|Phyllastrephus xavieri XAVIER'S GREENBUL. Forest.
Patchy distribution in lowlands from s Cameroon, C. African Rep., n,ne
Zaire and w Uganda s to Congo Rep., sc,ce Zaire and nw Tanzania.
Like Icterine Greenbul, but larger.
The following Malagasy species of greenbuls are placed in Bernieria
by some authors.
Olson (1989. Riv. Ital. Orn. 59:183-195) considered the Malagasy species
of Phyllastrephus to be babblers (Timaliini), based on skeletal traits.
Phyllastrephus madagascariensis LONG-BILLED GREENBUL.
Forest. Lowlands to 1800 m, of Madagascar, except s.
Phyllastrephus zosterops SPECTACLED GREENBUL. Forest.
Lowlands to 1200 m, more commonly above 800 m, of nw,e Madagascar. Nest
of moss, plant fibers; hemispherical; near ground. Eggs 3-4, rosy-white,
Phyllastrephus apperti APPERT'S GREENBUL. Dry forest
undergrowth. Sw Madagascar.
Phyllastrephus tenebrosus DUSKY GREENBUL. Forest undergrowth.
Lowlands of ne,ce Madagascar. 14.5 cm.
Phyllastrephus cinereiceps GREY-CROWNED GREENBUL. Rain
forest undergrowth. Hills ca. 800 m of ce Madagascar. Nest bowl-shaped
of moss on fork of a small branch, near ground. Eggs 3.
Bleda: Bristlebills. Attend army ant swarms.
Green above, yellow below, dusky breast band.
Chappuis and Erard (1993. Zeitschr. Zool. Syst.
Evolut.-forsch. 31:280-299) reviewed species limits in Bleda based on morphology
and vocal behavior, and recognized four species (instead of three), as
Bleda syndactyla COMMON BRISTLEBILL. Forest undergrowth.
Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African
Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme se Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, and w Tanzania s to
n Angola, nw Zambia and cs,ce Zaire.
Bleda eximia GREEN-TAILED BRISTLEBILL. Forest undergrowth.
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, s Nigeria, Gulf of Guinea
Is., Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, Zaire, C. Afr.
Rep., s Sudan, Uganda and w Tanzania.
Bleda notata LESSER BRISTLEBILL. Forest undergrowth.
Bioko and s Nigeria to s Sudan and w Uganda. Includes ugandae.
Formerly considered conspecific with eximia, but structurally and vocally
closer to canicapilla.
Bleda canicapilla GREY-HEADED BRISTLEBILL. Forest undergrowth.
Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and s Nigeria.
Nicator: Nicators. Forests and thickets of w,c,e
Africa. Often viewed as shrikes. Based on skeletal traits,
Olson (1989. Riv. Ital. Orn. 59:183-195) argued that this genus is malaconotine,
but behavior, isozymes (Hannote, et al. 1989. Biochem. Evol. Syst. 15:629-634)
and DNA hybridization data indicate that it is pycnonotid.
Nicator chloris YELLOW-SPOTTED NICATOR. Forest,
thickets. Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, se Guinea,
Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, C. African
Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan,
Uganda and w Tanzania, s,se,ce Zaire and possibly nw Zambia.
Nicator gularis EASTERN NICATOR. Forest, thickets.
S Somalia and c,se Kenya s through Tanzania, c,e Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe
and Mozambique to extreme e S. Africa in e Transvaal and e Natal.
Like chloris with grayish crown.
Nicator vireo YELLOW-THROATED NICATOR. Forest.
S Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n, ne Zaire
and extreme w Uganda, s to c Angola and sw,cs,c Zaire. Like chloris,
but smaller; lores, throat yellow.
Criniger: Bearded Bulbuls. Conspicuous white or yellow
throats, the long feathers of which form "beards" in some species.
Criniger barbatus BEARDED BULBUL. Forest undergrowth.
Se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Nigeria and
Criniger chloronotus GREEN-BACKED BULBUL. Forest
undergrowth. S Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo s to
Congo River mouth, e to n,ne,ce Zaire and w Uganda.
Similar to barbatus with white throat. Nest a shallow cup of
twigs, moss, lined with strands of a thread-like fungus (Marasmius) and
decorated with long, leafy stems of an epiphytic fern, Microgramma owariensis,
around the rim; placed on green upper leaves of a shrub on bits of wood,
dead leaves, on which the fungi grow and attach the nest to the substrate.
Eggs 1-2, variable, gray to brown; unmarked or with dark markings.
Criniger calurus RED-TAILED BULBUL. Forest undergrowth.
Sw Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria to s Cameroon,. Fernando Po I., Gabon, Congo,
C. Afr. Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan, Uganda, s to sw,cw,ce Zaire
Criniger olivaceus YELLOW-BEARDED BULBUL. Lowland
primary forest undergrowth. Patchy distribution in s Mali, sw Senegambia,
se Guinea, sw Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, s Ghana, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire and C. Afr. Rep.
Criniger ndussumensis WHITE-BEARDED BULBUL. Forest
undergrowth. From s Nigeria, s Cameroon, C. African Rep. and n,ne,ce
Zaire, s to Gabon and Congo Rep. Like calurus with whitish lores.
Hybridizes with calurus in ne Zaire, but the two are sympatric in Cameroon
and Gabon without interbreeding. Considered a race of C. olivaceus
by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 352), based on "indistinguishable"
vocalizations. Molecular evidence may be required to clarify this
Alophoixus: Asian Bearded Bulbuls. Often included
in Criniger. 16-24 cm. S,se Asia.
Alophoixus finschii FINSCH'S BULBUL. Forest. Lowlands
to 750 m in peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Alophoixus flaveolus WHITE-THROATED BULBUL. Forest,
scrub. Himalayas to 1500 m from ne India and Burma to sw China and
Alophoixus pallidus PUFF-THROATED BULBUL. Open forest.
Lowlands to 1800 m in s China, s,e Burma, nw,ne Thailand, Cambodia (exc.
sw), Laos and Vietnam.
Alophoixus ochraceus OCHRACEOUS BULBUL. Forest.
Highlands, 200-1500 m in s Burma (s Tenasserim), sw,peninsular,se Thailand,
sw Cambodia, s Vietnam, Malaya, w Sumatra and n Borneo from Sarawak to
Alophoixus bres GREY-CHEEKED BULBUL. Forest.
Lowlands to 1000 m of Malay peninsula; Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, sw
Philippines on Calamian Is., Palawan and Balabac.
Alophoixus phaeocephalus YELLOW-BELLIED BULBUL.
Forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula,
Sumatra and adj. islands, and Borneo, N. Natuna Is.
Alophoixus affinis GOLDEN BULBUL. Forest.
Lowlands to 800 m on small islands off e Sulawesi (Peleng, Sangihe, Togian,
Banggai, and Sula Is.) and Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Bacan, Obi, Buru,
Setornis criniger HOOK-BILLED BULBUL. Lowlands of e Sumatra,
Bangka and Borneo.
20 cm. Hooked bill; crestless; brown above, darkest on crown, tail,
wings; white supercilium; black eye and malar stripes; white below, gray
flanks; tail white-tipped.
Tricholestes criniger HAIRY-BACKED BULBUL. (Placed in Hypsipetes
by some authors). Forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m
in the Malay peninsula, Tioman I., Sumatra and Batu Is., Musala and Lingga
Arch., and Borneo and N. Natuna islands.
16 cm. Crestless; olive-brown above; rufescent tail; pale eyering; yellowish
cheeks; white throat; breast yellow-gray; belly and crissum yellow.
Long, hairlike feather shafts from nape over the back.
Iole: Often included in Hypsipetes. S, se Asia.
Iole virescens OLIVE BULBUL. Forest, second growth.
Lowlands to 1000 m in e India, Burma and nw,sw Thailand.
Iole propinqua GREY-EYED BULBUL. Second growth, scrub.
Lowlands to 1000 m in s China, e,s Burma, Thailand and Indochina.
Iole olivacea BUFF-VENTED BULBUL. Forest, woods,
second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra,
Batu Is., Bangka, Belitung, Riau Arch., Borneo, Anambas, N. Natuna and
Iole indica YELLOW-BROWED BULBUL. Forest, woods,
scrub, towns. Mainly above 900 m in s India in the W. Ghats from
s Maharashtra and Goa s to Kerala; Sri Lanka. Nest unlike those of
other bulbuls: a flimsy hammock of grass and dead leaves, decorated with
moss and cobwebs; slung in a horizontal fork. Eggs 2-3, white or
pinkish with reddish spots, blotches.
Ixos: Often included in Hypsipetes. Japan to Philippines;
Taiwan; se Asia.
Ixos palawanensis SULPHUR-BELLIED BULBUL. Forest,
edge, second growth. Mts. of Palawan, Philippine Is.
Ixos philippinus PHILIPPINE BULBUL. Forest, edge.
Lowlands to 2000 m of the Philippines, except Palawan.
Ixos rufigularis ZAMBOANGA BULBUL. Forest, edge.
W Mindanao and Basilan, Philippine Is. Similar to philippinus, but
larger with a darker crown.
Ixos siquijorensis STREAK-BREASTED BULBUL. Forest,
edge, second growth. Small islands in the c Philippines: Romblon,
Tablas, Siquijor, formerly on Cebu.
Ixos amaurotis BROWN-EARED BULBUL. Forest, edge,
woods, second growth, towns. Lowlands to 1100 m in Japan from s Hokkaido
s, including many small islands; Izu, Ryukyu, Daito, Bonin and Volcano
is., s Taiwan and Lan ču I.; small is. of n Philippines on Babuyan Is.,
Batan, Fuga and Camiguin Norte.
Ixos everetti YELLOWISH BULBUL. Forest. C,
s Philippines on Samar, Leyte, Panaon, Dinagat, Siargao, Camiguin Sur,
c,e Mindanao and the Sulu Arch. Geographically variable.
Ixos malaccensis STREAKED BULBUL. Forest.
Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Bangka, Riau and Lingga
Hemixos: Often included in Hypsipetes. India,
s China, se Asia, Sumatra, Borneo.
Hemixos flavala ASHY BULBUL. Forest, second growth.
Foothills and mts., 300-1800 m in n,e India, Burma, sw China, Thailand
(exc. c,se), n,s Laos, s Vietnam in s Annam; Sumatra; Borneo. Geographically
Hemixos castanotus CHESTNUT BULBUL. Forest, second
growth. Lowlands to 1000 m in s China, Hainan I., n Vietnam in Tonkin.
Hypsipetes: See Hemixos, Ixos, Iole, Tricholestes,
which are often included in Hypsipetes. Species of Hypsipetes occur
in s, se Asia, Sumatra, Java, Madagascar, Seychelles Is., Comoro Is., Mascarene
Is., and Nicobar Is.
Hypsipetes mcclellandii MOUNTAIN BULBUL. Forest,
woods, second growth. Mts., 900-2600 m in n,e India, s China, Burma,
nw,pen.,se Thailand, n,w Laos, Vietnam in nw Tonkin, s Annam and Malaya.
Hypsipetes virescens SUNDA BULBUL. Forest.
Highlands, 800-2400 m, of Sumatra and Java. Related to Mountain Bulbul.
Hypsipetes madagascariensis group: The relationships of
the six following species (madagascariensis to nicobarensis) are unclear.
They have been considered conspecific.
Only madagascariensis and parvirostris are sympatric in the Comoro
Hypsipetes madagascariensis MADAGASCAR BULBUL. Forest,
second growth, towns. Madagascar, Aldabra, Glorieuses and Comoro
Hypsipetes crassirostris SEYCHELLES BULBUL. Forest,
second growth, woods. Seychelles Is. on Mahé, Praslin and
Félicité Similar to madagascarensis.
Hypsipetes parvirostris COMOROS BULBUL. Humid forest.
Highlands above 500 m on the Comoro Is. of Grand Comoro and Mohéli.
Similar to madagascarensis.
Hypsipetes borbonicus REUNION BULBUL. Forest, second
growth, woods. Réunion I. in the Mascarene Islands.
H. olivaceus of Mauritius has red eyes, H. borbonicus
of Réunion has white eyes. They have been treated as subspecies
of borbonicus, but are recognized as separate species by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
(1993, p. 352).
Hypsipetes olivaceus MAURITIUS BULBUL. Forest, second
growth, woods. Mauritius I. in the Mascarene Islands. See note
under H. borbonicus.
Hypsipetes leucocephalus BLACK BULBUL. Forest, second
growth, towns. Lowlands to 1600 m in sw India, Sri Lanka; foothills
and mts., 1000-3050 m of n Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n,e India, Burma, c,s
China, Hainan, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, n,c Vietnam and Taiwan.
1. Black form: all black with red bill and feet.
2. White-headed form: Black with white head and neck; crissum
gray with white scale-like markings.
Hypsipetes nicobarensis NICOBAR BULBUL. Forest,
towns. Nicobar Is.
Hypsipetes thompsoni WHITE-HEADED BULBUL. Forest
edge, second growth. Mts., 900-2100 m, in Burma (exc. w) and nw Thailand.
Neolestes torquatus BLACK-COLLARED BULBUL. Savanna.
Lowlands to 1500 m in s Gabon, Congo, sw,c,ce Zaire and s to nw Angola,
se Zaire and nw Zambia. Affinities uncertain, sometimes placed with the
Back green; forehead to nape gray; a glossy black streak from
lores through eye to side of crown, continued as a broad band or collar
across the chest; chin, throat, ear coverts buffy white; breast to belly
whitish; flanks greenish; underwings golden yellow; eye brown. Nest
a frail cup of grass, plant stems in a bush; eggs 2, pinkish white with
dark pink and rufous spots.
Malia grata MALIA. Mt. forests of Sulawesi in the
Celebes. Affinities uncertain; may be a babbler. See below
Family (Incertae sedis) HYPOCOLIIDAE
Hypocolius ampelinus GREY HYPOCOLIUS. Palms, tamarisks,
oases, towns. Breeds in sw Asia in the Tigris-Euphrates valleys of
sw Arabia, Iraq and s,e Iran. Non-breeding range n to s Turkmenia,
e to c India, s to Red Sea, Egypt, s Arabia.
Affinities uncertain; usually assigned to the Bombycillidae (waxwings
and allies), but there is no substantial evidence for this relationship;
it is considered to be of uncertain status and its assignment to the vicinity
of the Pycnonotidae is tentative. No DNA evidence available.
23 cm. Male gray above, paler below; black lores, mask, nuchal
band, tail tip; primaries black with white tips. Female lacks the
black areas on the head and tips of primaries are dusky. Food: insects
and fruits, including dates. Nest a large, deep cup of plant material,
placed in a tree 1.5-5 meters above the ground and well concealed.
Eggs 3-5, white with grayish markings.
Family CISTICOLIDAE African
Warblers. *Cisticola, Scotocerca, Rhopophilus, *Prinia, Phragmacia,
Oreophilais, Heliolais, Malcorus, Drymocichla, Urolais, Spiloptila, *Apalis,
*Hypergerus, *Eminia, *Camaroptera, Calamonastes, Euryptila. Africa,
s Asia; two species in Australia, one in s Europe. Asterisks* = DNA
hybridization data available.
DNA hybridization comparisons among the genera traditionally placed
in the Sylviidae identified several distinct groups of "warblers", one
of which is composed of the genera listed above. Although the DNA
data included only six of these genera (identified by asterisks*), the
others are thought to be closely related to them. The Cisticolidae
probably originated in Africa, where most species occur today, and spread
from Africa to Asia.
Cisticola: Africa, s Europe, Asia, Australia. Small;
tail short or, if long, graduated; many species have a black subterminal
spot on the rectrices; plumage colors usually shades of brown with tints
of grays, buffs and tawny. Many species are so much alike that identification,
even in the hand, is difficult, but songs, habitat and geographic distribution
are useful in the field. Females are smaller than males; juveniles
are browner and rustier than adults and often yellowish below.
Nests are of dry grass and of three types: 1. Ball-shaped, side
entrance; most species. 2. In a pocket formed by "sewing" together
the edges of large, adjacent leaves of a tree or bush; only Singing Cisticola,
Red-faced Cisticola. 3. Retort or "soda bottle" shape - a ball with
a tubular opening facing upward, placed in tall grass near the ground and
concealed by overhanging grass or composed of living grass stems bound
by cobwebs; only the Zitting Cisticola builds such a nest. Most nests
are lined with plant down which is added to throughout incubation.
Eggs usually 2-4, white or blue with reddish spots; variable.
Cisticola erythrops RED-FACED CISTICOLA. Rank grassland,
undergrowth. Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra
Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gabon,
Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and extreme se Sudan to w,c Ethiopia
Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,c Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, ce,se
Zaire, extreme ne Namibia (Caprivi), Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana
and ne S. Africa in n,e Transvaal, Swaziland and Natal.
Cisticola lepe LEPE CISTICOLA. Grassland, undergrowth.
W Angola and se Zaire. Often lumped with erythrops, but they are
sympatric without interbreeding in se Zaire. However, Dowsett and
Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) believe that the morphological distinctions
between lepe and cantans are "not sufficient,... to rule out the relationship"
between them. They conclude that "For the moment it [=lepe] should
not be acccepted as a good species." Apparently, further investigation
Cisticola cantans SINGING CISTICOLA. Grassland, undergrowth.
Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone,
Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon,
C. African Rep., s, Chad, n,e,sc Zaire, c,s Sudan and w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea,
s through Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, ne Zambia and
Malawi to e Zimbabwe and n Mozambique.
Cisticola lateralis WHISTLING CISTICOLA. Moist woods,
forest edge. Senegambia, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep.,
s Sudan, Uganda, Burundi, w Kenya, s Zaire, nw Zambia and Angola.
Cisticola anonymus CHATTERING CISTICOLA. Grassy
clearings in humid forest. In s Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep.,
Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Zaire and nw Angola.
Cisticola woosnami TRILLING CISTICOLA. Dry woods,
grass. Ne Zaire, c,sw Uganda, sw Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania
s to se Zaire, w Zambia and n Malawi.
Cisticola bulliens BUBBLING CISTICOLA. Grassland
with bushes and small trees, farms. Wc Africa in w Zaire and
Cisticola discolor BROWN-BACKED CISTICOLA. Heath,
scrubby areas near forest. Mts., 1000-3350 m of se Nigeria and Cameroon.
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) consider discolor and chubbi
to be conspecific, citing "field experience (including tape playback experiments)
...." Surely, the widely allopatric distributions of these two populations
argue against assuming that reactions to vocalizations necessarily prove
that they are conspecific.
Cisticola chubbi CHUBB'S CISTICOLA. Heath, scrubby
areas near forest. Highlands mostly above 1500 m in w,nw Kenya, w
Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, e Zaire and nw Tanzania.
Cisticola hunteri HUNTER'S CISTICOLA. Heath, forest
glades. Mts. above 1500 m of ne Africa in w Kenya, Uganda and n Tanzania.
Cisticola nigriloris BLACK-LORED CISTICOLA. Heath,
scrubby areas near forest. Mts., 1500-2750 m of se Africa in n Malawi,
ne Zambia and s Tanzania.
Cisticola emini ROCK-LOVING CISTICOLA. Bare rocky
areas, often overgrown with grasses, bushes and small trees. Locally
across w,c Africa in Guinea, Sierra Leone, s Mauritania, sw Mali, Liberia,
Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, n,e Nigeria, Cameroon,
ne Chad, C. Afr. Rep., s Sudan, ne Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya and Tanzania
(exc. sw), s to e Malawi and n Mozambique; also in w Angola.
The East African List Committee consider emini conspecific with aberrans
(D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) agree, but note that "They
differ only slightly in morphology, and are allopatric." This seems
to be an argument for separate species, rather than for being conspecific.
This is another example of the application of different species concepts.
Cisticola aberrans LAZY CISTICOLA. Rocky areas,
often with scant vegetation. Se,e Africa from n,e,s Zambia, sw Tanzania
and w Malawi, s through Zimbabwe, e Botswana and s Mozambique to e S. Africa
w to Transvaal and e Cape Province.
Cisticola bodessa BORAN CISTICOLA. Juniper woods.
Ne Africa in s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Eritrea and n Kenya.
Cisticola chiniana RATTLING CISTICOLA. Acacia woods,
bushes. C,e,s Africa from Congo, Zaire, s Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia,
s to Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique,
Zimbabwe, c Namibia, Botswana and S. Africa in n,e Cape Prov., Transvaal,
Swaziland, n Orange Free State and Natal.
Cisticola cinereolus ASHY CISTICOLA. Bushes, light
woods. Ne Africa from extreme se Sudan, n Ethiopia and n Somalia
s through Kenya to ne Tanzania.
Cisticola ruficeps RED-PATE CISTICOLA. Savanna, steppe.
Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, n Ghana, Togo,
Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, s Chad and c,s Sudan, Kenya and n Uganda
in the Nile Valley to nw Ethiopia and Eritrea. Includes mongalla
which occurs in the upper Nile Valley of s Sudan and n Uganda. The
inclusion of mongalla is supported by the East African List Committee (D.
A. Turner, pers. comm.) and by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360).
The race mongalla seems to be in contact with other populations of C. ruficeps.
Cisticola dorsti DORST'S CISTICOLA. Grass steppe,
old fields. Wc Africa in nw Nigeria, n Cameroon and s Chad.
Vocally and ecologically distinct from, and sympatric with, C. ruficeps.
Cisticola rufilatus GREY CISTICOLA. Savanna, acacia
steppe. Gabon, Congo, w Angola, se Zaire, n Zambia and w Malawi s
to c Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and n S. Africa in n Cape Prov. and w
Cisticola subruficapillus RED-HEADED CISTICOLA.
Bushes, scrub. Sw Africa in w Namibia and S. Africa e to e Cape Province
and sw Orange Free State. Reported from sw Angola, but record doubtful.
Cisticola lais WAILING CISTICOLA. Bushes, light
woodland. Locally in c,s Africa in highlands of w Angola, and from
s Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi s through e Zimbabwe and Mozambique to e,s
S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, Orange Free State, Natal and e,cs Cape
Cisticola distinctus LYNE'S CISTICOLA. Bushes, light
woodland. Highlands of e Uganda and c Kenya. Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
(1993, p. 359) treat distinctus as a race of C. lais because their vocalizations
are apparently identical, thus "point clearly to their being conspecific".
However, they also describe morphological differences and the two populations
are allopatric. Are vocalizations more indicative of relationship
than morphology and allopatry? Who can say with absolute certainty?
Cisticola restrictus TANA RIVER CISTICOLA. Bushes,
light woodland. Ne Kenya, along lower Tana River.
Cisticola njombe CHURRING CISTICOLA. Bracken.
Highlands of ec Africa in sc, sw Tanzania, extreme ne Zambia and n Malawi.
Cisticola galactotes WINDING CISTICOLA. Short reeds
and grasses in marshes and swamps.
The two subspecies groups differ vocally and ecologically and may be
C. g. galactotes. Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali,
Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, C. Afr.
Rep., s Chad, c,s Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, s Somalia, Zaire, Rwanda,
Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, n,e,se Angola, ne Namibia, n
Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal, coastal
Natal, extreme e Cape Prov.
C. g. luapala. Ne,c,s Zambia.
Cisticola pipiens CHIRPING CISTICOLA. Tall reeds
and grasses in swamps and marshes. Angola, s Zaire, ne Namibia, Zambia,
sw Tanzania, Burundi, Zimbabwe, and n Botswana.
Cisticola carruthersi CARRUTHER'S CISTICOLA. Tall
reeds and grasses in swamps and marshes. Ec Africa in ce Zaire, Uganda,
w Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and nw Tanzania.
Cisticola tinniens TINKLING CISTICOLA. Low sedge
growth in swamps and marshes. In c,ne Angola, se,ce Zaire and w,c
Kenya, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, w Mozambique and S. Africa (exc. wc,nw
Cisticola angolensis ANGOLA CISTICOLA. Grassland,
bushes, shrubs. See C. robustus.
C. a. angolensis. Highlands of c Africa in Cameroon, Congo
Rep., cw,c,ne Angola and cs Zaire.
C. a. awemba. Ec Africa in se Zaire, n,c Zambia and extreme
Cisticola robustus STOUT CISTICOLA. Grassland, bushes,
shrubs. Highlands in ne,ce Zaire, extreme se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia,
Eritrea, Uganda, w,sc Kenya, extreme ne Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi.
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) treat angolensis as a race of
Cisticola aberdare ABERDARE CISTICOLA. Bushy grassland.
Mts. above 2100 m in Aberdare Mts. of c Kenya.
Cisticola natalensis CROAKING CISTICOLA. Grassland
and savanna, usually with bushes and shrubs. Senegambia, s Mauritania,
s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr.
Rep., s Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s to Rwanda, Burundi,
Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
and e S. Africa s to e Cape Province.
Cisticola fulvicapillus PIPING CISTICOLA. Savanna.
C,s Africa from c Angola, sw,se Zaire, Zambia and sw,sc,ce Tanzania, Malawi,
Zimbabwe, s to s Angola, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana, Mozambique and e S.
Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, Orange Free State, Lesotho, Natal and s,e
Cisticola angusticauda TABORA CISTICOLA. Savanna.
Extreme se Uganda, extreme sw Kenya, Rwanda, w,c,s Tanzania, se Zaire and
cn Zambia. Overlaps with fulvicapillus in Zambia, se Zaire and s
Tanzania, and hybridization with fulvicapillus occurs only in Zambia in
a 10 mile wide zone. Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) argue
for conspecificity, but Irwin (1991. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 111:228-236)
treats them as separate species.
Cisticola melanura SLENDER-TAILED CISTICOLA. Savanna,
bushes. Locally in c Africa in ne Angola, s Zaire and extreme w Zambia.
Previously placed in Apalis.
Cisticola brachypterus SIFFLING CISTICOLA. Savanna.
Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire,
C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s (exc.
forested w,c) to Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, s Angola,
s Zambia, e Zimbabwe and c Mozambique.
Cisticola rufus RUFOUS CISTICOLA. Savanna, open
grassland. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana, Togo,
Nigeria and n Cameroon to Lake Chad area and w. C. Afr. Rep.
Cisticola troglodytes FOXY CISTICOLA. Savanna.
C. African Rep., s Sudan, w Ethiopia, nw Kenya, ne Zaire and n Uganda.
Cisticola nanus TINY CISTICOLA. Savanna, steppe.
From extreme s Sudan and s,e Ethiopia, s Somalia and c Kenya to n Tanzania.
Cisticola juncidis ZITTING CISTICOLA. Open grassland.
More than one species may be involved.
From w Europe n to w,s France, Belgium and Netherlands, n Mediterranean
region incl. most islands and n Africa from Morocco e to Tunisia an c Egypt
e through s Turkey and Near East to se Iraq and sw Iran. From Senegambia
e through Mali, Ghana, Niger, n Nigeria, C. African Rep., Sudan and Nile
Valley to Ethiopia and s Arabia, s (exc. forests and deserts) to s S. Africa
(recorded in all African countries except Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Djibouti,
Socotra I. and Gulf of Guinea Is.). Lowlands to 1200 m from India
w to Indus Valley and n to Himalayan foothills, Nepal, c,ce China, Taiwan,
Japan and Izu and Ryukyu islands, s through se Asia (exc. Cochinchina in
s Vietnam), Nicobar Is., and Indonesia (exc. Borneo) to Philippines and
Lesser Sunda Is. e to Tanimbar Is.; cs New Guinea; locally in n Australia
in coastal N. Territory in the Darwin area and Queensland from Cape York
Pen. s to Normanton area and Fitzroy River.
Cisticola haesitatus ISLAND CISTICOLA. Grassland
with bushes. Socotra I. Has been included in C. juncidis, but
seems closer to C. cherinus.
Cisticola cherinus MADAGASCAR CISTICOLA. Grassland.
Lowlands to 2000 m of Madagascar. Reported to occur on Aldabra, but
Cisticola aridulus DESERT CISTICOLA. Dry grassland.
Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Nigeria, s Chad
and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s (except forested w,c and
deserts) in Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana
and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa in Cape Prov.
Cisticola textrix TINK-TINK CISTICOLA. Short, open,
dry grassland. S Angola, Zambia, s Mozambique and S. Africa from
Orange Free State, Transvaal and Swaziland s to s Cape Prov.
Cisticola eximius BLACK-NECKED CISTICOLA. Open grassland.
Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast,
Ghana, Togo to c,se Nigeria; from n Zaire and s Sudan e to n plateau of
Ethiopia and Eritrea, s to Uganda and w Kenya.
Cisticola dambo CLOUD-SCRAPING CISTICOLA. Seasonally
flooded grassland. E Angola, s Zaire and nw Zambia.
Cisticola brunnescens PECTORAL-PATCH CISTICOLA.
Open, often moist grassland. Locally in highlands in w Cameroon,
Gabon, Congo and from w Angola, c,s Zaire, Zambia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia,
Kenya and Tanzania s to n Botswana, ne Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and ne S.
Africa s to e Cape Province.
Cisticola ayresii WING-SNAPPING CISTICOLA. Open
grassland. Locally from Gabon, Congo, e Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda,
Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, s to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, extreme
s Mozambique and S. Africa w to e Cape Prov. and w Orange Free State.
Cisticola exilis GOLDEN-HEADED CISTICOLA. Open grassland.
More than one species may be involved.
Lowlands and foothills to 1500 m in pen.,n,e India, s China, w,ne,s
Burma, Thailand (exc. sw), Cambodia, s Vietnam in s Annam and Taiwan.
From Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines (exc. Palawan) e to c,e
New Guinea in the lowlands to 1500 m w to Humboldt Bay, Snow Mts. and Oriomo
River, incl. Manam I., Fergusson and Goodenough is. in the D'Entrecasteaux
Arch., Bismarck Arch., islands in Torres Strait, and coastal n,e,se Australia
from nw W. Australia w to Fortescue River, e to n Queensland on the Cape
York Pen., and s, incl. Great Barrier Reef, to s S. Australia to the Murray
River; King I. in Bass Strait.
Incana incana SOCOTRA WARBLER. Bush country, grassy
plains. Lowlands to 1400 m of Socotra Island. Sometimes placed
in Cisticola. Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) cite precedents
and field evidence for the recognition of the genus Incana. Forbes-Watson
is cited as considering it closer to Prinia than to Cisticola.
Scotocerca inquieta STREAKED SCRUB-WARBLER. 10 cm.
Arid thickets, semi-desert. N Africa in Morocco, Algeria, s Tunisia,
Mauritania and n Libya; from e Egypt, Near East and Arabia e through e
Iraq, Iran, to s Kazakhstan, Transcaspia and Afghanistan to w Pakistan.
Pale pinkish brown above; crown streaked; whitish supercilium; whitish
below with fine streaking on throat and upper breast; tail long, rounded,
outer rectrices tipped whitish. Nest a large grass ball with side
entrance; eggs 4-5, white or pink with rufous speckles.
Rhopophilus pekinensis WHITE-BROWED CHINESE WARBLER. Dry
bushy hillsides, tamarisk, long grass. W,n China from sw Sinkiang
e through ne Tsinghai, Kansu, Ningsia and Shensi to Hopeh and s Manchuria
15.5 cm. Above sandy gray streaked with black; crown rufescent streaked
with black; supercilium whitish; white below streaked with chestnut on
sides of neck and breast; flanks buffy; crissum brownish; tail dark gray-brown,
long, graduated; two outer rectrices with white outer webs. Affinities
uncertain, may be a babbler.
Prinia: Prinias. S, se Asia; Africa.
12-18 cm. Small and slender; tail long, graduated, often white-tipped;
carried almost erect; above brownish, rufous, gray, some streaked; below
white, buffy to yellow; some spotted or streaked; some with whitish supercilium;
some with streaked throat or crown.
Prinia burnesii RUFOUS-VENTED PRINIA. Long sarkhan
grass (Saccharum) and elephant- grass, near water. Pakistan on the
Indus R. plains.
Burnesii and cinerascens often treated as conspecific, but they differ
in plumage characters and are widely separated geographically. B.
King (pers. comm.) recommends separate species.
Prinia cinerascens SWAMP PRINIA. E India in w Bihar,
W. Bengal, w Assam, n Bangladesh.
Prinia criniger STRIATED PRINIA. Long grass, bushy
hillsides, forest edge, acacia clumps, thorn forest. Lowlands and foothills
to 2450 m in Pakistan, n India, Burma (exc. s), s China; Taiwan.
Prinia polychroa BROWN PRINIA. Grassland, scrub.
Lowlands to 1400 m in sw China, c,e Burma, nw,c,ne Thailand, Cambodia,
c,s Laos and s Vietnam in s Annam; Taiwan; Java.
Prinia atrogularis HILL PRINIA. Grassland, dense
low scrub, forest edge. Mts., 600-2450 m, from ne India, s Tibet,
Burma (exc. c) and s China s through nw Thailand, Laos, Vietnam in Tonkin
and s Annam, and Malaya; Sumatra.
Prinia cinereocapilla GREY-CROWNED PRINIA. Pine forest.
Himalayan foothills in n India from Kashmir e to Bhutan; n Cachar Hills
of s Assam.
Prinia buchanani RUFOUS-FRONTED PRINIA. Arid scrub
jungle, coarse grass, bushy semi-desert. Pakistan (Indus R. plains)
and c India from Rajasthan, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh s to Gujarat, c Mahrashtra,
Madhya Pradesh and w Bihar.
Prinia rufescens RUFESCENT PRINIA. Grassland in
open forest and woods, farms, scrubby hillsides. Lowlands to 1800
m in e India w to e Nepal and Bangladesh; ne Orissa; sw China in w,s Yunnan,
and se Asia (exc. c Thailand).
Prinia hodgsonii GREY-BREASTED PRINIA. Grassland,
thickets, acacia scrub, bamboo, mangroves, thorn forest. Lowlands
to 1500 m in India n to Himalayan foothills and w to Gujarat, Rajasthan,
Punjab and Kashmir; Sri Lanka; sw China and se Asia (exc. Malay Peninsula).
Prinia gracilis GRACEFUL PRINIA. Thickets, tamarisk
jungle, scrub, coarse grass. From Egypt s to c Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti
and along the Red Sea coast e to n,ne,se Somalia and Arabia; lowlands to
1000 m from s Turkey and Near East through Iraq, se Iran and sw Afghanistan
to n,c Pakistan and n India, s to Gujarat and the Ganges Valley, e to se
Nepal and lower Brahmaputra Valley in w Assam and Bangladesh.
Prinia sylvatica JUNGLE PRINIA. Low jungle with
coarse grass, esp. ravines. Lowlands to 1000 m in extreme ce Pakistan
in Sind and India n to Punjab and Himalayan foothills and e to Bangladesh;
Prinia familiaris BAR-WINGED PRINIA. Scrub, grass.
Lowlands to 1000 m of Sumatra, Java and Bali.
Prinia flaviventris YELLOW-BELLIED PRINIA. Thick
scrub, heavy grass, swamps. Lowlands to 1200 m in the Indus Valley
of e Pakistan and nw India from Punjab s to the Indus delta; from e India
w to Nepal and W. Bengal, s China, Hainan I., and Taiwan, s through se
Asia (exc. sw,se Thailand) to Sumatra, Nias and Java.
Prinia socialis ASHY PRINIA. Gardens, farms, thorn
and deciduous forest. Lowlands and foothills to 1800 m of India n
to Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and s Kashmir, e to w Assam, Meghalaya, Bangladesh
and Manipur; Sri Lanka.
Prinia subflava TAWNY-FLANKED PRINIA. Acacia steppe,
savanna. From Senegambia e through s Mauritania, s Mali, s Chad and
c,s Sudan to w Ethiopia and sw Somalia; s to s Angola, ne Namibia, n,e
Botswana and e S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, e Orange Free State,
Natal and e Cape Province. This species has been recorded in every
subSaharan African country except Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea and the Gulf
of Guinea islands.
Prinia somalica PALE PRINIA. Savanna. From
se Sudan, s Ethiopia and Somalia s to n,e Kenya.
Prinia inornata PLAIN PRINIA. Scrub, tall grass,
farms. Lowlands and foothills to 1200 m from n,e Pakistan, India,
s Nepal, Sri Lanka, c,se China, Hainan I., Taiwan; s to se Asia; Java.
Prinia fluviatilis RIVER PRINIA. Tall riparian grass,
marshes. Niger on the Niger River, Senegambia, Cameroon and the Lake
Prinia flavicans BLACK-CHESTED PRINIA. Acacia steppe.
Sw,c Angola, n Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and w Zimbabwe s to c S. Africa
from n Cape Prov. e to Orange Free State and Transvaal. Occasional
hybrids with maculosa.
Prinia hypoxantha SAFFRON-BREASTED PRINIA. Forest
edge, wooded gullies, bracken-briar tangles. Drakensberg and other
mts. of se,e South Africa in se Cape Prov., e Orange Free State, Lesotho,
Natal, n,e Transvaal. Limited intergradation with P. maculosa and
treated as a race of maculosa by some authors.
Prinia maculosa KAROO PRINIA. Savanna, karoo, mountain
scrub. Namibia and S. Africa in w,c Cape Prov., w,c Orange Free State
and Basutoland; e Cape Prov. See P. hypoxantha and P. flavicans..
Prinia molleri SÃO TOME PRINIA. Scrub.
Island of São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea.
Prinia robertsi BRIAR WARBLER. Has been placed in
Oreolais. Bracken, briars, tree heath, forest edge. Mts. above
1350 m in e Zimbabwe and adjacent sw Mozambique.
Sooty brown above; tail brown, unspotted; chin, throat white; chest,
flanks, crissum brownish; belly white. Nest of stripped grass heads,
domed with large side entrance and attached with cobwebs to leaves; eggs
3, bright blue with brown spots.
Prinia leontica SIERRA LEONE PRINIA. Forest undergrowth,
edge, ravines. Mts., 475-1400 m in s Guinea, e Sierra Leone, Liberia
and sw Ivory Coast.
Prinia leucopogon WHITE-CHINNED PRINIA. Bushes and
undergrowth of forest clearings and edge. E Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon,
Congo, Zaire, C. African Rep., s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and nw
Kenya, s to n Angola, n Zambia and w Tanzania.
Prinia bairdii BANDED PRINIA. Dense bushes and shrubs
in forest clearings and edge. Lowlands in se Nigeria, Cameroon, sw
C. African Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s to n Angola, and e
through n Zaire to e Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and nw Kenya.
Phragmacia substriata NAMAQUA WARBLER. Formerly
in the genus Prinia. Riparian thornbush among karoo scrub.
S Namibia and w S. Africa in w,c Cape Province and sw Orange Free State.
Dull russet-brown above; neck brownish gray; supercilium and underparts
white; flanks, crissum brownish; tail unspotted. Nest a cup of grass,
leaves, etc., placed low in thick cover; eggs 2-4, blue, speckled with
reddish-brown plus gray undermarkings.
Heliolais erythroptera RED-WINGED WARBLER. Savanna
with tangled grass and bushes. S Mali, Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra
Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria,
Cameroon, C. African Rep. and n Zaire to s Chad, s Sudan and Ethiopia,
s in e Africa through Uganda, w Kenya, Tanzania, e Zambia and Malawi to
Mozambique, e Zimbabwe; possibly ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal.
Crown, nape gray; back gray-brown; rump pinkish and yellow; wings brownish
with chestnut edgings; chin, throat white; breast buffy; belly white; crissum
tawny; tail graduated with white tips and black subterminal spots.
Nest of fine grass,
sewn between leaves; eggs 2, green with pinkish undermarkings.
Malcorus pectoralis RUFOUS-EARED WARBLER. Often placed
in the genus Prinia. Dense low scrub. Namibia, cw,s Botswana
and S. Africa in arid regions e to n,c Cape Prov., extreme w Transvaal,
nw Orange Free State.
Crown streaked pale rufous and blackish; lores, supercilium,face and
ear coverts rufous; back streaked black and buff; throat white; black pectoral
collar; belly buffy white; tail graduated. Nest a neat oval of grass
in a low bush; eggs 3-7, pale blue or white.
Drymocichla incana RED-WINGED GREY WARBLER. Swampy
woods, grass. From ec Cameroon e through n C. African Rep. to se
Sudan, ne Zaire and nw Uganda.
Affinities uncertain, may be closest to Camaroptera. Pale gray
above, wings and tail darker; whitish below; tawny primary patch.
Urolais epichlora GREEN LONGTAIL. Forest, esp. wooded ravines,
rarely savanna. Highlands in se Nigeria, sw Cameroon and Fernando
Po I. Affinities unknown; possibly a sylviid.
15 cm. Green above; lores yellow; chin, throat whitish-buff; breast
mottled gray; belly white; crissum yellow; tail dark brown, long (7-8 cm),
graduated, rectrices narrow, buff-tipped. Nest, eggs unknown.
Spiloptila clamans CRICKET LONGTAIL or SCALY-FRONTED WARBLER.
Acacia scrub in desert edge. SubSaharan Africa (Sahel) from Mauritania
e through Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, n Nigeria, Lake Chad region and Sudan
to n Ethiopia and Eritrea. Affinities uncertain; may be a sylviid.
10 cm. Reddish-brown above; rump yellow; pale whitish-buff below;
forehead, wing coverts black and white; tail 4 cm, graduated, gray with
white tips, black subterminal bars. Nest deep, ovate, domed or semi-domed,
of grass; in a small shrub near the ground; eggs 3, white with fine red
Spiloptila rufifrons RED-FRONTED WARBLER. Scrubby
hillsides with sparse grass. Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti
and Somalia, s through e Uganda and Kenya to ne Tanzania. Placed
in Spiloptila by the East African List Committee (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.)
and by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993). Has been in Apalis.
Phyllolais pulchella BUFF-BELLIED WARBLER. Acacia
savanna, scrub. N Nigeria, n Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep.,
Lake Chad area to ne Zaire, se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda,
Uganda, w,c Kenya, n Tanzania.
Pale olive-green above; pale yellow below; tail blackish with white
tips and white outer webs to outer rectrices. Food insects gleaned
from top foliage of small acacias. Nest purse-shaped, woven, mainly
of plant down, hanging from branches. Eggs 2-3, pale greenish-blue
with reddish, gray-brown, or brown spots. Has been placed in the
Apalis: Apalis Subsaharan Africa. Relatively
long bills and tails; plumages variable, some with bright colors, black
breast bands; tail graduated, often with white-tipped rectrices.
Usually inhabit woodland undergrowth, some in upper foliage. Food
insects. Nest domed with side entrance or a deep cup or purselike
structure, often of moss. Eggs variable, blue or green with reddish
speckles, white, olive, etc.
The species described as Orthotomus moreaui may be a species of Apalis
and it is assigned to Apalis by the East African List Committee.
See Orthotomus moreaui below under Orthotomus.
Apalis pulchra BLACK-COLLARED APALIS. Humid forest.
Locally in highlands in e Nigeria, Cameroon, sw C. African Rep., se Sudan,
ne,se Zaire, sw Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and w,c Kenya.
Apalis ruwenzorii COLLARED APALIS. Humid forest.
Mts. of e Zaire, w Uganda and Rwanda.
Apalis thoracica BAR-THROATED APALIS. Forest.
Morphologically variable with isolated populations that may be separate
species; intergradation usually occurs between races where in contact.
A. t. griseiceps. Se Kenya in the Chyulu Hills, n,c Tanzania
from Mt. Kilimanjaro s to Uluguru Mts., s Mozambique along Zimbabwe border
and S. Africa in c,e Transvaal, Swaziland, Natal, e Orange Free State and
e Cape Province.
A. t. fuscigularis. Se Kenya in the Teita Hills.
A. t. murina. In ne,sw Tanzania in the Usambara
Mts. and extreme sw, Malawi, c,e Zambia, Zimbabwe, adj. wc Mozambique (n
of griseiceps), se Botswana and nc S. Africa in w Transvaal.
A. t. flavigularis. Nc Mozambique, just east of
the Rift Valley.
A. t. lynesi. Ne Mozambique on Mt. Namuli.
A. t. thoracica. S S. Africa in sw,sc Cape Province.
Apalis nigriceps BLACK-CAPPED APALIS. Humid forest,
second growth. Lowlands to 1500 m in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast,
s Ghana, s Nigeria, s Cameroon, Fernando Po I., Equatorial Guinea and Gabon
to ne,ce Zaire and Uganda.
Apalis jacksoni BLACK-THROATED APALIS. Forest.
Locally, mostly in highlands to 2450 m in w,s Cameroon, nw Angola,
cn,e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, extreme se Sudan, w,c Kenya e to Mt.
Kenya and nw Tanzania.
Apalis chariessa WHITE-WINGED APALIS. Forest.
Locally in lowlands of se Kenya on the lower Tana River; up to 1500 m in
c,e Tanzania in the Udzungwa and Uluguru mts., s Malawi and adjacent Mozambique.
Apalis binotata MASKED APALIS. Forest. Locally
in lowlands to 1800 m in Cameroon, Gabon, nw Angola; ne Zaire, w,e Uganda,
Apalis personata BLACK-FACED APALIS. Forest.
Locally in highlands, 1500-2800 m in e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
Apalis flavida YELLOW-BREASTED APALIS. Open forest,
acacia steppe, savanna. Senegambia, Sierra Leone, n Ivory Coast,
Burkina Faso, s Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, s C.
African Rep., s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, c
Kenya, Tanzania, s (exc. Congo forest region) in Malawi, Zambia, Angola,
n Namibia, n Botswana, n,e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa w to c
Apalis viridiceps BROWN-TAILED APALIS. Dry acacia
steppe, savanna. S Ethiopia, Somalia, n Kenya. The East African
List Committee includes viridiceps in flavida (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Apalis ruddi RUDD'S APALIS. Riparian thickets, bush
clumps in dry woods, humid coastal forest. S Malawi, s Mozambique
and e S. Africa in Swaziland and n Natal.
Apalis sharpii SHARPE'S APALIS. Humid forest.
Mts. in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Apalis rufogularis BUFF-THROATED APALIS. Forest.
A. r. rufogularis. Mts. in s Nigeria, s Cameroon, Fernando
Po I., Equatorial Guinea, w Gabon and Congo.
A. r. nigrescens. C,e Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda,
Burundi, w Kenya, Tanzania s to nw,ne Angola, nw Zambia and
Apalis argentea KUNGWE APALIS. Forest. Mts.
of ce Zaire; mts., 1200-2100 m in se Zaire and w Tanzania. The East
African List Committee treat argentea as a race of rufogularis (D. A. Turner,
Apalis bamendae BAMENDA APALIS. Humid forest.
Mts. of Cameroon; possibly in C. African Rep.
Apalis goslingi GOSLING'S APALIS. Humid forest.
Mts. in s Cameroon, C. African Rep., Gabon, wc,c,se,ne Zaire and ne Angola.
Apalis porphyrolaema CHESTNUT-THROATED APALIS. Humid
forest. Mts. from ce,ne Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and w,c Kenya
s to c Tanzania.
Apalis kaboboensis KABOBO APALIS. Humid forest.
Mt. Kabobo, 1660 m, in se Zaire. Known only from the type locality.
Treated as a race of A. porphyrolaema by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1990),
but they are allopatric. Either treatment can be defended.
Apalis chapini CHAPIN'S APALIS. Humid forest.
These allopatric forms may be separate species.
A. c. strausae. Mts. in sw Tanzania, Malawi and e Zambia.
A. c. chapini. Uluguru Mts. in ec Tanzania.
Apalis melanocephala BLACK-HEADED APALIS. Humid forest.
Lowlands to 1500 m from c,se Kenya and s Somalia, s through c,e Tanzania
and s Malawi to Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Apalis chirindensis CHIRINDA APALIS. Humid forest.
Mts. in e Zimbabwe and wc Mozambique; occurs above 1500 m where sympatric
with A. melanocephala.
Apalis moreaui LONG-BILLED APALIS Forest undergrowth
in Tanzania; canopy in Mozambique. Locally in mts. in ne Tanzania
and wc Mozambique. Described as an Orthotomus, but vocalizations suggest
this species is an Apalis and the East African List Committee and Dowsett
and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) place it in Apalis, "but with some misgivings".
Nest undescribed, which would be helpful in determining its correct affinities.
Apalis cinerea GREY APALIS. Forest. Locally
in mts. in se Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, cw Angola, e Zaire,
Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, se Sudan, w,nc,c Kenya, Zambia and Malawi.
Apalis alticola BROWN-HEADED APALIS. Forest, riparian
woods. Mts., 1200-2100 m in sw,nw,nc Angola, se Zaire, n Zambia,
n Malawi and n,sw Tanzania.
Apalis karamojae KARAMOJA APALIS. Forest in mts.
of n Uganda; acacia steppe in mts. in ne Tanzania.
Hypergerus atriceps ORIOLE WARBLER. Gallery forest,
often in palms. Senegambia, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau,
Guinea Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria,
Niger, Cameroon , c C. African Rep. and s Chad. Has been assigned
to the Timaliini (babblers), but DNA hybridization evidence indicates it
is a cisticolid.
20 cm. Head, throat, upper breast black, feathers edges white;
yellowish-olive above; bright yellow below; tail long, olive, graduated.
Eminia lepida GREY-CAPPED WARBLER. Papyrus beds, elephant
grass, woodland thickets. Mts. to 2450 m in ne Zaire, extreme se
Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,c Kenya and nw, nc Tanzania.
DNA hybridization evidence indicates that Eminia is a cisticolid.
Forehead, crown gray; black band from lores, above eye, around
occiput; bright green above; shoulders rufous; below pale gray; flanks
green; rufous throat patch. Nest of grass, fibers, domed with side
entrance; suspended from or placed in creepers or dense foliage; eggs 2-3,
white with purplish-brown markings, or glossy pale blue.
Camaroptera: Camaropteras. Subsaharan Africa. Plumages
green, olive-green or gray above; white below; superciliaris has a yellow
supercilium; tail short, square-tipped. Feed on insects. Nest
of fine grass, plant down, cobwebs; purse-shaped, between large leaves
which are sewn together; may have a leaf sewn on as a roof; in a dense
thicket near the ground. Eggs 2-3, white, pale blue, greenish blue,
with reddish speckles.
Camaroptera brachyura GREEN-BACKED CAMAROPTERA.
Humid forest undergrowth, thickets.
The three races of brachyura have been treated as separate species,
but Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) and the East African List Committee
(D. A. Turner, pers. comm.) consider them to be conspecific. C. brachyura
occurs in every mainland country in subSaharan Africa.
C. b. brachyura. Lowlands from se Kenya, e,s Tanzania,
Zanzibar and Mafia is., and Malawi s through Mozambique and e Zimbabwe
to e S. Africa w to c Cape Province.
C. b. brevicaudata. GREY-BACKED CAMAROPTERA.
From Senegambia, sw Mali and Guinea-Bissau e to c Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia;
s (exc. nw Angola) to Namibia, Botswana, extreme ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal,
C. b. harterti. HARTERT'S CAMAROPTERA. Nw
Camaroptera superciliaris YELLOW-BROWED CAMAROPTERA.
Humid forest. Lowlands in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast,
Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea,
Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,e Zaire and Uganda, and s to nw Angola,
Camaroptera chloronota OLIVE-GREEN CAMAROPTERA.
Humid forest. Lowlands in Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone,
Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gulf of
Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., ne,ce
Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, extreme se Sudan and nw Kenya, s to c Zaire and
extreme nw Tanzania.
Calamonastes: Wren-Warblers. Woods, thornbush, mopane,
brachystegia. C, s Africa. Plumage russet, brownish, or gray
above; buffy, white or gray below with black, brownish or dusky bars; tail
short, constantly "fanned". Feed on insects on or near the ground.
Nest of dry grass or fine, silky fibers; oval or round with side entrance;
enclosed in living leaves which are pierced and sewn together with cobweb.
Eggs 2-4, bluish-white with brownish, grayish speckles. Considered
a subgenus of Camaroptera by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Calamonastes simplex GREY WREN-WARBLER. Woodland,
esp. mopane and brachystegia, thorn bush. Extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia,
Somalia, Kenya (exc. extreme sw), ne Uganda and ne Tanzania.
Calamonastes undosus PALE WREN-WARBLER. Woodland.
Se Zaire, n Zambia, n Malawi, Tanzania (exc. ne), Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique,
Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa. Includes stierlingi
and cinerea, following Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Calamonastes fasciolatus BARRED WREN-WARBLER. Thornbush.
From wc Angola, Namibia, Botswana and sw Zimbabwe to n S. Africa in n Cape
Prov., nw Transvaal and Orange Free State.
Poliolais lopezi WHITE-TAILED WARBLER. Forest undergrowth.
Mts. in wc Africa in se Nigeria, Cameroon Mt., Manenguba and Kupé
mts., and Bioko Prov. on Fernando Po I., Gulf of Guinea.
10 cm. Geographically variable; male grayish/olive or brownish/olive
above; chin, throat gray to olive; below pale olive-green/whitish, flanks
ashy; crissum buff; tail short, center rectrices brown, outer rectrices
white; female rufous head, olive-green back; pale yellowish below. Sometimes
placed in Camaroptera or Orthotomus. Placed here by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
Graueria vittata GRAUER'S WARBLER. Forest.
Mts. of ce Zaire, Congo and Burundi. Affinities uncertain.
Placed here by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Euryptila subcinnamomea KOPJE WARBLER. Desert scrub
around stony hills (kopjes). Nw S. Africa in w,c Cape Province, sw
Botswana and sw Namibia in Karoo Desert.