pag.21
Macronous:  Tit-Babblers.  Forest, undergrowth, edge, bamboo, grass.  S,se Asia, Indonesia, Philippines.
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Macronous gularis  STRIPED TIT-BABBLER.  Forest, edge, second growth, thickets, grass, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1500 m from s,e,ne India, sw China in s Yunnan, s through se Asia incl. Mergui Arch; Sumatra, Banyak and Batu is., Bangka, Belitung, and Lingga and Riau arch., w,c Java, Borneo, Anambas, n Natuna, Banggi, Mallawli and Laut islands, and sw Philippines on Palawan, Balabac and Cagayan Sulu, and many 
smaller islands within this range.
Macronous flavicollis  GREY-CHEEKED TIT-BABBLER.  Forest.  Java and Kangean Is.
Macronous kelleyi  GREY-FACED TIT-BABBLER.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands in s Laos, c,s Vietnam in c,s Annam and Cochinchina.
Status uncertain, possibly a race of M. flavicollis or a color morph of M. gularis.
Macronous striaticeps  BROWN TIT-BABBLER.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1200 m of se Philippine Islands n to Bohol, Leyte and Samar.
Macronous ptilosus  FLUFFY-BACKED TIT-BABBLER.  Forest undergrowth, edge.  Lowlands to 700 m in pen. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Batu Is., Bangka, Belitung, and Borneo.
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Micromacronus leytensis  MINIATURE TIT-BABBLER.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1300 m of Samar, Leyte and wc Mindanao in the ce,s Philippines.
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Timalia pileata  CHESTNUT-CAPPED BABBLER.  Second growth, thickets, swampy areas.  Lowlands to 1400 m from e India from Nepal e to Bhutan and Assam and s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland and s China in s Yunnan, s Kweichow, Kwangsi, Kwantung, s to se Asia (exc. pen. Thailand and  Malaya); Java.
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 Chrysomma:  Babblers.  Tall grass, reedbeds, riparian thickets, bamboo.  S, se Asia.
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Chrysomma sinense  YELLOW-EYED BABBLER.  Scrub, thickets, tall grass, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1800 m in e Pakistan in the Indus Valley, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Burma, s China in w,s Yunnan, Kwangsi and Kwantung, nw,sw,c Thailand, Laos and n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and Annam.
Chrysomma altirostre  JERDON'S BABBLER.  Deep "khan" grass (Saccharum arundinaceum), reedbeds, riparian thickets.  Locally in ne Pakistan in the Indus Valley, ne India from Bhutan and n W. Bengal e to Assam, and s to e,se Bangladesh and Nagaland, and ne,s Burma.
Chrysomma poecilotis  RUFOUS-TAILED BABBLER.  Scrub, riparian thickets, grass.  Himalayas, 2700-4600 m of cw China from ne Szechwan s to n Yunnan.
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 Turdoides:  Babblers.  Thickets, scrub, grass, forest, woods.  S Eurasia, s,se Asia, Africa.  Some allopatric populations in Africa are morphologically so similar that they are included in a single species, but without evidence of intergradation this is an opinion based on the assumption that they would interbreed if they were in contact.  Such situations can be interpreted as one species or as two species with equal probability of being "correct".

Turdoides nipalensis  SPINY BABBLER.  Dense second growth, scrub.  Himalayas, 1500-2000 m in w,c Nepal.
Turdoides altirostris  IRAQ BABBLER.  Reedbeds, moist farmland, orchards, towns.  Lower Tigris-Euphrates Valley of se Iraq and sw Iran.
Turdoides caudatus  COMMON BABBLER.  Scrub, grass, towns.  Lowlands and hills 900 (rarely to 2100) m from se Iraq and s Iran e through s Afghanistan and s Pakistan in Baluchistan, Sind and Punjab to India n to Himachal Pradesh and n Uttar Pradesh, e to e Bihar and Madhya Pradesh and possibly nw Bangladesh; Laccadive Is.
Turdoides earlei  STRIATED BABBLER.  Reedbeds, high grass, swampy areas mainly in grasslands of large river valleys.  Lowlands and foothills of Pakistan in the Indus R. Valley, n,ne India from Ganges and Brahmaputra valleys e to s Nepal and Assam and s to Orissa, W. Bengal, Bangladesh and Manipur, and w,ne,c,s Burma.

Turdoides gularis  WHITE-THROATED BABBLER.  Dry plains in thickets, hedges.  Plains of w,c,s Burma.
Turdoides longirostris  SLENDER-BILLED BABBLER.  Long grass, usually near water.  Lowlands to 1200 m in e India from Nepal e to W. Bengal and Assam, s to Khasi and Cachar hills and Manipur and sw Burma.
Turdoides malcolmi  LARGE GREY BABBLER.  Dry, open, sparsely vegetated areas, woods, towns.  C, pen. India n to Kutch, Rajasthan and Punjab, and e to e Uttar Pradesh, e Madhya Pradesh, c Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Turdoides squamiceps  ARABIAN BABBLER.  Acacia scrub.  From s,c Israel and w Jordan s to s Arabia ne to n Oman.

Turdoides fulvus  FULVOUS CHATTERER.  Desert scrub, mimosa, acacia.  N Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Morocco, n Algeria, Tunisia, nw Libya, Niger, Chad, e across the c Sahara to n,c Sudan, n Ethiopia, Eritrea, the Nile Valley and from s Egypt to the Red Sea.
Turdoides aylmeri  SCALY CHATTERER.  Arid scrub, grass, aloes.  From Somalia and s Ethiopia s to c,se Kenya and nc Tanzania.
Turdoides rubiginosus  RUFOUS CHATTERER.  Riparian scrub in less arid country than T. aylmeri.  From c Ethiopia, Somalia and s Sudan to e Uganda, Kenya and n Tanzania.
Turdoides subrufus  RUFOUS BABBLER.  Dense undergrowth, grass, bamboo.  Lowlands to 1000 m of sw India in the W. Ghats from sw Maharashtra s to w,n Tamil Nadu and Mysore.

Turdoides striatus  JUNGLE BABBLER.  Forest, bamboo, scrub, grass, farms, towns.

The two subspecies groups sometimes are treated as species, but they intergrade.
 T. s. striatus  Lowlands to 1600 m in the Indus V. of Pakistan and India n to Himalayan foothills incl. Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, e to Assam and Bangladesh.
 T. s. somervillei  Coastal sw India from se Gujarat and w Maharashtra s to Goa.

Turdoides rufescens  ORANGE-BILLED BABBLER.  Humid forest.  Sri Lanka.  Sometimes treated as a race of T. striatus, but it is ecologically and perhaps vocally distinct; and widely allopatric.
Turdoides affinis  YELLOW-BILLED BABBLER.  Arid scrub, second growth, farms.  Lowlands and hills of s India n to c Mysore and c Andhra Pradesh; Sri Lanka.
Turdoides reinwardii  BLACKCAP BABBLER.  Riparian thickets, forest, scrub.  Senegambia, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, s Chad, C. African Republic and n Zaire.
Turdoides tenebrosus  DUSKY BABBLER.  Scrub, thickets.  Ne Zaire, Uganda and s Sudan to sw Ethiopia.  Perhaps a race of T. reinwardii.

Turdoides melanops  BLACK-LORED BABBLER.  Brachystegia woods, acacia savanna.  S Angola, n Namibia, nw Botswana.  Sometimes considered conspecific with T. sharpei, but they are widely allopatric.
Turdoides squamulatus  SCALY BABBLER.  Dense brush, scrub, thornbush.  Se Ethiopia and s Somalia s coastally to Kenya and ne Tanzania; possibly inland along Tana River in Kenya.
Turdoides leucopygius  WHITE-RUMPED BABBLER.  Open country, scrub, savanna, thornbush. In extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and w Somalia.
Turdoides hartlaubii  ANGOLA BABBLER.  Open country, scrub, savanna, thornbush.  In c,s,e Angola, se,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, sw Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, n Botswana and ne Namibia.  Sometimes treated as a race of T. leucopygius , but they are widely allopatric.

Turdoides bicolor  SOUTHERN PIED-BABBLER.  Dry acacia savanna.  In ne Namibia, Botswana, w Zimbabwe and e S. Africa in Transvaal and ne Cape Province s to the Orange River.
Turdoides sharpei  SHARPE'S PIED-BABBLER.  Scrub, undergrowth.  In s Uganda, w Kenya, and w,sw Tanzania.  Short, et al. (1990. Proc. West. Found. Vert. Zool. 4(3):174) treat it as a race of allopatric T. melanops, based on field experience.
Turdoides hypoleucus  NORTHERN PIED-BABBLER.  Scrub, forest edge.  Highlands in c Kenya n to Mt. Kenya, and ne Tanzania.
Turdoides hindei  HINDE'S PIED-BABBLER.  Scrub, thickets.  Foothills of ec Kenya.  Has been treated as of hybrid origin, T. hypoleucus x T. jardineii, but apparently is a valid species.

Turdoides plebejus  BROWN BABBLER.  Scrub, undergrowth, acacia savanna.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, c,s Sudan and sw Ethiopia, s to ne Zaire, Uganda and nw Kenya.
Turdoides leucocephalus  CRETSCHMAR'S BABBLER.  Thorn bush scrub.  In e Sudan, ne Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Turdoides jardineii  ARROW-MARKED BABBLER.  Thorn bush, grass, riparian thickets.  Gabon, Congo, Angola, s Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and ne S. Africa in Transvaal and Natal.
Turdoides gymnogenys  BARE-CHEEKED BABBLER.  Trees and brush in arid country.  In sw Angola and nw,cn Namibia.

Babax:  Babaxes.  Forest, scrub.  High mts. of s Asia in China, Tibet, India, Burma.
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Babax lanceolatus  CHINESE BABAX.  Open forest, open scrub.  Mts. above 1200 m  in se India in Mizoram, se Tibet, w,ne,c,e Burma and c,se China from extreme e Sinkiang, s Kansu, s Shensi, w,s Hupeh, Hunan and Fukien s through sw,e Szechwan and Kweichow to nw Yunnan, Kwangsi and Kwangtung.
Babax waddelli  GIANT BABAX.  Arid scrub, pines, in dry river valleys or on mountain slopes.  Mts., 2700-4000 m of ne India in extreme ne Sikkim and possibly Arunachal Pradesh, s,se Tibet and sw China in sw Szechwan.
Babax koslowi  TIBETAN BABAX.  Arid scrub, pines.  Himalayas in se Tibet and sc China in s Tsinghai and nw Szechwan.

Leiothrix argentauris  SILVER-EARED MESIA.  Forest undergrowth, edge, scrub, grass.  Mts., 900-2200 m from nc India from Garhwal e to Arunachal Pradesh, and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland and cs China in w,se Yunnan and Kwangsi, s through Burma (exc. c), nw, pen. Thailand, Laos, n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and Annam, and Malaya; Sumatra.
Leiothrix lutea  RED-BILLED MESIA.  Second growth, scrub, grass.  Himalayas above 1000 m in n India from Kashmir e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Cachar Hills, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, w,ne Burma, c,ec,cs China from s Kansu, s Shensi, Hupeh, Anhwei and Chekiang s to Szechwan, n,se Yunnan, Kweichow, Hunan and Fukien, and n Vietnam in n Tonkin.  Intro. Hawaiian Is.

The name Leiothrix astleyi, known from two aviary specimens, is thought to belong to this species.

Cutia nipalensis  CUTIA.  Forest.  Locally in mts., 1200-2700 m in n India from Kumaon e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Cachar and Mizo hills, Manipur and Nagaland, w,n,ne Burma, sw China in s Szechwan and w,s Yunnan, nw Thailand, n Laos, n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and s Annam, and Malaya.
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 Pteruthius:  Shrike-Babblers.  Forest, edge.  S Asia.
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Pteruthius rufiventer  BLACK-HEADED SHRIKE-BABBLER.  Forest.  Himalayas above 1200 m in ne India from e Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Nagaland, w,ne Burma, sw China in ce Szechwan and nw Yunnan and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Pteruthius flaviscapis  WHITE-BROWED SHRIKE-BABBLER.  Forest.  Mts. to 2450 m from n Pakistan, n India from Kashmir e to Arunachal Pradesh, s to Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland, e to s China in s Szechwan, n Yunnan, n Kwangsi and nw,c Fukien, and s through Burma (exc. c), nw,ne,se,pen. Thailand, sw Cambodia, n,s Laos and n,c Vietnam in Tonkin, n,s Annam; Sumatra; Java; n Borneo.

Pteruthius xanthochlorus  GREEN SHRIKE-BABBLER.  Forest.  Himalayas, 1800-3050 m in n Pakistan, n India from Kashmir e to Arunachal Pradesh, Mizo Hills and Nagaland, se Tibet, w,ne Burma and s China in Szechwan, s Shensi, nw,se Yunnan and nw Fukien.
Pteruthius melanotis  BLACK-EARED SHRIKE-BABBLER.  Tall forest, edge.  Mts. 1200-2450 m in ne India w to Nepal, w,ne,e Burma, sw China in s Yunnan, nw Thailand, n,s Laos, n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and n Annam, and Malaya.
Pteruthius aenobarbus  CHESTNUT-FRONTED SHRIKE-BABBLER.  Forest, edge.  Hills to 1550 m in ne India at Megahalaya in the Garo Hills, w,ne,e,s Burma, s China in Kwangsi and s Yunnan, nw,ne Thailand, n,s Laos, n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and s Annam; w Java and possibly Sumatra.

Gampsorhynchus rufulus  WHITE-HOODED BABBLER.  Thickets, scrub, bamboo, forest, woods. 
Mts. to 1800 m in e India from Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to n W. Bengal, se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, Burma, sw China in w,se Yunnan, nw,sw Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Malaya.
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Actinodura:  Barwings.  Forest undergrowth, thickets, scrub, grass, second growth.  S Asia; Taiwan.
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Actinodura egertoni  RUSTY-FRONTED BARWING.  Dense thickets in forest, scrub, second growth.  Himalayas, 900-2400 m in ne India from c Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to n W. Bengal, Khasi, Cachar and Mizo Hills, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, sw China in w Yunnan and sw Kwangsi, and w,n,e Burma.
Actinodura ramsayi  SPECTACLED BARWING.  Forest, scrub, grass, second growth.  Himalayas above 1000 m in cs China in s Yunnan and s Kwangsi, c,e,s Burma, nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.

Actinodura nipalensis  HOARY-THROATED BARWING.  Oak and rhododendron forest undergrowth.  Himalayas, 1800-3300 m in ne India from w Nepal e to Darjeeling, Sikkim and Bhutan, and se Tibet.
Actinodura waldeni  STREAK-THROATED BARWING.  Forest undergrowth, scrub, grass, second growth.  Himalayas, 1500-2450 m in e India from Arunachal Pradesh s to n Cachar Hills, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, w,n Burma and sw China in nw Yunnan.  Sometimes treated as a race of A. nipalensis.
Actinodura souliei  STREAKED BARWING.  Forest undergrowth.  Himalayas above 1800 m in sw China in s Szechwan and nw,se Yunnan and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Actinodura morrisoniana  FORMOSAN BARWING.  Deciduous forest undergrowth.  Mts., 1350-2750 m of Taiwan.

Minla:  Minlas.  Forest undergrowth, scrub.  Mts. of s,se Asia.
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Minla cyanouroptera  BLUE-WINGED MINLA.  Forest undergrowth, scrub, second growth.  Mts. 1000-3050 m in n,e India from n Uttar Pradesh e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, Burma (exc. c,s), s China in e Szechwan, Yunnan, Kwangsi, s Hunan and Hainan I., nw,se,pen. Thailand, n,s Laos, sw Cambodia, n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and Annam, and Malaya.
Minla strigula  CHESTNUT-TAILED MINLA.  Forest.  Mts. 1500-3700 m in n,e India from Himachal Pradesh e to Arunachal Pradesh s to Khasi Hills, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, Burma (exc. c,s), sw China in s Szechwan and Yunnan, nw Thailand, n Laos, n Vietnam in nw Tonkin, and Malaya.

Minla ignotincta  RED-TAILED MINLA.  Forest undergrowth.  Himalayas, 1200-3400 m in ne India from c Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, w,ne,s,e Burma, sw China in w,se Yunnan, sw,se Szechwan, s Hunan and n Kwangsi, and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.

 Alcippe:  Fulvettas.  Forest undergrowth, scrub, bamboo, grass, woods.  S, se Asia; Indonesia.
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Alcippe chrysotis  GOLDEN-BREASTED FULVETTA.  Forest undergrowth, scrub, bamboo.  Himalayas, 1500-4300 m in ne India from e Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Cachar Hills, Manipur and Nagaland, ne Burma, sw China in Yunnan, w Szechwan and c Kwangsi, and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Alcippe variegaticeps  GOLDEN-FRONTED FULVETTA.  Forest undergrowth.  Mts., 650-2000 of s China in e Szechwan and c Kwangsi.

Alcippe cinerea  YELLOW-THROATED FULVETTA.  Humid forest, scrub, bamboo, long grass.  Himalayas, 900-2750 m in e India from c Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Khasi and Cachar hills, se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, ne Burma, sw China in nw Yunnan and n Laos.
Alcippe castaneceps  RUFOUS-WINGED FULVETTA.  Humid forest undergrowth, pine forest.  Mts. above 725 m (usually higher) in ne India from c Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, Burma (exc. c), sw China in w Yunnan, nw Thailand, n,s Laos, n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and s Annam, and Malaya.
Alcippe vinipectus  WHITE-BROWED FULVETTA.  Prickly oak forest, confers, scrub.  Himalayas, 2275-4200 m in n,e India from Himachal Pradesh e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to n ASsam, Manipur and Nagaland, s Tibet, w,ne Burma, sw China in w,sw Yunnan and sw Szechwan, and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.

Alcippe striaticollis  CHINESE FULVETTA.  Dry holly thickets, prickly oak forest, rhododendrons, undergrowth.  Himalayas, 2700-4300 m of c,sw China from sw Kansu and se Tsinghai s through Szechwan to se Tibet and nw Yunnan.
Alcippe ruficapilla  SPECTACLED FULVETTA.  Spruce and fir forest, thickets.  Himalayas, 3050-4575 m in c,cs China from s Kansu and s Shensi s through Szechwan to n,se Yunnan and sw Kweichow, ne Laos and possibly n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Alcippe cinereiceps  STREAK-THROATED FULVETTA.  Forest thickets, bamboo.  Mts., 650-4600 m in ne India from e Bhutan e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to n Assam, Manipur and Nagaland, ne Burma, s China from s Kansu, s Shensi and Hupeh s to c,se Szechwan, Yunnan and Hunan; nw Fukien; Taiwan; ne Laos and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.

Alcippe ludlowi  LUDLOW'S FULVETTA.  Forest thickets, bamboo.  Himalayas in se Tibet, sw China in sw Szechwan, e Bhutan and extreme ne India in se Arunachal Pradesh.  Often included in A. cinereiceps, but it is morphologically distinct and marginally sympatric with cinereiceps in Arunachal Pradesh.
Alcippe rufogularis  RUFOUS-THROATED FULVETTA.  Forest undergrowth, bamboo, second growth.  Mts. to 1000 m in ne India from Bhutan and n W. Bengal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Cachar and Chittagong hills, Manipur and Nagaland, ne Burma, sw China in sw Yunnan, nw,se Thailand, n,c Laos, sw Cambodia and n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and n,c Annam.

Alcippe brunnea  DUSKY FULVETTA.  Brush, grass, second growth, forest.  Himalayas, 900-2150 m in e India in the Khasi and Cachar hills, Manipur and Nagaland, w,n Burma, c,s China from Szechwan, s Shensi, Hupeh, Anhwei, Kiangsi and Fukien s to Yunnan, Kwangsi, Kwantung and Hainan I., Taiwan, n Laos and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Alcippe dubia  RUSTY-CAPPED FULVETTA.  Brush, second growth, forest.  Hills, 900-1800 m of s Burma in Tenasserim.  Often included in A. brunnea.
Alcippe brunneicauda  BROWN FULVETTA.  Forest, second growth.  Hills to 1000 m in pen. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Batu Is. and Borneo.
Alcippe poioicephala  BROWN-CHEEKED FULVETTA.  Teak woods, bamboo, forest undergrowth, scrub.  Lowlands to 1500 m in pen., ne India n to Gujarat, s Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa; Khasi, Cachar and Chittagong hills, Manipur and Nagaland, Burma, sw China in w,s Yunnan, nw,sw,pen. Thailand, n,c Laos and n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and n Annam.

Alcippe pyrrhoptera  JAVAN FULVETTA.  Forest.  W,c Java.
Alcippe peracensis  MOUNTAIN FULVETTA.  Forest.  Mts. above 300 m in se Thailand, c,s Laos, sw Cambodia (probably), n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and n Annam, and Malaya.
Alcippe morrisonia  GREY-CHEEKED FULVETTA.  Forest.  Mts., 1350-3050 m in c,s China from s,e Szechwan, s Shensi, w Hupeh, Anhwei and Chekiang s to Yunnan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung and Hainan I., Burma (exc. w), nw Thailand, n Laos, n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and n Annam, and Taiwan.
Alcippe nipalensis  NEPAL FULVETTA.  Forest, scrub, bamboo.  Himalayas, 500-2100 m in ne India w to Nepal and w,n,s Burma.

Lioptilus nigricapillus  BLACKCAP MOUNTAIN-BABBLER. Forest, scrubby slopes.  E S. Africa in n,e Transvaal, Natal, e Cape Prov.  Affinities uncertain; has been placed with the bulbuls (Pycnonotidae).
 Kupeornis:  Mountain-Babblers.  Forest.  C Africa.
Kupeornis gilberti  WHITE-THROATED MOUNTAIN-BABBLER.  Forest.  Mts. 1500-1800 in se Nigeria and sw Cameroon.
Kupeornis rufocinctus  RED-COLLARED MOUNTAIN-BABBLER.  Forest.  Mts., 1950-3200 of ne,ce Zaire and Rwanda.
Kupeornis chapini  CHAPIN'S MOUNTAIN-BABBLER.  Forest.  Lowlands of ce,ne Zaire.  Possibly a race of K. rufocinctus.

Parophasma galinieri  ABYSSINIAN CATBIRD.  Forest, bamboo.  Highlands of Ethiopia.

Affinities uncertain; may be closest to Lioptilus or Kupeornis.

Phyllanthus atripennis  CAPUCHIN BABBLER.  Forest.  Locally from Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Nigeria, sw Cameroon, sw C. African Rep., w Uganda and cn,ne Zaire.
Crocias langbianis  GREY-CROWNED CROCIAS.  Forest.  Previously known only from highlands of Vietnam in s Annam.  Two birds observed in south Vietnam in January, 1994 after a 57 year hiatus (World Birdwatch 16(1):2).
Crocias albonotatus  SPOTTED CROCIAS.  Forest.  Highlands of w,c Java.
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 Heterophasia:  Sibias.  Forest, oak forest, scrub.  Mts. of s Asia; Taiwan.
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Heterophasia annectens  RUFOUS-BACKED SIBIA.  Forest, scrub.  Himalayas, 600-1550 m in ne India from Darjeeling and Sikkim e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Khasi, Cachar and Mizo hills, Manipur and Nagaland, Burma (exc. c,s), sw China in w,sw Yunnan, nw Thailand, n Laos and n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and s Annam.
Heterophasia capistrata  RUFOUS SIBIA.  Forest.  Himalayas, 1500-3500 m in n Pakistan, n India from Kashmir e to Arunachal Pradesh and s Tibet.
Heterophasia gracilis  GREY SIBIA.  Forest.  Himalayas, 900-2300 m in ne India in the Khasi and Cachar hills, Manipur and Nagaland, w,ne Burma and sw China in w Yunnan.
Heterophasia melanoleuca  BLACK-HEADED SIBIA.  Open woodland, dwarf oak, forest, scrub.  Himalayas above 1000 m in cs China in s Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow and nw Kwangsi, ne Burma and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin; c,e,s Burma incl. Tenasserim and nw Thailand; c Vietnam in c,s Annam and s Laos.

Heterophasia auricularis  WHITE-EARED SIBIA.  Oak forest.  Mts., 1150-2350 m of Taiwan.
Heterophasia pulchella  BEAUTIFUL SIBIA.  Forest.  Himalayas above 2000 m in e India in s Arunachal Pradesh, Khasi and Cachar hills and Nagaland, se Tibet, ne Burma and sw China in nw Yunnan.
Heterophasia picaoides  LONG-TAILED SIBIA.  Oak forest. Mts., 600-3000 m in ne India from Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Nagaland, Burma (exc. c), sw China, nw Thailand, n Laos, n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and n Annam, Malaya; Sumatra.
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 Yuhina:  Yuhinas.  Forest, scrub, edge, second growth, bushes.  S, se Asia, Taiwan, Sumatra, Borneo.

Yuhina castaniceps  STRIATED YUHINA.  Open forest undergrowth, edge.  Mts. 600-1550 m in ne India from Darjeeling and Sikkim e to Arunachal Pradesh s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, s China in w Yunnan, Burma (exc. c, but incl. Tenasserim) and  nw Thailand; s China in se Szechwan, se Yunnan, Kweichow, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung and Fukien, n Laos and n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and n,c Annam.
Yuhina everetti  CHESTNUT-CRESTED YUHINA.  Open forest undergrowth, edge.  Mts. of n Borneo.  Sometimes treated as a race of Y. castaniceps.
Yuhina bakeri  WHITE-NAPED YUHINA.  Forest, second growth, bushes.  Himalayas, 900-2150 m in n India from e Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Khasi and Cachar hills, Manipur and Nagaland, n Burma and sw China in nw Yunnan.

Yuhina flavicollis  WHISKERED YUHINA.  Forest, second growth.  Himalayas, 900-3000 m in n India from Himachal Pradesh e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, w,n,e Burma, sw China in w,se Yunnan, nw Thailand, n Laos and nVietnam in nw Tonkin.
Yuhina humilis  BURMESE YUHINA.  Forest, second growth.  Mts. above 1200 m in e,s Burma incl. Tenasserim, and nw Thailand.  Sometimes treated as a race of Y. flavicollis.
Yuhina gularis  STRIPE-THROATED YUHINA.  Forest, scrub, bamboo.  Himalayas, 1200-3050 m in n India locally from Garhwal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Manipur, Nagaland and probably se Bangladesh, sw China in s Szechwan and w,se Yunnan, se Tibet, w,ne,e Burma, n Laos and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.

Yuhina diademata  WHITE-COLLARED YUHINA.  Thickets, tall grass.  Himalayas above 1500 m in c,cs China in se Kansu, Shensi, Hupeh, w,s Szechwan, Yunnan, Kweichow and w Kwangsi, ne Burma and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Yuhina occipitalis  RUFOUS-VENTED YUHINA.  Forest undergrowth, mossy trees.  Himalayas, 1800-3600 m in ne India from wc Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh, se Tibet, ne Burma and sw China in nw,s Yunnan.
Yuhina brunneiceps  FORMOSAN YUHINA.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-3300 m of Taiwan.
Yuhina nigrimenta  BLACK-CHINNED YUHINA.  Forest, scrub, second growth, farms.  Himalayas, 900-2000 m in n India from Garhwal e to Arunachal Pradesh s to Khasi and Chittagong hills, Manipur and Nagaland, ne Burma, s China in c Szechwan, Yunnan, w Hupeh, Kwangsi, nw Fukien and probably Kwangtung, ne Laos, and n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and Annam.
Yuhina zantholeuca  WHITE-BELLIED YUHINA.  Forest, second growth.  Mts. 550-3050 from ne India from w Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, s China in Yunnan, w Kwangsi, Kwantung, Fukien and Hainan I., Taiwan; s through se Asia (exc. c Thailand); nw Sumatra; Borneo.
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Myzornis pyrrhoura  FIRE-TAILED MYZORNIS.  Rhododendron thickets in forest, alpine meadows, bamboo, bushes.  Himalayas, 1600-4250 m in ne India from c Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh, se Tibet, sw China in nw Yunnan and possibly sw Szechwan, and ne Burma  Affinities uncertain.
Oxylabes madagascariensis  WHITE-THROATED OXYLABES.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1800 m in nw,e Madagascar.
Crossleyia xanthophrys  YELLOW-BROWED OXYLABES.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Lowlands of n,ce Madagascar.

Mystacornis crossleyi  CROSSLEY'S BABBLER. Humid forest floor.  Up to 1800 m in e Madagascar. Affinities uncertain.
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Parrotbills:  The Parrotbills have been treated as a family, Paradoxornithidae, but appear to be babblers, although the affinities of Panurus biarmicus remain uncertain.
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Panurus biarmicus  BEARDED PARROTBILL.  Extensive reedbeds.  From se England, continental Europe and Lithuania e across s Russia from Black Sea area e to Caspian Sea and Aral Sea, Kazakhstan, Iran and w Afghanistan to sw,cs Siberia in the Altai and Transbaicalia, Mongolia and n China from w Sinkiang e through Kansu, e,n Tsinghai, Ningsia and Inner Mongolia to Heilungkiang and s to Spain, Italy, Sicily, Balkan states, c Turkey and Syria.

Also called Bearded Tit and placed in the Paridae in some classifications.

Conostoma oemodium  GREAT PARROTBILL.  Bamboo, rhododendrons in forest, reeds.  Himalayas, 2700-4600 m in ne India from c Nepal e to Bhutan and probably Arunachal Pradesh, ne Burma, se Tibet and c,sw China in se Kansu, s Shensi, sw Szechwan and n Yunnan.
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 Paradoxornis:  Parrotbills.  Bamboo thickets, undergrowth, scrub, grass, reedbeds.  E,s,se Asia.
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Paradoxornis paradoxus  THREE-TOED PARROTBILL. Bamboo thickets, bamboo groves in forest.  Himalayas, 1800-3650 m in c,sw China in sw Kansu, s Shensi and n Szechwan.
Paradoxornis unicolor  BROWN PARROTBILL. Bamboo groves in forest, rhododendrons.  Himalayas, 2100-4300 m in ne India from Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh, se Tibet, ne Burma and sw China in c,sw Szechwan and nw Yunnan.

Paradoxornis gularis  GREY-HEADED PARROTBILL. Forest, scrub oak, bamboo.  Lowlands to 2400 m in ne India from Darjeeling and Sikkim e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, w,n,e Burma, se China from s Szechwan, Yangtze River, s Anhwei and Chekiang s to Yunnan, Kwangsi, Kwantung and Hainan I., nw Thailand, n Laos and n,c Vietnam in nw Tonkin and s Annam.
Paradoxornis flavirostris  BLACK-BREASTED PARROTBILL. Reedbeds, scrub, bamboo, grass.  Hills, 900-1500 m in ne India from Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to se Bangladesh, Assam and Nagaland and w Burma.
Paradoxornis guttaticollis  SPOT-BREASTED PARROTBILL. Scrub, grass, bamboo, reedbeds.  Himalayas, 900-3400 m in e India in se Bangladesh, s,e Assam and Nagaland, ne,e Burma, c,s China from s Kansu and s Shensi s through Szechwan to Yunnan and e through Kwangsi and Kweichow to Kwantung and Fukien, nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.  Sometimes treated as a high altitude race of P. flavirostris.

Paradoxornis conspicillatus  SPECTACLED PARROTBILL. Bamboo groves in forest.  Himalayas, 1800-2950 m of c China in s Kansu, e Tsinghai, e Szechwan, sw Shensi and w Hupeh.
Paradoxornis webbianus  VINOUS-THROATED PARROTBILL. Thickets, scrub, bamboo, reedbeds, grass.  Lowlands to mts. from se Siberia in s Ussuriland, Manchuria and Korea, s across c,e China w to s 
Shensi, e Szechwan and se Yunnan, to ne,c,e Burma, n Vietnam in nw Tonkin, and Taiwan.  Hybridizes with
P. brunneus and P. alphonsianus, but usually treated as a separate species.
Paradoxornis brunneus  BROWN-WINGED PARROTBILL. Thickets, scrub, bamboo, grass.  Himalayas to 4100 m in sw China in s Szechwan and nw Yunnan, and ne,c,e Burma.

Paradoxornis alphonsianus  ASHY-THROATED PARROTBILL. Dense thickets, grass.  Himalayas above 1200 m in sw China from sw,e Szechwan to se Yunnan and Kweichow, and n Vietnam in nw Tonkin.
Paradoxornis zappeyi  GREY-HOODED PARROTBILL. Forest.  Known only from mts. 2600-3050 m of sw China in s,e Szechwan.
Paradoxornis przewalskii  RUSTY-THROATED PARROTBILL. Open larch woods, grass tussocks,  bamboo.  Himalayas of nc China in se Kansu, se Tsinghai and n Szechwan.
Paradoxornis fulvifrons  FULVOUS PARROTBILL. Bamboo thickets in mixed woodland, cane, rhododendrons, coniferous forest.  Himalayas, 1800-4600 m in ne India from e Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh, se Tibet, ne Burma and c,sw China from se Kansu and s Shensi s through w Szechwan to w Yunnan.

Paradoxornis nipalensis  BLACK-THROATED PARROTBILL. Bamboo, forest undergrowth, grass, thickets.  Himalayas, 1200-3300 m in n India from Garhwal e to e Bhutan and adj. s Tibet; Himalayas, 500-2300 m in ne India from e Bhutan e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, Burma exc. extreme cw, sw China in nw Yunnan, and nw Thailand.
Paradoxornis verreauxi  GOLDEN PARROTBILL. Bamboo thickets, scrub.  Himalayas, 500-3050 m in extreme cw Burma, c,se China from s Szechwan, s Shensi and w Hunan s to n Yunnan and ne Kwangsi; nw Fukien, n Laos, n Vietnam in nw Tonkin, and Taiwan.  Sometimes treated as a race of P. nipalensis.
Paradoxornis davidianus  SHORT-TAILED PARROTBILL. Bamboo thickets.  Up to 1850 m in e Burma, sw,se China in s Yunnan, Chekiang and nw,c Fukien, nw Thailand, nw Laos and n Vietnam in n Tonkin.

Paradoxornis atrosuperciliaris  BLACK-BROWED PARROTBILL. Bamboo thickets, long grass, scrub, reedbeds.  Himalayas, 600-2100 m in ne India from Sikkim e to Arunachal Pradesh s to n Bangladesh and Khasi and Cachar hills, n,s Burma, sw China in w Yunnan, nw Thailand and n Laos.
Paradoxornis ruficeps  RUFOUS-HEADED PARROTBILL. Grass, reedbeds, scrub.  Lowlands and Himalayan foothills to 1700 m in ne India from Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh s to se Bangladesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland, se Tibet, sw China in nw Yunnan, n,s,e Burma, n Laos and n Vietnam in c Tonkin.
Paradoxornis heudei  REED PARROTBILL. Reedbeds.  Locally in e China in s Heilungkiang, ne Chekiang, along Yangtze River in Kiangsu and extreme se Siberia at Lake Khanka and s Ussuriland.

Rhabdornis:  Affinities uncertain.  Provisionally assigned to the Timaliini, but it has been treated as a relative of the tree-creepers (Certhia) or as the monotypic family Rhabdornithidae.  Woods, edge.  Philippine Islands.
Rhabdornis mystacalis  STRIPE-SIDED RHABDORNIS.  Woodland.  Lowlands to 1200 m on Luzon, Catanduanes,  Masbate, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Leyte, Calicoan, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao and Basilan.
Rhabdornis grandis  LONG-BILLED RHABDORNIS.  Forest, woods.  Mts. of n Luzon.  Sometimes treated as a race of R. inornatus.
Rhabdornis inornatus  STRIPE-BREASTED RHABDORNIS.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Mts. above 800 m of Samar, Leyte, Negros and Mindanao.

Tribe Chamaeini:  Wrentit.

Chamaea fasciata  Wrentit.  Chaparral, brush, thickets.  Coastal lowlands and hills from nw Oregon to nw Baja California; in California inland to inner coast ranges and foothills of the Sierra Nevada.  The Wrentit is the only babbler in the New World.
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Tribe Sylviini:  Old World Warblers.
 Blondel, et al. (1994. J. für Orn. 135:367) used 362 DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 18 species of Sylvia and two species of Parisoma.  
The results show that Parisoma is included in Sylvia; that S. atricapilla and S. borin are distinct from the other species and that the Mediterranean species are closely related.  
The main speciation events probably corresponded to Pleistocene climatic crises within the Mediterranean region.

Sylvia:  Warblers, Blackcap, Whitethroats.  Forest, woods, scrub, thickets, etc.  Eurasia, s,se Asia, Africa, Arabia.
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Sylvia buryi  YEMEN WARBLER.  Acacia scrub.  Yemen in sw Arabia.
Sylvia lugens  BROWN WARBLER.  Acacia savanna.  Locally in mts. above 1500 m in extreme se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, e Uganda, w,c Kenya, ne,s Tanzania, ce,se Zaire, Zambia and Malawi.
Sylvia boehmi  BANDED WARBLER.  Acacia bushes, savanna.  N,ne,sc Ethiopia, nw Somalia, c,s Kenya and Tanzania except w,se.
Sylvia layardi  LAYARD'S WARBLER.  Acacia scrub, usually in rocky areas.  C,s Namibia and w S. Africa e to Orange Free State, Lesotho and w Natal.

Sylvia subcaeruleum  RUFOUS-VENTED WARBLER.  Acacia bushes, savanna.  Sw,s Angola, Namibia, sw Zambia, Botswana, se Zimbabwe and arid nw,n,c S. Africa (absent from e Transvaal, Lesotho, e Natal and e Cape Prov.
Sylvia atricapilla  BLACKCAP.  Forest with undergrowth, edge, open woods, thickets, towns.  From the British Isles and s Scandinavia se across c Russia to upper Irtysh River and s to Canary, Madeira, Azores and Cape Verde is., nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia, Mediterranean region including most islands except Crete; Turkey, Near East to Israel, Caucasus and n Iran.
Sylvia borin  GARDEN WARBLER.  Undergrowth, edge, scrub, towns.  Eurasia from British Isles and Scandinavia se across c Russia to the Altai, Kirghiz steppes and sw Siberia on the upper Yenisei River, s to n Spain, s France, c Italy, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, n Turkey and the Caucasus.

Sylvia communis  GREATER WHITETHROAT.  Low shrubby growth, scrub, woods, steppe, open woods, edge of farms, swamp edge, grasslands.  From the British Isles and Scandinavia n to the Arctic Circle se across c Russia to sw Siberia (upper Yenisei River), n Mongolia and extreme w China in w Sinkiang, s to n Africa from Morocco to Tunisia, n Mediterranean region incl. most islands exc. Corsica, Turkey, Near East to Israel, n Iran, n,e Afghanistan, n Pakistan in n Baluchistan and, probably, nw India in Kashmir.
Sylvia curruca  LESSER WHITETHROAT.  Woods, thickets, bushes, steppes.  From s British Isles and Scandinavia n to the Arctic Circle and e across n Russia to w Siberia (upper Lena R., Transbaicalia), n Mongolia and n Manchuria in nw Heilungkiang, s to c,se France, n Italy, Balkans, Turkey, Near East, nw,s Iran, Kazakhstan and n Turkestan.

This and the following two species are often treated as conspecific; they intergrade or hybridize where their ranges meet and are vocally similar.

Sylvia minula  SMALL WHITETHROAT.  Desert scrub, thorn bush, semi-desert, often near water in oases.  Sc Asia in ne Iran, Transcaspia, s,e Turkestan, nw,nc China from Sinkiang e through n Tsinghai, n Kansu and Ningsia to ne Inner Mongolia.
Sylvia althaea  HUME'S WHITETHROAT.  Open barren slopes with scattered scrub, thorn bushes, thorny thickets, juniper.  Mts., 1500-3700 m in Afghanistan, n Pakistan in n Baluchistan and nw India in Kashmir and Ladakh.
Sylvia nana  DESERT WARBLER.  Sandy desert, arid steppe, thorn bushes, semi-desert.  Saharan region from s Morocco, c,s Algeria, s Tunisia, w Libya, s to Mauritania, n Mali, Nigeria (?); sc Asia in s Russia n to e Caspian and Aral sea areas and Turkestan, ne Iran, w Afghanistan (?), n Pakistan, nw,nc China from w Sinkiang e to se Ningsia and Mongolia in the Gobi Desert.

Sylvia nisoria  BARRED WARBLER.  Bushes, forest edge, thorny shrubs, woods, orchards, towns.  From c Europe w to s Sweden, Germany and e Italy and s Finland se through nw,c Russia to nw Siberia in the Altai, nw Mongolia and extreme w China in w Sinkiang, s to Balkans, Greece, ne Turkey, s Russia, Caucasus and n Afghanistan (absent from large area from e shore of Caspian Sea to c Kazakhstan e of Aral Sea).
Sylvia hortensis  ORPHEAN WARBLER.  Woods, forest, shrubs, orchards.  S Europe in the Mediterranean region, incl. Crete, Morocco to n Libya, Turkey, Near East, Iran, Afghanistan, Caucasus, Turkmenia in the 
Pamir Mts. and n Pakistan in Baluchistan.
Sylvia leucomelaena  RED SEA WARBLER.  Thorn scrub.  Coastal regions in Israel, c,coastal w Arabia, se Egypt, ce Sudan, n Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea.

Sylvia rueppelli  RUEPPELL'S WARBLER.  Thick scrub, often on rocky slopes.  Greece, Crete, Aegean Sea islands and w,sw Turkey.
Sylvia melanocephala  SARDINIAN WARBLER.  Thickets, bushes, arid scrub.  Canary Is. and Mediterranean coasts e to w,nw Turkey and Near East; absent from parts of n Libya and Cyprus.
Sylvia melanothorax  CYPRUS WARBLER.  Arid scrub, thickets.  Nests only on Cyprus; vagrants or migrants occur in the Near East and n Egypt.  Sometimes treated as a race of S. melanocephala.
Sylvia cantillans  SUBALPINE WARBLER.  Thorn scrub, oaks, open woods undergrowth, thickets.  Mediterranean region from s Europe e to w Turkey; nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia, incl. Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Crete, Aegean Sea islands.

Sylvia mystacea  MENETRIES'S WARBLER.  Tamarisk bushes, scrub, woods.  Lowlands to 1350 m from se Turkey and Near East e to w Caspian Sea region, Caucasus, n Iraq, w,n Iran, Transcaspia n to Aral Sea and Afghanistan.
Sylvia conspicillata  SPECTACLED WARBLER.  Thickets, arid scrub, semi-desert.  Locally in Madeira, Cape Verde, Canary islands; Morocco to Tunisia; sw Europe from Spain to Italy, incl. Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Malta, Cyprus; Near East and probably n Egypt.
Sylvia deserticola  TRISTRAM'S WARBLER.  Forest undergrowth, thickets, scrub.  Mts. of nw Africa in w Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia; Moroccan Sahara.  The poorly known race ticehursti (Moroccan Sahara) has been treated as a species but appears to be a race of deserticola.

Sylvia undata  DARTFORD WARBLER.  Scrub, thorn scrub, shrubby saltflats. Extreme s England, w,s France, Iberian pen., Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily and nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia.
Sylvia sarda  MARMORA'S WARBLER.  Open scrub, thorn scrub.  Coastal Spain, Balearic Is., Sardinia and Corsica.

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         Passeriformes 22
© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi