincens WHITE-THROATED FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Hills to 1000 m of Sri Lanka.
Dicaeum aureolimbatum YELLOW-SIDED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, towns. Lowlands to 2000 m on Sulawesi and nearby is.
Dicaeum nigrilore OLIVE-CAPPED FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Mts. above 1000 m on Philippine Is. of Mindanao.
Dicaeum anthonyi FLAME-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER. Mossy
forest. Mts, 800-2100 m of Philippine Is. of n Luzon and Mindanao.
Dicaeum bicolor BICOLORED FLOWERPECKER. Forest, edge,
second growth. Lowlands to 1500 m of Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes,
Mindoro, Negros, Guimaras, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Dinagat, Mindanao.
Dicaeum quadricolor CEBU FLOWERPECKER. Forest. Philippine
I. of Cebu. Thought to have been extinct since 1906 following
deforestation of Cebu, but recently reported from remnant forest patches.
Dicaeum australe RED-STRIPED FLOWERPECKER. Forest, edge,
Dicaeum retrocinctum SCARLET-COLLARED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, edge, farmlands. Lowlands to 1000 m of Philippine Is of Mindoro.
Closely related to, and possibly conspecific with, D. australe.
Dicaeum trigonostigma ORANGE-BELLIED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest edge, clearings, second growth. Lowlands to 1200 m from e
India, e Bangladesh, e Assam, Burma, (exc. ne, c) and pen. Thailand s through
Malaya and Tioman I. to Sumatra and nearby is., Borneo and nearby is.,
Java and Bali; Phillipine. Is and Sulu Arch., except Palawan and Calamian
Is.; extirpated on Cebu I. circa 1910.
Dicaeum hypoleucum BUZZING FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Lowlands to 1800 m of Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Panaon,
Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu Arch.
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos PALE-BILLED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, assoc. with misletoe, farmlands. Lowlands to 1200 m in India,
Nepal, Bhutan, w Bangladesh; to 2100 m. in Sri Lanka; and w,e,s, Burma.
Dicaeum concolor PLAIN FLOWERPECKER. Forest, second
growth, farmlands. Lowlands to 2100 m of sw India; ne India, c Nepal
s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, E to se China and Taiwan, S through
Burma (exc. s), Thailand (exc. c,pen.), Laos, n, c Vietnam, Malaya,
Andaman Is., Sumatra, Borneo, N. Natuna Is., Java and Bali.
Dicaeum pygmaeum PYGMY FLOWERPECKER. Forest, edge,
second growth. Lowlands to 2000 m of Philippines, exc. Sulu Arch.
Dicaeum nehrkorni CRIMSON-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest. Mts., 700-2600 m of Sulawesi.
Dicaeum erythrothorax FLAME-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Lowlands to 750 m of Molucca Is. of Morotai, Halmahera, Bacan, Obi,
Dicaeum vulneratum ASHY FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Mid-mountain zone, 300-2100 m of s Molucca Is. of Seram, Ambon, Saparau,
Dicaeum pectorale OLIVE-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth. Lowlands of w New Guinea, incl. nearby is.
Dicaeum geelvinkianum RED-CAPPED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth, savanna. Lowlands to 1950 m (exc. Vogelkop and D'Entrecasteaux
Arch.). Often considered conspecific D. pectorale.
Dicaeum nitidum LOUISIADE FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth. Lowlands of is. in se New Guinea. Often considered
conspecific D. geelvinkianum.
Dicaeum eximium RED-BANDED FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Dicaeum aeneum MIDGET FLOWERPECKER. Forest, second
growth, farmlands. Solomon Is.
Dicaeum tristrami MOTTLED FLOWERPECKER. Forest,
second growth. Se Solomon I. of San Cristobal.
Dicaeum igniferum BLACK-FRONTED FLOWERPECKER. Open
forest, shrubs. Lowlands of c Lesser Sunda Is. of Sumbawa,
Flores, Pantar, Alor. Possibly conspecific D. maugei.
Dicaeum maugei RED-CHESTED FLOWERPECKER. Forest
edge, open forest, second growth. Lowlands to 2000 m of Wallacea
on is. in Flores Sea and Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Penida, Lombok, Sawu,
Roti, Semau, Timor, Romang, Moa, Damar, Babar.
Dicaeum ignipectus FIRE-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER. Forest.
Mts , 800-3000 m in n,e India, Kashmir, se Tibet, s China, Taiwan, Burma,
(exc. c,), n Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, (exc. Cochinchina) and Malay Pen.;
se Thailand, Cambodia; n Sumatra; Philippine Is of Luzon, Samar, Negros,
B. King (pers. comm.) recommends species status
for beccarii of n Sumatra; it lacks the red breast patch of ignipectus.
Dicaeum monticolum BLACK-SIDED FLOWERPECKER. Mossy
forest. Mts. above 750 m of n Borneo.
Sometimes treated as a race of D. celebicum or
of D. ignipectus; all of the species from ignipectus through hirundinaceum,
may be races of the latter.
Dicaeum celebicum GREY-SIDED FLOWERPECKER. Forest
edge, second growth, farmlands. Lowlands to 1000 m of Sulawesi,
incl. nearby is..
Dicaeum sanguinolentum BLOOD-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest. Lowlands and mts. of Java and w,c Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali,
Sumba, Flores, Timor.
Dicaeum hirundinaceum MISTLETOEBIRD. Forest, woodland,
assoc. mistletoe. S. Wallacea Is.; nomadic in Australia, (exc.
Tasmania) and is. in Torres Strait.
May be conspecific D. ignipectus, D. monticolum, D. celebicum.
Dicaeum cruentatum SCARLET-BACKED FLOWERPECKER.
Forest, open woodland, groves, farmlands, mangroves, scrub. Lowlands
to 1200 m from e India, Nepal E to Arunachal Pradesh, s to se Bangladesh,
Manipur and Nagaland; se China, S to Sumatra and Borneo, incl. Karimata
Dicaeum trochileum SCARLET-HEADED FLOWERPECKER.
Second growth, farmlands. Lowlands of Sumatra, se Bornea, Java and
w Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Lombok. Possibly conspecific D.
Tribe NECTARINIINI: Sunbirds
and Spiderhunters occur in Africa, Madagascar and southern and southeastern
Asia to the Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Is. and northeastern
They have long, slender decurved bills with which they probe in flowers
for nectar using their tubular tongues; also take insects and pollen.
Many plant species are adapted to attract these species as pollination
agents. Plumages are glossy metallic, often green or blue, some yellow
or red. Nests of sunbirds are beautiful pendant structures of fine
grass and other soft materials, including plant down and cobwebs, with
a side entrance; suspended from a branch, palm frond, telephone wire, etc.
Spiderhunter nests are sewn to the underside of
large leaves using cobwebs to attach the nest.
Anthreptes fraseri SCARLET-TUFTED SUNBIRD. Forest.
Guinea, s Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria,
s Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo to
nw Angola. See A. axillaris.
Anthreptes axillaris GREY-HEADED SUNBIRD. Forest.
Zaire, Uganda and Tanzania.
Sometimes treated as a race of A. fraseri, but not known to intergrade.
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) include axillaris in fraseri, noting
that axillaris is "no more than an incipient species" and that the possible
area of contact has not been explored.
Anthreptes reichenowi PLAIN-BACKED SUNBIRD. Forest,
rivers. Coastal areas of se Kenya, ne Tanzania; locally in e Zimbabwe,
s Mozambique; possibly in ne S. Africa.
Anthreptes anchietae ANCHIETA'S SUNBIRD. Brachystegia
woodland. C, ne Angola, se Zaire, Zambia, sw Tanzania, Malawi and
Anthreptes simplex PLAIN SUNBIRD. Forest, second
growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. Nais Is.,
and Borneo, incl. N. Natuna Is.
Anthreptes malacensis PLAIN-THROATED SUNBIRD. Mangrove,
scrubs, farmlands. Coastal lowlands to 1000 m in w,s Burma, c,se,pen.
Thailand, Cambodia, s Laos, s Vietnam, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Lesser
Sunda Is., Sulawesi and Philippine Is. of Calamian Is., Palawan,
Balabac, Sibutu, Luzon, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, ne Mindanao.
Anthreptes rhodolaema RED-THROATED SUNBIRD. Forest.
Lowlands to 1000 m in Malay Pen., Sumatra and Borneo.
Anthreptes singalensis RUBY-CHEEKED SUNBIRD. Forest,
second growth, towns. Lowlands to 1000 m from e, se India, e Napal,
Bangladesh, Manipur, Nagaland and sw China s, (exc. ne,e Burma) to
Sumatra, incl. nearby is., Borneo, incl. N. Natuna and Banggi Is. and Java.
Anthreptes gabonicus MOUSE-BROWN SUNBIRD. Mangroves, creeks.
Coastal area in Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia,
Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo,
Cabinda and nw Zaire.
Anthreptes longuemarei WESTERN VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.
Woodland edge, savanna. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau,
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, Burundi, Uganda,
ne,ce,se Zaire, sw, se, ce Tanzania and s to sw,ce,e Angola, Zambia, e
Zimbabwe, Malawi and c,ne Mozambique.
Anthreptes orientalis KENYA VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.
Arid thorn savanna. Se Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia s to n Uganda,
Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Anthreptes neglectus ULUGURU VIOLET-BACKED SUNBIRD.
Forest edge. Locally in lowlands, mostly coastal, of se Kenya, ne
Tanzania and n Mozambique.
Anthreptes aurantium VIOLET-TAILED SUNBIRD. Riparian
forest. Cameroon e to C. African Rep. and ne Zaire and s to Gabon,
Congo, Angola and s Zaire.
Anthreptes pallidigaster AMANI SUNBIRD. Forest.
Lowlands to 1000 m in se Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Anthreptes rectirostris GREEN SUNBIRD. Forest clearings,
edge, second growth. S Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, s. Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea,
Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, and w Kenya
s to nw Angola, sw,cs,ce Zaire and extreme nw Tanzania.
Anthreptes rubritorques BANDED SUNBIRD. Forest edge,
second growth. Mts., 900-1500 m of ne Tanzania in Nguru and Uluguru
mts. Sometimes treated as a race of A. rectirostris.
Anthreptes collaris COLLARED SUNBIRD. Forest clearings,
riparian woodland, second growth. S Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegambia,
Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo,
Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon,
Congo, C. African Rep., n Zaire, extreme s Sudan, s Ethiopia, s Somalia,
Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, s to c,e,se Angola,
ne Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, (exc. sw, c), Mozambique and e S. Africa.
Anthreptes platurus PYGMY SUNBIRD. Arid acacia savanna.
Extreme sw Mauritania, Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra
Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Niger, Benin, n,c Nigeria, Camaroon,
c,s Chad and n C. African Rep. to w,s Sudan, (exc. Nile V.), (?Ethiopia),
extreme ne Zaire, n Uganda and nw Kenya.
Anthreptes metallicus NILE VALLEY SUNBIRD. Arid
acacia savanna. C,e Sudan, Nile V., n to n Egypt, n,c Ethiopia, Eritrea,
Djibouti, Somalia and sw Arabia, from Mecca s to w Yemen and Aden.
Hypogramma hypogrammicum PURPLE-NAPED SUNBIRD. Forest,
second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m from n,c,s Burma and sw China s
through nw,pen. Thailand, Indochina, (exc. Cambodia), through Malaya to
Sumatra, Borneo and N. Natuna Is.
Nectarinia seimundi LITTLE GREEN SUNBIRD. Second
growth, clearings, edge. Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,e
Zaire, extreme s Sudan, e Uganda, Rwanda, s to nw Angola and sw,cs,ce Zaire.
Nectarinia batesi BATES'S SUNBIRD. Forest edge,
clearings, second growth. Ivory Coast, Ghana, s. Nigeria, s Cameroon,
Bioko I., Gabon, c,ce,se Zaire, e Angola and nw Zambia.
Nectarinia olivacea OLIVE SUNBIRD. Forest edge,
second growth. Sw Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra
Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko
I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme
s Sudan and sw,c Ethiopia and s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya,
Tanzania s to c Angola, c,n Zambia, e Zimbabwe, Mozambique