pag.17
Phyllastrephus xavieri  XAVIER'S GREENBUL.  Forest.  Patchy distribution in lowlands from s Cameroon, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and w Uganda s to Congo Rep., sc,ce Zaire and nw Tanzania.  Like Icterine Greenbul, but larger.
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 The following Malagasy species of greenbuls are placed in Bernieria by some authors. 
Olson (1989. Riv. Ital. Orn. 59:183-195) considered the Malagasy species of Phyllastrephus to be babblers (Timaliini), based on skeletal traits.
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Phyllastrephus madagascariensis  LONG-BILLED GREENBUL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1800 m, of Madagascar, except s.

Phyllastrephus zosterops  SPECTACLED GREENBUL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1200 m, more commonly above 800 m, of nw,e Madagascar. Nest of moss, plant fibers; hemispherical; near ground.  Eggs 3-4, rosy-white, reddish spots.
Phyllastrephus apperti  APPERT'S GREENBUL.  Dry forest undergrowth.  Sw Madagascar.
Phyllastrephus tenebrosus  DUSKY GREENBUL. Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands of ne,ce Madagascar. 14.5 cm.
Phyllastrephus cinereiceps  GREY-CROWNED GREENBUL. Rain forest undergrowth. Hills ca. 800 m of ce Madagascar. Nest bowl-shaped of moss on fork of a small branch, near ground.  Eggs 3.
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Bleda:  Bristlebills.  Attend army ant swarms.  Green above, yellow below, dusky breast band.

Chappuis and Erard (1993. Zeitschr. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch. 31:280-299) reviewed species limits in Bleda based on morphology and vocal behavior, and recognized four species (instead of three), as follows.
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Bleda syndactyla  COMMON BRISTLEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme se Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, and w Tanzania s to n Angola, nw Zambia and cs,ce Zaire.

Bleda eximia  GREEN-TAILED BRISTLEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, s Nigeria, Gulf of Guinea Is., Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Sudan, Uganda and w Tanzania.
Bleda notata  LESSER BRISTLEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Bioko and s Nigeria to s Sudan and w Uganda.  Includes ugandae.  Formerly considered conspecific with eximia, but structurally and vocally closer to canicapilla.
Bleda canicapilla  GREY-HEADED BRISTLEBILL. Forest undergrowth.  Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and s Nigeria.
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Nicator:  Nicators.  Forests and thickets of w,c,e Africa.  Often viewed as shrikes.  Based on skeletal traits, Olson (1989. Riv. Ital. Orn. 59:183-195) argued that this genus is malaconotine, but behavior, isozymes (Hannote, et al. 1989. Biochem. Evol. Syst. 15:629-634) and DNA hybridization data indicate that it is pycnonotid.
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Nicator chloris  YELLOW-SPOTTED NICATOR.  Forest, thickets.  Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, se Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, C. African Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan, Uganda and w Tanzania,  s,se,ce Zaire and possibly nw Zambia.
Nicator gularis  EASTERN NICATOR.  Forest, thickets.  S Somalia and c,se Kenya s through Tanzania, c,e Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to extreme e S. Africa in e Transvaal and e Natal.  Like chloris with grayish crown.
Nicator vireo  YELLOW-THROATED NICATOR.  Forest.  S Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n, ne Zaire and extreme w Uganda, s to c Angola and sw,cs,c Zaire.  Like chloris, but smaller; lores, throat yellow.

Criniger:  Bearded Bulbuls.  Conspicuous white or yellow throats, the long feathers of which form "beards" in some species.
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Criniger barbatus  BEARDED BULBUL.  Forest undergrowth.  Se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Nigeria and Cabinda.
Criniger chloronotus  GREEN-BACKED BULBUL.  Forest undergrowth.  S Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Congo s to Congo River mouth, e to n,ne,ce Zaire and w Uganda.
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Similar to barbatus with white throat.  Nest a shallow cup of twigs, moss, lined with strands of a thread-like fungus (Marasmius) and decorated with long, leafy stems of an epiphytic fern, Microgramma owariensis, around the rim; placed on green upper leaves of a shrub on bits of wood, dead leaves, on which the fungi grow and attach the nest to the substrate.  Eggs 1-2, variable, gray to brown; unmarked or with dark markings.

Criniger calurus  RED-TAILED BULBUL.  Forest undergrowth.  Sw Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria to s Cameroon,. Fernando Po I., Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan, Uganda, s to sw,cw,ce Zaire
Criniger olivaceus  YELLOW-BEARDED BULBUL.  Lowland primary forest undergrowth. Patchy distribution in s Mali, sw Senegambia, se Guinea, sw Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, s Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire and C. Afr. Rep.
Criniger ndussumensis  WHITE-BEARDED BULBUL.  Forest undergrowth.  From s Nigeria, s Cameroon, C. African Rep. and n,ne,ce Zaire, s to Gabon and Congo Rep.  Like calurus with whitish lores.  Hybridizes with calurus in ne Zaire, but the two are sympatric in Cameroon and Gabon without interbreeding.  Considered a race of C. olivaceus by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 352), based on "indistinguishable" vocalizations.  Molecular evidence may be required to clarify this complex situation.

Alophoixus:  Asian Bearded Bulbuls.  Often included in Criniger.  16-24 cm. S,se Asia.
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Alophoixus finschii  FINSCH'S BULBUL. Forest.  Lowlands to 750 m in peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Alophoixus flaveolus  WHITE-THROATED BULBUL.  Forest, scrub.  Himalayas to 1500 m from ne India and Burma to sw China and nw,sw Thailand.

Alophoixus pallidus  PUFF-THROATED BULBUL.  Open forest.  Lowlands to 1800 m in s China, s,e Burma, nw,ne Thailand, Cambodia (exc. sw), Laos and Vietnam.

Alophoixus ochraceus  OCHRACEOUS BULBUL.  Forest.  Highlands, 200-1500 m in s Burma (s Tenasserim), sw,peninsular,se Thailand, sw Cambodia, s Vietnam, Malaya, w Sumatra and n Borneo from Sarawak to Sabah.
Alophoixus bres  GREY-CHEEKED BULBUL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m of Malay peninsula; Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, sw Philippines on Calamian Is., Palawan and Balabac.
Alophoixus phaeocephalus  YELLOW-BELLIED BULBUL.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra and adj. islands, and Borneo, N. Natuna Is.
Alophoixus affinis  GOLDEN BULBUL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 800 m on small islands off e Sulawesi (Peleng, Sangihe, Togian, Banggai, and Sula Is.) and Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Bacan, Obi, Buru, Ambon, Seram).

Setornis criniger  HOOK-BILLED BULBUL. Lowlands of e Sumatra, Bangka and Borneo.

20 cm. Hooked bill; crestless; brown above, darkest on crown, tail, wings; white supercilium; black eye and malar stripes; white below, gray flanks; tail white-tipped.

Tricholestes criniger  HAIRY-BACKED BULBUL. (Placed in Hypsipetes by some authors).  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Tioman I., Sumatra and Batu Is., Musala and Lingga Arch., and Borneo and N. Natuna islands.

16 cm. Crestless; olive-brown above; rufescent tail; pale eyering; yellowish cheeks; white throat; breast yellow-gray; belly and crissum yellow.  Long, hairlike feather shafts from nape over the back.

Iole:  Often included in Hypsipetes.  S, se Asia.
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Iole virescens  OLIVE BULBUL.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in e India, Burma and nw,sw Thailand.
Iole propinqua  GREY-EYED BULBUL.  Second growth, scrub.  Lowlands to 1000 m in s China, e,s Burma, Thailand and Indochina.
Iole olivacea  BUFF-VENTED BULBUL.  Forest, woods, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Batu Is., Bangka, Belitung, Riau Arch., Borneo, Anambas, N. Natuna and Banggi islands.
Iole indica  YELLOW-BROWED BULBUL.  Forest, woods, scrub, towns.  Mainly above 900 m in s India in the W. Ghats from s Maharashtra and Goa s to Kerala; Sri Lanka.  Nest unlike those of other bulbuls: a flimsy hammock of grass and dead leaves, decorated with moss and cobwebs; slung in a horizontal fork.  Eggs 2-3, white or pinkish with reddish spots, blotches.

Ixos:  Often included in Hypsipetes.  Japan to Philippines; Taiwan; se Asia.
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Ixos palawanensis  SULPHUR-BELLIED BULBUL.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Mts. of Palawan, Philippine Is.
Ixos philippinus  PHILIPPINE BULBUL.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands to 2000 m of the Philippines, except Palawan.
Ixos rufigularis  ZAMBOANGA BULBUL.  Forest, edge.  W Mindanao and Basilan, Philippine Is.  Similar to philippinus, but larger with a darker crown.
Ixos siquijorensis  STREAK-BREASTED BULBUL.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Small islands in the c Philippines: Romblon, Tablas, Siquijor, formerly on Cebu.

Ixos amaurotis  BROWN-EARED BULBUL.  Forest, edge, woods, second growth, towns.  Lowlands to 1100 m in Japan from s Hokkaido s, including many small islands; Izu, Ryukyu, Daito, Bonin and Volcano is., s Taiwan and Lan ču I.; small is. of n Philippines on Babuyan Is., Batan, Fuga and Camiguin Norte.
Ixos everetti  YELLOWISH BULBUL.  Forest.  C, s Philippines on Samar, Leyte, Panaon, Dinagat, Siargao, Camiguin Sur, c,e Mindanao and the Sulu Arch.  Geographically variable.
Ixos malaccensis  STREAKED BULBUL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m in the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Bangka, Riau and Lingga arch.; Borneo.
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 Hemixos:  Often included in Hypsipetes.  India, s China, se Asia, Sumatra, Borneo.
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Hemixos flavala  ASHY BULBUL.  Forest, second growth.  Foothills and mts., 300-1800 m in n,e India, Burma, sw China, Thailand (exc. c,se), n,s Laos, s Vietnam in s Annam; Sumatra; Borneo. Geographically variable.
Hemixos castanotus  CHESTNUT BULBUL.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in s China, Hainan I., n Vietnam in Tonkin.
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 Hypsipetes:  See Hemixos, Ixos, Iole, Tricholestes, which are often included in Hypsipetes.  Species of Hypsipetes occur in s, se Asia, Sumatra, Java, Madagascar, Seychelles Is., Comoro Is., Mascarene Is., and Nicobar Is.
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Hypsipetes mcclellandii  MOUNTAIN BULBUL.  Forest, woods, second growth.  Mts., 900-2600 m in n,e India, s China, Burma, nw,pen.,se Thailand, n,w Laos, Vietnam in nw Tonkin, s Annam and Malaya.  25 cm.

Hypsipetes virescens  SUNDA BULBUL.  Forest.  Highlands, 800-2400 m, of Sumatra and Java.  Related to Mountain Bulbul.  Geographically variable.
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Hypsipetes madagascariensis group:  The relationships of the six following species (madagascariensis to nicobarensis) are unclear.  They have been considered conspecific.  
Only madagascariensis and parvirostris are sympatric in the Comoro Is.
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Hypsipetes madagascariensis  MADAGASCAR BULBUL.  Forest, second growth, towns.  Madagascar, Aldabra, Glorieuses and Comoro Is.
Hypsipetes crassirostris  SEYCHELLES BULBUL.  Forest, second growth, woods.  Seychelles Is. on Mahé, Praslin and Félicité  Similar to madagascarensis.

Hypsipetes parvirostris  COMOROS BULBUL.  Humid forest.  Highlands above 500 m on the Comoro Is. of Grand Comoro and Mohéli.  Similar to madagascarensis.
Hypsipetes borbonicus  REUNION BULBUL.  Forest, second growth, woods.  Réunion I. in the Mascarene Islands.

H. olivaceus of Mauritius has red eyes, H. borbonicus of Réunion has white eyes.  They have been treated as subspecies of borbonicus, but are recognized as separate species by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 352).

Hypsipetes olivaceus  MAURITIUS BULBUL.  Forest, second growth, woods.  Mauritius I. in the Mascarene Islands.  See note under H. borbonicus.
Hypsipetes leucocephalus  BLACK BULBUL.  Forest, second growth, towns.  Lowlands to 1600 m in sw India, Sri Lanka; foothills and mts., 1000-3050 m of n Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n,e India, Burma, c,s China, Hainan, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, n,c Vietnam and Taiwan.

1. Black form: all black with red bill and feet. 
2. White-headed form: Black with white head and neck; crissum gray with white scale-like markings.
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Hypsipetes nicobarensis  NICOBAR BULBUL.  Forest, towns.  Nicobar Is.
Hypsipetes thompsoni  WHITE-HEADED BULBUL.  Forest edge, second growth.  Mts., 900-2100 m, in Burma (exc. w) and nw Thailand.
Neolestes torquatus  BLACK-COLLARED BULBUL.  Savanna.  Lowlands to 1500 m in s Gabon, Congo, sw,c,ce Zaire and s to nw Angola, se Zaire and nw Zambia. Affinities uncertain, sometimes placed with the shrikes.
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Back green; forehead to nape gray; a glossy black streak from lores through eye to side of crown, continued as a broad band or collar across the chest; chin, throat, ear coverts buffy white; breast to belly whitish; flanks greenish; underwings golden yellow; eye brown.  Nest a frail cup of grass, plant stems in a bush; eggs 2, pinkish white with dark pink and rufous spots.

Malia grata  MALIA.  Mt. forests of Sulawesi in the Celebes.  Affinities uncertain; may be a babbler.  See below under Garrulicinae.

Family (Incertae sedis) HYPOCOLIIDAE

Hypocolius ampelinus  GREY HYPOCOLIUS. Palms, tamarisks, oases, towns.  Breeds in sw Asia in the Tigris-Euphrates valleys of sw Arabia, Iraq and s,e Iran.  Non-breeding range n to s Turkmenia, e to c India, s to Red Sea, Egypt, s Arabia.

Affinities uncertain; usually assigned to the Bombycillidae (waxwings and allies), but there is no substantial evidence for this relationship; it is considered to be of uncertain status and its assignment to the vicinity of the Pycnonotidae is tentative.  No DNA evidence available.
 23 cm. Male gray above, paler below; black lores, mask, nuchal band, tail tip; primaries black with white tips.  Female lacks the black areas on the head and tips of primaries are dusky.  Food: insects and fruits, including dates.  Nest a large, deep cup of plant material, placed in a tree 1.5-5 meters above the ground and well concealed.  Eggs 3-5, white with grayish markings.

Family CISTICOLIDAE  African Warblers.  *Cisticola, Scotocerca, Rhopophilus, *Prinia, Phragmacia, Oreophilais, Heliolais, Malcorus, Drymocichla, Urolais, Spiloptila, *Apalis, *Hypergerus, *Eminia, *Camaroptera, Calamonastes, Euryptila.  Africa, s Asia; two species in Australia, one in s Europe.  Asterisks* = DNA hybridization data available.

DNA hybridization comparisons among the genera traditionally placed in the Sylviidae identified several distinct groups of "warblers", one of which is composed of the genera listed above.  Although the DNA data included only six of these genera (identified by asterisks*), the others are thought to be closely related to them.  The Cisticolidae probably originated in Africa, where most species occur today, and spread from Africa to Asia.
Cisticola:  Africa, s Europe, Asia, Australia.  Small; tail short or, if long, graduated; many species  have a black subterminal spot on the rectrices; plumage colors usually shades of brown with tints of grays, buffs and tawny.  Many species are so much alike that identification, even in the hand, is difficult, but songs, habitat and geographic distribution are useful in the field.  Females are smaller than males; juveniles are browner and rustier than adults and often yellowish below.

Nests are of dry grass and of three types:  1. Ball-shaped, side entrance; most species.  2. In a pocket formed by "sewing" together the edges of large, adjacent leaves of a tree or bush; only Singing Cisticola, Red-faced Cisticola.  3. Retort or "soda bottle" shape - a ball with a tubular opening facing upward, placed in tall grass near the ground and concealed by overhanging grass or composed of living grass stems bound by cobwebs; only the Zitting Cisticola builds such a nest.  Most nests are lined with plant down which is added to throughout incubation.  Eggs usually 2-4, white or blue with reddish spots; variable.

Cisticola erythrops  RED-FACED CISTICOLA.  Rank grassland, undergrowth. Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and extreme se Sudan to w,c Ethiopia Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,c Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, ce,se Zaire, extreme ne Namibia (Caprivi), Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and ne S. Africa in n,e Transvaal, Swaziland and Natal.
Cisticola lepe  LEPE CISTICOLA.  Grassland, undergrowth.  W Angola and se Zaire.  Often lumped with erythrops, but they are sympatric without interbreeding in se Zaire.  However, Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) believe that the morphological distinctions between lepe and cantans are "not sufficient,... to rule out the relationship" between them.  They conclude that "For the moment it [=lepe] should not be acccepted as a good species."  Apparently, further investigation is required.

Cisticola cantans  SINGING CISTICOLA.  Grassland, undergrowth.  Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger,  Cameroon, C. African Rep., s, Chad, n,e,sc Zaire, c,s Sudan and w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, s through  Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, ne Zambia and Malawi to e Zimbabwe and n Mozambique.
Cisticola lateralis  WHISTLING CISTICOLA.  Moist woods, forest edge.  Senegambia, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Sudan, Uganda, Burundi, w Kenya, s Zaire, nw Zambia and Angola. 
Cisticola anonymus  CHATTERING CISTICOLA.  Grassy clearings in humid forest.  In s Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Zaire and nw Angola.
Cisticola woosnami  TRILLING CISTICOLA.  Dry woods, grass.  Ne Zaire, c,sw Uganda, sw Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania s to se Zaire, w Zambia and n Malawi.

Cisticola bulliens  BUBBLING CISTICOLA.  Grassland with bushes and small trees, farms.  Wc Africa in w Zaire and
w Angola.
Cisticola discolor  BROWN-BACKED CISTICOLA.  Heath, scrubby areas near forest.  Mts., 1000-3350 m of se Nigeria and Cameroon.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) consider discolor and chubbi to be conspecific, citing "field experience (including tape playback experiments) ...."  Surely, the widely allopatric distributions of these two populations argue against assuming that reactions to vocalizations necessarily prove that they are conspecific.
Cisticola chubbi  CHUBB'S CISTICOLA.  Heath, scrubby areas near forest.  Highlands mostly above 1500 m in w,nw Kenya, w Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, e Zaire and nw Tanzania.

Cisticola hunteri  HUNTER'S CISTICOLA.  Heath, forest glades.  Mts. above 1500 m of ne Africa in w Kenya, Uganda and n Tanzania.
Cisticola nigriloris  BLACK-LORED CISTICOLA.  Heath, scrubby areas near forest.  Mts., 1500-2750 m of se Africa in n Malawi, ne Zambia and s Tanzania.
Cisticola emini  ROCK-LOVING CISTICOLA.  Bare rocky areas, often overgrown with grasses, bushes and small trees.  Locally across w,c Africa in Guinea, Sierra Leone, s Mauritania, sw Mali, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, n,e Nigeria, Cameroon, ne Chad, C. Afr. Rep., s Sudan, ne Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya and Tanzania (exc. sw), s to e Malawi and n Mozambique; also in w Angola.  
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The East African List Committee consider emini conspecific with aberrans (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).  
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) agree, but note that "They differ only slightly in morphology, and are allopatric."  This seems to be an argument for separate species, rather than for being conspecific. 
This is another example of the application of different species concepts.
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Cisticola aberrans  LAZY CISTICOLA.  Rocky areas, often with scant vegetation.  Se,e Africa from n,e,s Zambia, sw Tanzania and w Malawi, s through Zimbabwe, e Botswana and s Mozambique to e S. Africa w to Transvaal and e Cape Province.
Cisticola bodessa  BORAN CISTICOLA.  Juniper woods.  Ne Africa in s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Eritrea and n Kenya. 
Cisticola chiniana  RATTLING CISTICOLA.  Acacia woods, bushes.  C,e,s Africa from Congo, Zaire, s Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia, s to Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, c Namibia, Botswana and S. Africa in n,e Cape Prov., Transvaal, Swaziland, n Orange Free State and Natal.
Cisticola cinereolus  ASHY CISTICOLA.  Bushes, light woods.  Ne Africa from extreme se Sudan, n Ethiopia and n Somalia s through Kenya to ne Tanzania.

Cisticola ruficeps  RED-PATE CISTICOLA.  Savanna, steppe.  Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, n Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, s Chad and c,s Sudan, Kenya and n Uganda in the Nile Valley to nw Ethiopia and Eritrea.  Includes mongalla which occurs in the upper Nile Valley of s Sudan and n Uganda.  The inclusion of mongalla is supported by the East African List Committee (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.) and by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360).  The race mongalla seems to be in contact with other populations of C. ruficeps. 
Cisticola dorsti  DORST'S CISTICOLA.  Grass steppe, old fields.  Wc Africa in nw Nigeria, n Cameroon and s Chad.  Vocally and ecologically distinct from, and sympatric with, C. ruficeps.

Cisticola rufilatus  GREY CISTICOLA.  Savanna, acacia steppe.  Gabon, Congo, w Angola, se Zaire, n Zambia and w Malawi s to c Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and n S. Africa in n Cape Prov. and w Transvaal.
Cisticola subruficapillus  RED-HEADED CISTICOLA.  Bushes, scrub.  Sw Africa in w Namibia and S. Africa e to e Cape Province and sw Orange Free State.  Reported from sw Angola, but record doubtful.
Cisticola lais  WAILING CISTICOLA.  Bushes, light woodland.  Locally in c,s Africa in highlands of w Angola, and from s Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi s through e Zimbabwe and Mozambique to e,s S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, Orange Free State, Natal and e,cs Cape Province.
Cisticola distinctus  LYNE'S CISTICOLA.  Bushes, light woodland.  Highlands of e Uganda and c Kenya.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 359) treat distinctus as a race of C. lais because their vocalizations are apparently identical, thus "point clearly to their being conspecific".  However, they also describe morphological differences and the two populations are allopatric.  Are vocalizations more indicative of relationship than morphology and allopatry?  Who can say with absolute certainty?

Cisticola restrictus  TANA RIVER CISTICOLA.  Bushes, light woodland.  Ne Kenya, along lower Tana River.
Cisticola njombe  CHURRING CISTICOLA.  Bracken.  Highlands of ec Africa in sc, sw Tanzania, extreme ne Zambia and n Malawi.
Cisticola galactotes  WINDING CISTICOLA.  Short reeds and grasses in marshes and swamps.

The two subspecies groups differ vocally and ecologically and may be separate species.
 C. g. galactotes.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, c,s Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, s Somalia, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, n,e,se Angola, ne Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal, coastal Natal, extreme e Cape Prov.
 C. g. luapala.  Ne,c,s Zambia.

Cisticola pipiens  CHIRPING CISTICOLA.  Tall reeds and grasses in swamps and marshes.  Angola, s Zaire, ne Namibia, Zambia, sw Tanzania, Burundi, Zimbabwe, and n Botswana.
Cisticola carruthersi  CARRUTHER'S CISTICOLA.  Tall reeds and grasses in swamps and marshes.  Ec Africa in ce Zaire, Uganda, w Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and nw Tanzania.
Cisticola tinniens  TINKLING CISTICOLA.  Low sedge growth in swamps and marshes.  In c,ne Angola, se,ce Zaire and w,c Kenya, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, w Mozambique and S. Africa (exc. wc,nw Cape Prov.).
Cisticola angolensis  ANGOLA CISTICOLA.  Grassland, bushes, shrubs.  See C. robustus.

C. a. angolensis.  Highlands of c Africa in Cameroon, Congo Rep., cw,c,ne Angola and cs Zaire.
C. a. awemba.  Ec Africa in se Zaire, n,c Zambia and extreme sw Tanzania.

Cisticola robustus  STOUT CISTICOLA.  Grassland, bushes, shrubs.  Highlands in ne,ce Zaire, extreme se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, w,sc Kenya, extreme ne Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) treat angolensis as a race of robustus.
Cisticola aberdare  ABERDARE CISTICOLA.  Bushy grassland.  Mts. above 2100 m in Aberdare Mts. of c Kenya.
Cisticola natalensis  CROAKING CISTICOLA.  Grassland and savanna, usually with bushes and shrubs.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s to Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa s to e Cape Province.

Cisticola fulvicapillus  PIPING CISTICOLA.  Savanna.  C,s Africa from c Angola, sw,se Zaire, Zambia and sw,sc,ce Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, s to s Angola, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana, Mozambique and e S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, Orange Free State, Lesotho, Natal and s,e Cape Province.
Cisticola angusticauda  TABORA CISTICOLA.  Savanna.  Extreme se Uganda, extreme sw Kenya, Rwanda, w,c,s Tanzania, se Zaire and cn Zambia.  Overlaps with fulvicapillus in Zambia, se Zaire and s Tanzania, and hybridization with fulvicapillus occurs only in Zambia in a 10 mile wide zone.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) argue for conspecificity, but Irwin (1991. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 111:228-236) treats them as separate species.

Cisticola melanura  SLENDER-TAILED CISTICOLA.  Savanna, bushes.  Locally in c Africa in ne Angola, s Zaire and extreme w Zambia.  Previously placed in Apalis.
Cisticola brachypterus  SIFFLING CISTICOLA.  Savanna. Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s (exc. forested w,c) to Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, s Angola, s Zambia, e Zimbabwe and c Mozambique.
Cisticola rufus  RUFOUS CISTICOLA.  Savanna, open grassland.  Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria and n Cameroon to Lake Chad area and w. C. Afr. Rep.
Cisticola troglodytes  FOXY CISTICOLA.  Savanna.  C. African Rep., s Sudan, w Ethiopia, nw Kenya, ne Zaire and n Uganda.

Cisticola nanus  TINY CISTICOLA.  Savanna, steppe.  From extreme s Sudan and s,e Ethiopia, s Somalia and c Kenya to n Tanzania.
Cisticola juncidis  ZITTING CISTICOLA.  Open grassland.  More than one species may be involved.

From w Europe n to w,s France, Belgium and Netherlands, n Mediterranean region incl. most islands and n Africa from Morocco e to Tunisia an c Egypt e through s Turkey and Near East to se Iraq and sw Iran.  From Senegambia e through Mali, Ghana, Niger, n Nigeria, C. African Rep., Sudan and Nile Valley to Ethiopia and s Arabia, s (exc. forests and deserts) to s S. Africa (recorded in all African countries except Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Djibouti, Socotra I. and Gulf of Guinea Is.).  Lowlands to 1200 m from India w to Indus Valley and n to Himalayan foothills, Nepal, c,ce China, Taiwan, Japan and Izu and Ryukyu islands, s through se Asia (exc. Cochinchina in s Vietnam), Nicobar Is., and Indonesia (exc. Borneo) to Philippines and Lesser Sunda Is. e to Tanimbar Is.; cs New Guinea; locally in n Australia in coastal N. Territory in the Darwin area and Queensland from Cape York Pen. s to Normanton area and Fitzroy River.

Cisticola haesitatus  ISLAND CISTICOLA.  Grassland with bushes.  Socotra I.  Has been included in C. juncidis, but seems closer to C. cherinus.
Cisticola cherinus  MADAGASCAR CISTICOLA.  Grassland.  Lowlands to 2000 m of Madagascar.  Reported to occur on Aldabra, but not confirmed.
Cisticola aridulus  DESERT CISTICOLA.  Dry grassland.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Nigeria, s Chad and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, s (except forested w,c and deserts) in Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa in Cape Prov.
Cisticola textrix  TINK-TINK CISTICOLA.  Short, open, dry grassland.  S Angola, Zambia, s Mozambique and S. Africa from Orange Free State, Transvaal and Swaziland s to s Cape Prov.

Cisticola eximius  BLACK-NECKED CISTICOLA.  Open grassland.  Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo to c,se Nigeria; from n Zaire and s Sudan e to n plateau of Ethiopia and Eritrea, s to Uganda and w Kenya. 
Cisticola dambo  CLOUD-SCRAPING CISTICOLA.  Seasonally flooded grassland.  E Angola, s Zaire and nw Zambia.
Cisticola brunnescens  PECTORAL-PATCH CISTICOLA.  Open, often moist grassland.  Locally in highlands in w Cameroon, Gabon, Congo and from w Angola, c,s Zaire, Zambia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania s to n Botswana, ne Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and ne S. Africa s to e Cape Province.
Cisticola ayresii  WING-SNAPPING CISTICOLA.  Open grassland.  Locally from Gabon, Congo, e Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, s to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, extreme s Mozambique and S. Africa w to e Cape Prov. and w Orange Free State.

Cisticola exilis  GOLDEN-HEADED CISTICOLA.  Open grassland.  More than one species may be involved.

Lowlands and foothills to 1500 m in pen.,n,e India, s China, w,ne,s Burma, Thailand (exc. sw), Cambodia, s Vietnam in s Annam and Taiwan.  From Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines (exc. Palawan) e to c,e New Guinea in the lowlands to 1500 m w to Humboldt Bay, Snow Mts. and Oriomo River, incl. Manam I., Fergusson and Goodenough is. in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Bismarck Arch., islands in Torres Strait, and coastal n,e,se Australia from nw W. Australia w to Fortescue River, e to n Queensland on the Cape York Pen., and s, incl. Great Barrier Reef, to s S. Australia to the Murray River; King I. in Bass Strait.

Incana incana  SOCOTRA WARBLER.  Bush country, grassy plains.  Lowlands to 1400 m of Socotra Island.  Sometimes placed in Cisticola.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 360) cite precedents and field evidence for the recognition of the genus Incana.  Forbes-Watson is cited as considering it closer to Prinia than to Cisticola.
Scotocerca inquieta  STREAKED SCRUB-WARBLER.  10 cm.  Arid thickets, semi-desert.  N Africa in Morocco, Algeria, s Tunisia, Mauritania and n Libya; from e Egypt, Near East and Arabia e through e Iraq, Iran, to s Kazakhstan, Transcaspia and Afghanistan to w Pakistan.

Pale pinkish brown above; crown streaked; whitish supercilium; whitish below with fine streaking on throat and upper breast; tail long, rounded, outer rectrices tipped whitish.  Nest a large grass ball with side entrance; eggs 4-5, white or pink with rufous speckles.

Rhopophilus pekinensis  WHITE-BROWED CHINESE WARBLER. Dry bushy hillsides, tamarisk, long grass.  W,n China from sw Sinkiang e through ne Tsinghai, Kansu, Ningsia and Shensi to Hopeh and s Manchuria   15.5 cm. Above sandy gray streaked with black; crown rufescent streaked with black; supercilium whitish; white below streaked with chestnut on sides of neck and breast; flanks buffy; crissum brownish; tail dark gray-brown, long, graduated; two outer rectrices with white outer webs. Affinities uncertain, may be a babbler.
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 Prinia:  Prinias.  S, se Asia; Africa.  12-18 cm.  Small and slender; tail long, graduated, often white-tipped; carried almost erect; above brownish, rufous, gray, some streaked; below white, buffy to yellow; some spotted or streaked; some with whitish supercilium; some with streaked throat or crown.
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Prinia burnesii  RUFOUS-VENTED PRINIA.  Long sarkhan grass (Saccharum) and elephant- grass, near water.  Pakistan on the Indus R. plains.

Burnesii and cinerascens often treated as conspecific, but they differ in plumage characters and are widely separated geographically.  B. King (pers. comm.) recommends separate species.

Prinia cinerascens  SWAMP PRINIA.  E India in w Bihar, W. Bengal, w Assam, n Bangladesh.
Prinia criniger  STRIATED PRINIA.  Long grass, bushy hillsides, forest edge, acacia clumps, thorn forest. Lowlands and foothills to 2450 m in Pakistan, n India, Burma (exc. s), s China; Taiwan.
Prinia polychroa  BROWN PRINIA.  Grassland, scrub.  Lowlands to 1400 m in sw China, c,e Burma, nw,c,ne Thailand, Cambodia, c,s Laos and s Vietnam in s Annam; Taiwan; Java.
Prinia atrogularis  HILL PRINIA.  Grassland, dense low scrub, forest edge.  Mts., 600-2450 m, from ne India, s Tibet, Burma (exc. c) and s China s through nw Thailand, Laos, Vietnam in Tonkin and s Annam, and Malaya; Sumatra.

Prinia cinereocapilla  GREY-CROWNED PRINIA.  Pine forest.  Himalayan foothills in n India from Kashmir e to Bhutan; n Cachar Hills of s Assam.
Prinia buchanani  RUFOUS-FRONTED PRINIA.  Arid scrub jungle, coarse grass, bushy semi-desert.  Pakistan (Indus R. plains) and c India from Rajasthan, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh s to Gujarat, c Mahrashtra, Madhya Pradesh and w Bihar.
Prinia rufescens  RUFESCENT PRINIA.  Grassland in open forest and woods, farms, scrubby hillsides.  Lowlands to 1800 m in e India w to e Nepal and Bangladesh; ne Orissa; sw China in w,s Yunnan, and se Asia (exc. c Thailand).

Prinia hodgsonii  GREY-BREASTED PRINIA.  Grassland, thickets, acacia scrub, bamboo, mangroves, thorn forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m in India n to Himalayan foothills and w to Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Kashmir; Sri Lanka; sw China and se Asia (exc. Malay Peninsula).
Prinia gracilis  GRACEFUL PRINIA.  Thickets, tamarisk jungle, scrub, coarse grass.  From Egypt s to c Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti and along the Red Sea coast e to n,ne,se Somalia and Arabia; lowlands to 1000 m from s Turkey and Near East through Iraq, se Iran and sw Afghanistan to n,c Pakistan and n India, s to Gujarat and the Ganges Valley, e to se Nepal and lower Brahmaputra Valley in w Assam and Bangladesh.
Prinia sylvatica  JUNGLE PRINIA.  Low jungle with coarse grass, esp. ravines.  Lowlands to 1000 m in extreme ce Pakistan in Sind and India n to Punjab and Himalayan foothills and e to Bangladesh; Sri Lanka.

Prinia familiaris  BAR-WINGED PRINIA.  Scrub, grass.  Lowlands to 1000 m of Sumatra, Java and Bali.
Prinia flaviventris  YELLOW-BELLIED PRINIA.  Thick scrub, heavy grass, swamps.  Lowlands to 1200 m in the Indus Valley of e Pakistan and nw India from Punjab s to the Indus delta; from e India w to Nepal and W. Bengal, s China, Hainan I., and Taiwan, s through se Asia (exc. sw,se Thailand) to  Sumatra, Nias and Java.
Prinia socialis  ASHY PRINIA.  Gardens, farms, thorn and deciduous forest.  Lowlands and foothills to 1800 m of India n to Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and s Kashmir, e to w Assam, Meghalaya, Bangladesh and Manipur; Sri Lanka.

Prinia subflava  TAWNY-FLANKED PRINIA.  Acacia steppe, savanna.  From Senegambia e through s Mauritania, s Mali, s Chad and c,s Sudan to w Ethiopia and sw Somalia; s to s Angola, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana and e S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, e Orange Free State, Natal and e Cape Province.  This species has been recorded in every subSaharan African country except Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea and the Gulf of Guinea islands. 
Prinia somalica  PALE PRINIA.  Savanna.  From se Sudan, s Ethiopia and Somalia s to n,e Kenya.
Prinia inornata  PLAIN PRINIA.  Scrub, tall grass, farms.  Lowlands and foothills to 1200 m from n,e Pakistan, India, s Nepal, Sri Lanka, c,se China, Hainan I., Taiwan; s to se Asia; Java.
Prinia fluviatilis  RIVER PRINIA.  Tall riparian grass, marshes.  Niger on the Niger River, Senegambia, Cameroon and the Lake Chad area.

Prinia flavicans  BLACK-CHESTED PRINIA.  Acacia steppe.  Sw,c Angola, n Namibia, Zambia, Botswana and w Zimbabwe s to c S. Africa from n Cape Prov. e to Orange Free State and Transvaal.  Occasional hybrids with maculosa.
Prinia hypoxantha  SAFFRON-BREASTED PRINIA.  Forest edge, wooded gullies, bracken-briar tangles.  Drakensberg and other mts. of se,e South Africa in se Cape Prov., e Orange Free State, Lesotho, Natal, n,e Transvaal.  Limited intergradation with P. maculosa and treated as a race of maculosa by some authors.
Prinia maculosa  KAROO PRINIA.  Savanna, karoo, mountain scrub.  Namibia and S. Africa in w,c Cape Prov., w,c Orange Free State and Basutoland; e Cape Prov.  See P. hypoxantha and P. flavicans..

Prinia molleri  SÃO TOME PRINIA.  Scrub.  Island of São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea.
Prinia robertsi  BRIAR WARBLER.  Has been placed in Oreolais.  Bracken, briars, tree heath, forest edge.  Mts. above 1350 m in e Zimbabwe and adjacent sw Mozambique.

Sooty brown above; tail brown, unspotted; chin, throat white; chest, flanks, crissum brownish; belly white.  Nest of stripped grass heads, domed with large side entrance and attached with cobwebs to leaves; eggs 3, bright blue with brown spots.

Prinia leontica  SIERRA LEONE PRINIA.  Forest undergrowth, edge, ravines.  Mts., 475-1400 m in s Guinea, e Sierra Leone, Liberia and sw Ivory Coast.
Prinia leucopogon  WHITE-CHINNED PRINIA.  Bushes and undergrowth of forest clearings and edge.  E Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. African Rep., s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and nw Kenya, s to n Angola, n Zambia and w Tanzania.
Prinia bairdii  BANDED PRINIA.  Dense bushes and shrubs in forest clearings and edge.  Lowlands in se Nigeria, Cameroon, sw C. African Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, s to n Angola, and e through n Zaire to e Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and nw Kenya.  Includes melanops.
Phragmacia substriata  NAMAQUA WARBLER.  Formerly in the genus Prinia.  Riparian thornbush among karoo scrub.  S Namibia and w S. Africa in w,c Cape Province and sw Orange Free State.

Dull russet-brown above; neck brownish gray; supercilium and underparts white; flanks, crissum brownish; tail unspotted.  Nest a cup of grass, leaves, etc., placed low in thick cover; eggs 2-4, blue, speckled with reddish-brown plus gray undermarkings.

Heliolais erythroptera  RED-WINGED WARBLER.  Savanna with tangled grass and bushes.  S Mali, Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. African Rep. and n Zaire to s Chad, s Sudan and Ethiopia, s in e Africa through Uganda, w Kenya, Tanzania, e Zambia and Malawi to Mozambique, e Zimbabwe; possibly ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal.

Crown, nape gray; back gray-brown; rump pinkish and yellow; wings brownish with chestnut edgings; chin, throat white; breast buffy; belly white; crissum tawny; tail graduated with white tips and black subterminal spots.  Nest of fine grass, 
sewn between leaves; eggs 2, green with pinkish undermarkings.

Malcorus pectoralis  RUFOUS-EARED WARBLER.  Often placed in the genus Prinia.  Dense low scrub.  Namibia, cw,s Botswana and S. Africa in arid regions e to n,c Cape Prov., extreme w Transvaal, nw Orange Free State.

Crown streaked pale rufous and blackish; lores, supercilium,face and ear coverts rufous; back streaked black and buff; throat white; black pectoral collar; belly buffy white; tail graduated.  Nest a neat oval of grass in a low bush; eggs 3-7, pale blue or white.
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Drymocichla incana  RED-WINGED GREY WARBLER.  Swampy woods, grass.  From ec Cameroon e through n C. African Rep. to se Sudan, ne Zaire and nw Uganda.
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Affinities uncertain, may be closest to Camaroptera.  Pale gray above, wings and tail darker; whitish below; tawny primary patch.  Few records.

Urolais epichlora  GREEN LONGTAIL. Forest, esp. wooded ravines, rarely savanna.  Highlands in se Nigeria, sw Cameroon and Fernando Po I.  Affinities unknown; possibly a sylviid.

15 cm. Green above; lores yellow; chin, throat whitish-buff; breast mottled gray; belly white; crissum yellow; tail dark brown, long (7-8 cm), graduated, rectrices narrow, buff-tipped.  Nest, eggs unknown.

Spiloptila clamans  CRICKET LONGTAIL or SCALY-FRONTED WARBLER.  Acacia scrub in desert edge.  SubSaharan Africa (Sahel) from Mauritania e through Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, n Nigeria, Lake Chad region and Sudan
to n Ethiopia and Eritrea.  Affinities uncertain; may be a sylviid.

10 cm.  Reddish-brown above; rump yellow; pale whitish-buff below; forehead, wing coverts black and white; tail 4 cm, graduated, gray with white tips, black subterminal bars.  Nest deep, ovate, domed or semi-domed, of grass; in a small shrub near the ground; eggs 3, white with fine red speckles.

Spiloptila rufifrons  RED-FRONTED WARBLER.  Scrubby hillsides with sparse grass.  Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, s through e Uganda and Kenya to ne Tanzania.  Placed in Spiloptila by the East African List Committee (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.) and by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).  Has been in Apalis.
Phyllolais pulchella  BUFF-BELLIED WARBLER.  Acacia savanna, scrub.  N Nigeria, n Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep.,
Lake Chad area to ne Zaire, se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda, Uganda, w,c Kenya, n Tanzania.

Pale olive-green above; pale yellow below; tail blackish with white tips and white outer webs to outer rectrices.  Food insects gleaned from top foliage of small acacias.  Nest purse-shaped, woven, mainly of plant down, hanging from branches.  Eggs 2-3, pale greenish-blue with reddish, gray-brown, or brown spots.  Has been placed in the Sylviidae.

Apalis:  Apalis  Subsaharan Africa.  Relatively long bills and tails; plumages variable, some with bright colors, black breast bands; tail graduated, often with white-tipped rectrices.  Usually inhabit woodland undergrowth, some in upper foliage.  Food insects.  Nest domed with side entrance or a deep cup or purselike structure, often of moss.  Eggs variable, blue or green with reddish speckles, white, olive, etc.

The species described as Orthotomus moreaui may be a species of Apalis and it is assigned to Apalis by the East African List Committee.  See Orthotomus moreaui below under Orthotomus.

Apalis pulchra  BLACK-COLLARED APALIS.  Humid forest.  Locally in highlands in e Nigeria, Cameroon, sw C. African Rep., se Sudan, ne,se Zaire, sw Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and w,c Kenya.
Apalis ruwenzorii  COLLARED APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. of e Zaire, w Uganda and Rwanda.
Apalis thoracica  BAR-THROATED APALIS.  Forest.  Morphologically variable with isolated populations that may be separate species; intergradation usually occurs between races where in contact.

A. t. griseiceps.  Se Kenya in the Chyulu Hills, n,c Tanzania from Mt. Kilimanjaro s to Uluguru Mts., s Mozambique along Zimbabwe border and S. Africa in c,e Transvaal, Swaziland, Natal, e Orange Free State and e Cape Province.
 A. t. fuscigularis.  Se Kenya in the Teita Hills.
 A. t. murina.  In ne,sw Tanzania in the Usambara Mts. and extreme sw, Malawi, c,e Zambia, Zimbabwe, adj. wc Mozambique (n of griseiceps), se Botswana and nc S. Africa in w Transvaal.
 A. t. flavigularis.  Nc Mozambique, just east of the Rift Valley.
 A. t. lynesi.  Ne Mozambique on Mt. Namuli.
 A. t. thoracica.  S S. Africa in sw,sc Cape Province.

Apalis nigriceps  BLACK-CAPPED APALIS.  Humid forest, second growth. Lowlands to 1500 m in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, s Ghana, s Nigeria, s Cameroon, Fernando Po I., Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to ne,ce Zaire and Uganda.
Apalis jacksoni  BLACK-THROATED APALIS.  Forest.  Locally, mostly in highlands to 2450 m in w,s  Cameroon, nw Angola, cn,e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, extreme se Sudan, w,c Kenya e to Mt. Kenya and nw Tanzania.
Apalis chariessa  WHITE-WINGED APALIS.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands of se Kenya on the lower Tana River; up to 1500 m in c,e Tanzania in the Udzungwa and Uluguru mts., s Malawi and adjacent Mozambique.
Apalis binotata  MASKED APALIS.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands to 1800 m in Cameroon, Gabon, nw Angola; ne Zaire, w,e Uganda, nw Tanzania.

Apalis personata  BLACK-FACED APALIS.  Forest.  Locally in highlands, 1500-2800 m in e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
Apalis flavida  YELLOW-BREASTED APALIS.  Open forest, acacia steppe, savanna.  Senegambia, Sierra Leone, n Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, s C. African Rep., s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, c Kenya, Tanzania, s (exc. Congo forest region) in Malawi, Zambia, Angola, n Namibia, n Botswana, n,e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa w to c Cape Province.
Apalis viridiceps  BROWN-TAILED APALIS.  Dry acacia steppe, savanna.  S Ethiopia, Somalia, n Kenya.  The East African List Committee includes viridiceps in flavida (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Apalis ruddi  RUDD'S APALIS.  Riparian thickets, bush clumps in dry woods, humid coastal forest.  S Malawi, s Mozambique and e S. Africa in Swaziland and n Natal.

Apalis sharpii  SHARPE'S APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghana.
Apalis rufogularis  BUFF-THROATED APALIS.  Forest.

A. r. rufogularis.  Mts. in s Nigeria, s Cameroon, Fernando Po I., Equatorial Guinea, w Gabon and Congo.
A. r. nigrescens.  C,e Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w Kenya, Tanzania s to nw,ne Angola, nw Zambia and
s Zaire.

Apalis argentea  KUNGWE APALIS.  Forest.  Mts. of ce Zaire; mts., 1200-2100 m in se Zaire and w Tanzania.  The East African List Committee treat argentea as a race of rufogularis (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Apalis bamendae  BAMENDA APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. of Cameroon; possibly in C. African Rep.
Apalis goslingi  GOSLING'S APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. in s Cameroon, C. African Rep., Gabon, wc,c,se,ne Zaire and ne Angola.
Apalis porphyrolaema  CHESTNUT-THROATED APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. from ce,ne Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and w,c Kenya s to c Tanzania.
Apalis kaboboensis  KABOBO APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mt. Kabobo, 1660 m, in se Zaire.  Known only from the type locality.  Treated as a race of A. porphyrolaema by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1990), but they are allopatric.  Either treatment can be defended.

Apalis chapini  CHAPIN'S APALIS.  Humid forest.  These allopatric forms may be separate species.

A. c. strausae.  Mts. in sw Tanzania, Malawi and e Zambia.
A. c. chapini.  Uluguru Mts. in ec Tanzania.

Apalis melanocephala  BLACK-HEADED APALIS.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m from c,se Kenya and s Somalia, s through c,e Tanzania and s Malawi to Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Apalis chirindensis  CHIRINDA APALIS.  Humid forest.  Mts. in e Zimbabwe and wc Mozambique; occurs above 1500 m where sympatric with A. melanocephala.
Apalis moreaui  LONG-BILLED APALIS  Forest undergrowth in Tanzania; canopy in Mozambique.  Locally in mts. in ne Tanzania and wc Mozambique. Described as an Orthotomus, but vocalizations suggest this species is an Apalis and the East African List Committee and Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) place it in Apalis, "but with some misgivings".  Nest undescribed, which would be helpful in determining its correct affinities.

Apalis cinerea  GREY APALIS.  Forest.  Locally in mts. in se Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, cw Angola, e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, se Sudan, w,nc,c Kenya, Zambia and Malawi.
Apalis alticola  BROWN-HEADED APALIS.  Forest, riparian woods.  Mts., 1200-2100 m in sw,nw,nc Angola, se Zaire, n Zambia, n Malawi and n,sw Tanzania.
Apalis karamojae  KARAMOJA APALIS.  Forest in mts. of n Uganda; acacia steppe in mts. in ne Tanzania.
Hypergerus atriceps  ORIOLE WARBLER.  Gallery forest, often in palms.  Senegambia, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon , c C. African Rep. and s Chad.  Has been assigned to the Timaliini (babblers), but DNA hybridization evidence indicates it is a cisticolid.

20 cm. Head, throat, upper breast  black, feathers edges white; yellowish-olive above; bright yellow below; tail long, olive, graduated.

Eminia lepida  GREY-CAPPED WARBLER. Papyrus beds, elephant grass, woodland thickets.  Mts. to 2450 m in ne Zaire, extreme se Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,c Kenya and nw, nc Tanzania.

DNA hybridization evidence indicates that Eminia is a cisticolid.
 Forehead, crown gray; black band from lores, above eye, around occiput; bright green above; shoulders rufous; below pale gray; flanks green; rufous throat patch.  Nest of grass, fibers, domed with side entrance; suspended from or placed in creepers or dense foliage; eggs 2-3, white with purplish-brown markings, or glossy  pale blue.

Camaroptera:  Camaropteras. Subsaharan Africa.  Plumages green, olive-green or gray above; white below; superciliaris has a yellow supercilium; tail short, square-tipped.  Feed on insects.  Nest of fine grass, plant down, cobwebs; purse-shaped, between large leaves which are sewn together; may have a leaf sewn on as a roof; in a dense thicket near the ground.  Eggs 2-3, white, pale blue, greenish blue, with reddish speckles.
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Camaroptera brachyura  GREEN-BACKED CAMAROPTERA.  Humid forest undergrowth, thickets.

The three races of brachyura have been treated as separate species, but Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) and the East African List Committee (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.) consider them to be conspecific.  C. brachyura occurs in every mainland country in subSaharan Africa.
 C. b. brachyura.  Lowlands from se Kenya, e,s Tanzania, Zanzibar and Mafia is., and Malawi s through Mozambique and e Zimbabwe to e S. Africa w to c Cape Province.
 C. b. brevicaudata.  GREY-BACKED CAMAROPTERA.  From Senegambia, sw Mali and Guinea-Bissau e to c Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia; s (exc. nw Angola) to Namibia, Botswana, extreme ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal, and Mozambique.
 C. b. harterti.  HARTERT'S CAMAROPTERA.  Nw Angola.

Camaroptera superciliaris  YELLOW-BROWED CAMAROPTERA.  Humid forest.  Lowlands in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,e Zaire and Uganda, and s to nw Angola, sw,cs Zaire.
Camaroptera chloronota  OLIVE-GREEN CAMAROPTERA.  Humid forest.  Lowlands in Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., ne,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, extreme se Sudan and nw Kenya, s to c Zaire and extreme nw Tanzania.
Calamonastes:  Wren-Warblers.  Woods, thornbush, mopane, brachystegia.  C, s Africa.  Plumage russet, brownish, or gray above; buffy, white or gray below with black, brownish or dusky bars; tail short, constantly "fanned".  Feed on insects on or near the ground.  Nest of dry grass or fine, silky fibers; oval or round with side entrance; enclosed in living leaves which are pierced and sewn together with cobweb.  Eggs 2-4, bluish-white with brownish, grayish speckles.  Considered a subgenus of Camaroptera by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).

Calamonastes simplex  GREY WREN-WARBLER.  Woodland, esp. mopane and brachystegia, thorn bush.  Extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya (exc. extreme sw), ne Uganda and ne Tanzania.

Calamonastes undosus  PALE WREN-WARBLER.  Woodland.  Se Zaire, n Zambia, n Malawi, Tanzania (exc. ne), Rwanda, Burundi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa.  Includes stierlingi and cinerea, following Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Calamonastes fasciolatus  BARRED WREN-WARBLER.  Thornbush.  From wc Angola, Namibia, Botswana and sw Zimbabwe to n S. Africa in n Cape Prov., nw Transvaal and Orange Free State.
Poliolais lopezi  WHITE-TAILED WARBLER.  Forest undergrowth.  Mts. in wc Africa in se Nigeria, Cameroon Mt., Manenguba and Kupé mts., and Bioko Prov. on Fernando Po I., Gulf of Guinea.

10 cm.  Geographically variable; male grayish/olive or brownish/olive above; chin, throat gray to olive; below pale olive-green/whitish, flanks ashy; crissum buff; tail short, center rectrices brown, outer rectrices white; female rufous head, olive-green back; pale yellowish below. Sometimes placed in Camaroptera or Orthotomus.  Placed here by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).

Graueria vittata  GRAUER'S WARBLER.  Forest.  Mts. of ce Zaire, Congo and Burundi.  Affinities uncertain.  Placed here by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Euryptila subcinnamomea  KOPJE WARBLER.  Desert scrub around stony hills (kopjes).  Nw S. Africa in w,c Cape Province, sw Botswana and sw Namibia in Karoo Desert.
 

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         Passeriformes 18
© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi