TYRANTS TO TAPACULOS

Family TYRANNIDAE
Family Incertae sedis

Sapayoa aenigma  BROAD-BILLED SAPAYOA.  Humid forest, usually near water.  Lowlands to 1100 m in e Panama, w Colombia and nw Ecuador. 
Subfamily PIPROMORPHINAE

Mionectes striaticollis   STREAK-NECKED FLYCATCHER.  Forest, edge.  Andes, 1300-3300 m, of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and c Bolivia.
Mionectes olivaceus   OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, edge, second growth, woodland.  Lowlands and mts. to 3000 m, confined to lower elevations where M. striaticollis is present, of Costa Rica, Panama, on Caribbean slope throughout and Pacific slope to Canal Zone, and from Colombia, n,w Venezuela and Trinidad s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador to e,se Peru and n Bolivia.
Mionectes oleagineus   OCHRE-BELLIED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland, shrubbery.  Lowlands to 2000 m from Mexico in Puebla, c Veracruz, n Oaxaca and Yucatán Pen., incl. I. Mujeres, s along both slopes to Panama, incl. Coiba, Cébaco and Pearl is., and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Peru and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian, se Brazil.

Mionectes macconnelli   MACCONNELL'S FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, woodland.  Lowlands to 2000 m, e of Andes, of s Venezuela, Guyana, Cayenne, n, Amazonian Brazil, c Peru and n,c Bolivia.
Mionectes rufiventris   GREY-HOODED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Lowlands of se Brazil, se Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Leptopogon rufipectus   RUFOUS-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Locally in Andes, 1600-2700 m, of extreme sw Venezuela, Colombia, e Ecuador and n Peru.
Leptopogon taczanowskii   INCA FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  C. Andes of Peru.
Leptopogon amaurocephalus   SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, edge, open woodland.  Lowlands to 1600 m from Mexico in Oaxaca, s Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas and Quintana Roo s on Caribbean slope to Nicaragua, both slopes of Costa Rica and w,c Panama, incl. I. Coiba; from n,e Colombia e across w,s Venezuela and the Guianas to extreme ne Brazil; locally from e Peru and s,se Brazil s to Bolivia, Paraguay and n Argentina.

Leptopogon superciliaris   SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, edge, dense second-growth woodland.  Highlands, mostly 500-2100 m, from Costa Rica, w,e Panama, Colombia, n,s Venezuela and extreme n Brazil s through Andes of w,e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia.
Pseudotriccus pelzelni   BRONZE-OLIVE PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest undergrowth.  Foothills and mts., 700-2500 m, of extreme e Panama, w,c,se Colombia, nw,e Ecuador and e Peru.
Pseudotriccus simplex   HAZEL-FRONTED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Andes of se Peru and wc Bolivia.
Pseudotriccus ruficeps   RUFOUS-HEADED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Andes, 1400-3600 m, (locally to 400 m), of c,s Colombia, Ecuador, e Peru and wc Bolivia.

Poecilotriccus ruficeps   RUFOUS-CROWNED TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Andes of Colombia, sw Venezuela, Ecuador and extreme n Peru.
Poecilotriccus capitalis   BLACK-AND-WHITE TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, e Ecuador and n,e Peru.  P. c. tricolor is known only from w Brazil in n Rondônia on Rio Jamari and it may not be separable from P. c. capitalis.
Poecilotriccus albifacies   WHITE-CHEEKED TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest, bamboo. 
Known only from se Peru. 
Sometimes considered conspecific with P. capitalis, but P. albifacies is a good species.

Taeniotriccus andrei   BLACK-CHESTED TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m of se Venezuela and nw,c Brazil.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Hemitriccus minor   SNETHLAGE'S TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Lowlands of Amazonian Brazil and extreme ne Bolivia; nc Brazil.  The snethlagae subspecies group may be a separate species.
Hemitriccus josephinae   BOAT-BILLED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Lowlands of s Guyana, w Surinam and extreme ne Brazil.
Hemitriccus flammulatus   FLAMMULATED BAMBOO-TYRANT.  Forest, bamboo.  Lowlands of n,se Peru, n,e Bolivia and sw Brazil.  May be a race of H. diops.

Hemitriccus diops   DRAB-BREASTED BAMBOO-TYRANT.  Forest, bamboo.  Lowlands of se Brazil and e Paraguay.
Hemitriccus obsoletus   BROWN-BREASTED BAMBOO-TYRANT.  Forest, bamboo.  Highlands of se Brazil.
Hemitriccus zosterops   WHITE-EYED TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, s Venezuela, Surinam and Cayenne s to n Peru and n,e Brazil; se Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.  The griseipectus subspecies group sometimes is treated as a separate species; the two groups are vocally distinct.
Hemitriccus minimus  (=aenigma)   ZIMMER'S TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Nc Brazil in w Pará and ne Bolivia.  See Stolz (1992. Auk 109:916-917) for the use of minimus in place of aenigma.

Hemitriccus orbitatus   EYE-RINGED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Lowlands of se Brazil.
Hemitriccus iohannis   JOHANNES'S TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru, n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil. 
Often considered a race of H. striaticollis, but ranges overlap considerably; has been treated as a separate species.
Hemitriccus striaticollis   STRIPE-NECKED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest edge, usually near water.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, n Peru, n Bolivia and c,e Brazil.
Hemitriccus nidipendulus   HANGNEST TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Lowlands of se Brazil.

Hemitriccus spodiops   YUNGAS TODY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge, second growth, bamboo.  Foothills of e slope of Andes of wc Bolivia.
Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer   PEARLY-VENTED TODY-TYRANT.  Dry forest, savanna, thorn thickets, cerrado.  Lowlands to 2000 m of ne Colombia and n Venezuela, incl. Margarita I.; c Colombia; Pantepui of s Venezuela; c,se Peru, Bolivia, n Argentina, Paraguay and s Brazil.  The subspecies septentrionalis and impiger have been treated as separate species.
Hemitriccus inornatus   PELZELN'S TODY-TYRANT.  Forest, savanna, thorn thickets, cerrado.  Lowlands of extreme nw Brazil.  Previously known from one, possibly missexed, specimen collected in 1831.  Rediscovered in 1994 on the east bank of the Rio Negro, Brazil (World Birdwatch 16(2):5).  Possibly a race of H. margaritaceiventer.

Hemitriccus granadensis   BLACK-THROATED TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Mts., 1500-3000 m, of Colombia and n Venezuela s in Andes through e Ecuador and e Peru to cw Bolivia.  Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species may be involved.
Hemitriccus rufigularis   BUFF-THROATED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Andes, 1100-1700 m, of c,se Peru and cw Bolivia.
Hemitriccus cinnamomeipectus   CINNAMON-BREASTED TODY-TYRANT.  Humid forest.  Andes, 1800-2200 m of.  n Peru.
Hemitriccus mirandae   BUFF-BREASTED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Highlands of e Brazil.

Hemitriccus kaempferi   KAEMPFER'S TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Known only from Santa Catarina in se Brazil.  Formerly considered conspecific with H. mirandae, but Fitzpatrick and O'Neill (1979. Auk 96:443-447) suggested that it be treated as a separate species.
Hemitriccus furcatus   FORK-TAILED TODY-TYRANT.  Forest.  Se Brazil.
Todirostrum senex   BUFF-CHEEKED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Presumably humid forest.  Known only from type specimen from w Amazonian Brazil in e Amazonas.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Todirostrum russatum   RUDDY TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Pantepui, 1400-2500 m, of extreme s Venezuela and adj. n Brazil.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Todirostrum plumbeiceps   OCHRE-FACED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Brushy slopes, forest edge.  Se Peru, c,se Bolivia, nw,ne Argentina, e Paraguay and e,se Brazil.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Todirostrum latirostre   RUSTY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, often near water.  Lowlands to 500 m of se Colombia, e Ecuador, se Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian,sc Brazil to nw,c Pará, Mato Grosso and n São Paulo.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Todirostrum fumifrons   SMOKY-FRONTED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Locally in Surinam, Cayenne and ne,c,e Brazil.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).

Todirostrum sylvia   SLATE-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Thickets, brushy areas, low second growth.  Locally in lowlands to 1200 m from Mexico in s Veracruz, n Oaxaca, n Chiapas, s Campeche and Quintana Roo, s on Gulf-Caribbean slope to Honduras, both slopes of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w,c Panama; w,n,e,se Colombia, w,s Venezuela, Guyana, Cayenne and n,ne Brazil.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Todirostrum maculatum   SPOTTED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Mangroves, riverine woodland.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in e Colombia, ne Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas, e Peru, n Bolivia and n, Amazonian Brazil.
Todirostrum poliocephalum   YELLOW-LORED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest edge, towns.  Lowlands of se Brazil.

Todirostrum cinereum   COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Open woodland, thickets, scrub, towns, forest edge.  Lowlands to 2000 m from Mexico in c Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo, incl. I. Mujeres, s along both slopes to Panama, incl. I. Coiba, and from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, w of Andes to nw Peru and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia, n Paraguay and Brazil.
Todirostrum viridanum   MARACAIBO TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Arid open woodland, scrub, thickets.  Coastal lowlands of nw Venezuela.
Todirostrum nigriceps   BLACK-HEADED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest, scrub.  Lowlands to 1500 m, of Costa Rica, mostly Caribbean, Panama, w,n Colombia, w Venezuela and w Ecuador.  Sometimes treated as a race of T. chrysocrotaphum.

Todirostrum pictum   PAINTED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, open woodland.  Lowlands to 
1000 m, e of Andes, in s Venezuela, Guianas and n Brazil.  Sometimes considered conspecific with T. chrysocrotaphum.
Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum   YELLOW-BROWED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, forest edge, open woodland.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of e Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian, n Brazil.
Todirostrum calopterum   GOLDEN-WINGED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest, scrub.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, e Ecuador and ne Peru.  Placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).

Todirostrum pulchellum   BLACK-BACKED TODY-FLYCATCHER.  Forest, scrub.  Lowlands of se Peru.  Sometimes treated as a race of T. calopterum; placed in Poecilotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).  Not vocally distinct from T. calopterum.
Corythopis torquata   RINGED ANTPIPIT.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1400 m, e of Andes, from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.  May be conspecific with C. delalandi.
Corythopis delalandi   SOUTHERN ANTPIPIT.  Thick forest undergrowth.  Lowlands of e Brazil, e Bolivia, Paraguay and ne Argentina.

Subfamily TYRANNINAE

Phyllomyias fasciatus   PLANALTO TYRANNULET.  Forest.  N Bolivia, Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Phyllomyias zeledoni   WHITE-FRONTED TYRANNULET.  Forest edge, open woodland.  Mts., 900-1850 m of Costa Rica and w Panama; locally in Andes, 600-1700 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia, n,se Venezuela, e Ecuador and e Peru.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).  Possibly conspecific with P. burmeisteri.
Phyllomyias burmeisteri   ROUGH-LEGGED TYRANNULET.  Forest edge, open woodland.  N,e,se Bolivia, nw,ne Argentina, e Paraguay and se Brazil. Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914). P. burmeisteri, leucogonys and zeledoni are each sometimes treated as 
separate species.  The latter two are ecologically distinct and were treated as conspecific by Sibley and Monroe (1990).  There seems to be some vocal variation within burmeisteri, but intergradation has not been excluded.

Phyllomyias reiseri   REISER'S TYRANNULET.  Dry forest, cerrado.  Mts., 900-1100 m, of ne Venezuela; highlands of se Brazil and ne Paraguay.  Has been treated as a race of P. virescens species status follows Stotz (1990. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 110:184-186).  The Venezuelan form, P. r. urichi is poorly known and may be a separate species.  See Ridgely and Tudor (1994. Birds of S. Amer., 2:459).
Phyllomyias virescens   GREENISH TYRANNULET.  Humid forest.  Highlands of se Brazil, e Paraguay, ne Argentina.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).
Phyllomyias sclateri   SCLATER'S TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andean foothills of se Peru, c,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).

Phyllomyias griseocapilla   GREY-CAPPED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Se Brazil.
Phyllomyias griseiceps   SOOTY-HEADED TYRANNULET.  Brush, scrub, thickets, forest edge, woodland.  Locally in lowlands to 1500 m of e Panama, w,n Colombia, Venezuela, s Guyana, cn Brazil, w,cs Ecuador and nc Peru.
Phyllomyias plumbeiceps   PLUMBEOUS-CROWNED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes, 1300-2500 m, of s,c Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).
Phyllomyias nigrocapillus   BLACK-CAPPED TYRANNULET.  Dense forest.  Mts., 1600-3400 m of Colombia and w Venezuela s through Ecuador and c Peru.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).

Phyllomyias cinereiceps   ASHY-HEADED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Locally in Andes, 800-2700 m of Colombia, n Ecuador and e Peru.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).
Phyllomyias uropygialis   TAWNY-RUMPED TYRANNULET.  Forest edge.  Locally in Andes, 1500-3700 m of Colombia, w Venezuela, w Ecuador, Peru and c,se Bolivia.  Placed in Tyranniscus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914).
Zimmerius vilissimus   PALTRY TYRANNULET.  Open woodland, forest edge.
 The two following subspecies groups may be separate species.  There is an abrupt change in the elevation of habitat and in size in n Central America (Traylor 1982. Fieldiana Zool. (n.s.) 13:2-4).
 Z. v. vilissimus  Locally in hills and mts., 500-2600 m of Mexico in e Chiapas, Guatemala incl. Petén, and El Salvador.
 Z. v. parvus  Lowlands in Honduras below 500 m, and lowlands to 1500 m from Nicaragua and Costa Rica to Panama and nw Colombia.

Zimmerius improbus   VENEZUELAN TYRANNULET.  Open woodland, forest edge.  Locally and mts., 400-3000 m, of ne Colombia and w,n Venezuela.  Often considered conspecific with Z. vilissimus, but seems to be a good species, differing in eye color.
Zimmerius bolivianus   BOLIVIAN TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes of se Peru and wc Bolivia.
Zimmerius cinereicapillus   RED-BILLED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Lowlands, e of Andes, in ne Ecuador and c Peru.  Sometimes considered conspecific with Z. gracilipes.
Zimmerius gracilipes   SLENDER-FOOTED TYRANNULET.  Forest, second growth. 
Lowlands to 2000 m, e of Andes, of e Colombia, s Venezuela, w Amazonian Brazil, e Peru and n Bolivia; se Venezuela, Guianas and ne Brazil, incl. I. Marajó.

Zimmerius viridiflavus   PERUVIAN TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andean foothills of e Peru.
Zimmerius chrysops   GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET.  Forest. Foothills and mts., 300-2700 m, of Colombia and n Venezuela s through w,e Ecuador to ne Peru.  Usually treated as a race of Z. viridiflavus, but vocally distinct and does not intergrade (Ridgely and Tudor 1994. Birds of S. Amer. 2:451-452).
Ornithion inerme   WHITE-LORED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas, e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian,e Brazil.
Ornithion semiflavum   YELLOW-BELLIED TYRANNULET.  Forest, edge, woodland.  Gulf-Caribbean lowlands from c Mexico in n Oaxaca, s Veracruz, Tabasco, n Chiapas, s to Nicaragua and ne Costa Rica.

Ornithion brunneicapillum   BROWN-CAPPED TYRANNULET.  Forest, edge, woodland.  Lowlands to 1200 m of c,s Costa Rica, Panama, w,n Colombia, n Venezuela and nw Ecuador.  May be conspecific with O. semiflavum.
Camptostoma imberbe   NORTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET. Scrub, riparian woodland, thickets, forest edge.  Lowlands and foothills from Sonora, se Arizona, sw New Mexico, Zacatecas, Nuevo León and s Texas s along both slopes of Mexico, incl. Tres Marías Is., Honduras and Nicaragua, on Pacific slope only to w,c Costa Rica.
Camptostoma obsoletum   SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET.  Scrub, woodland, forest edge.  Lowlands to 2000 m from sw Costa Rica, Panama, incl. Coiba, Cébaco and Pearl is., Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas, s, w of Andes, to c Peru and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador, e Peru, Brazil and Bolivia to Paraguay and n Argentina. 
Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species may be involved, or that the nw races are conspecific with C. imberbe.

Phaeomyias murina  Mouse-colored Tyrannulet.
 Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species is involved.
 P. m. murina. Savanna, mangroves, thickets, forest edge.  Lowlands to 1900 m from w,c Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, incl. Monos I., and Guianas s, e of Andes, through Brazil, e Peru and Bolivia to Paraguay and nw Argentina.
 P. m. tumbezana  Arid scrub, thornbush.  W of Andes in sw Ecuador and w Peru s to Ancash.

Nesotriccus ridgwayi   COCOS FLYCATCHER.  Forest undergrowth, scrub, woodland.  Cocos I.
Capsiempis flaveola   YELLOW TYRANNULET.  Forest edge, open woodland, bamboo, brush, thickets, thorn scrub, mangroves.  Locally in lowlands to 750 m of Nicaragua, on Caribbean slope, 
Costa Rica and w,c Panama, incl. I. Coiba; w of Andes in sw Ecuador; e of Andes, from nc,e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s through ne Ecuador and n,c,se Brazil to n,e Bolivia, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.  Has been placed in Phylloscartes, but see Lanyon (1984. Condor 86:42-47) for current position.
Sublegatus arenarum   NORTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, open woodland, swamps, mangroves, savanna.  Pacific lowlands of sw Costa Rica and Panama, incl. Coiba, Cébaco, Taboga and Pearl is.; lowlands to 750 m of n,e Colombia, n,c Venezuela, incl. Netherlands Antilles and many small is. off n coast, Trinidad, incl. small is., Guianas and n,c Amazonian Brazil, incl. I. Mexiana.  Sometimes treated as conspecific with S. modestus.

Sublegatus obscurior   AMAZONIAN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, open woodland, savanna.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, from se Colombia, c,ne Venezuela and Guianas s to e Peru, nw Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.  Evidently sympatric with S. modestus in the western part of the range, but appears to hybridize with it in the eastern Amazon and it may be vocally distinct.  Listed as a subspecies of S. modestus by Traylor (1982. Fieldiana Zool. (n.s.) 13:10-12).  However, it is not certain that only one species is involved.
Sublegatus modestus  SOUTHERN SCRUB-FLYCATCHER.  Scrub, open woodland, savanna.  Lowlands from se Peru, n,e Bolivia, Paraguay and e,s Brazil s to Uruguay and c Argentina.  Winters n to e Peru and Amazonian Brazil and probably to Venezuela.

Suiriri affinis   CAMPO SUIRIRI.  Scrub, mangroves, campos, caatinga.  Locally, e of Andes, in Surinam, n Bolivia and Amazonian,e Brazil.  Sometimes considered conspecific with S. suiriri, but has been recognized as a species despite a zone of hybridization where their ranges meet in e Bolivia (Traylor 1982. Fieldiana Zool. (n.s.) 13:10-12).
Suiriri suiriri   CHACO SUIRIRI.  Scrub, mangroves, chaco.  E of Andes in n,e,se Bolivia, sc Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Tyrannulus elatus   YELLOW-CROWNED TYRANNULET.  Forest edge, open woodland, towns.  Lowlands to 1200 m from sw Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through Amazonian Brazil to e Peru and n Bolivia.

Myiopagis gaimardii   FOREST ELAENIA.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m of c,e Panama, n,e Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, incl. Chachacare I., and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian, se Brazil. 
Includes Serpophaga berliozi.
Myiopagis caniceps   GREY ELAENIA.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands to 1200 m of e Panama, w Colombia and w Ecuador; e of Andes from se Colombia, nw,s Venezuela and French Guiana s through e Ecuador, ne,e Peru and w Amazonian,e,s Brazil to n,e,se Bolivia, nw Argentina and Paraguay. 
Includes Serpophaga araguayae based on a single specimen of M. caniceps from Goiás, Brazil (Da Silva 1990. Goeldiana Zool. 1:1-6).
Myiopagis subplacens   PACIFIC ELAENIA.  Humid deciduous forest, mesquite woodland.  Pacific lowlands and w slope of Andes to 1800 m of w Ecuador and nw Peru.

Myiopagis flavivertex   YELLOW-CROWNED ELAENIA.  Riverine forest.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in s,e Venezuela, Surinam, French Guiana, ne Peru and Amazonian Brazil, incl. I. Mexiana.
Myiopagis cotta   JAMAICAN ELAENIA.  Forest, woodland, shrubs.  Mts. and, less commonly, lowlands of Jamaica.
Myiopagis viridicata   GREENISH ELAENIA.  Forest edge, open woodland.  Lowlands to 1500 m from Mexico in Nayarit, Durango, San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s along both slopes, incl. Tres Marías Is. and Yucatán Pen., to Panama, incl. Coiba and Pearl is., and from Colombia and Venezuela s, w of Andes, to w Ecuador, incl. I Puná; locally, e of Andes, in se Peru, Bolivia, nw,ne Argentina, Paraguay and sc,e,se Brazil.

Pseudelaenia leucospodia   GREY-AND-WHITE TYRANNULET.  Arid scrub.  Pacific lowlands of sw Ecuador, incl. La Plata and Puná is., and nw Peru.
Elaenia martinica   CARIBBEAN ELAENIA.  Forest, woodland, scrub.  W. Indies in Puerto Rico, Virgin Is.,
Lesser Antilles, s to Grenada, but not Grenadines, incl. Cozumel, Mujeres and several small is. off Yucatán Pen., is. of w Caribbean Sea, incl. Cayman, Providencia and San Andrés, and Netherlands Antilles; is. in w Caribbean Sea in Chinchorro Reef, off Quintana Roo, Half Moon Cay and Glover's Reef off Belize.
Elaenia flavogaster   YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA.  Woodland, scrub, savanna, towns.  Lowlands to 2100 m from Mexico in c Veracruz, n Oaxaca and Chiapas, s along both slopes, incl. Yucatán Pen. and I. Mujeres, to Panama, incl. Pearl, Taboga, Coiba and smaller is., and from Colombia, Venezuela, incl. Margarita and Patos is., Trinidad, Tobago, s Lesser Antilles, in Granada, Grenadines, St. Vincent, and Guianas s, w of andes, to w Ecuador, incl. I. Puná, and n Peru and locally,e of Andes, through Brazil, se Peru and n,e,se Bolivia to nw,ne Argentina and Paraguay.

Elaenia spectabilis   LARGE ELAENIA.  Forest, mostly riverine, thickets.  E of Andes in c,e,s Brazil, n,e,se Bolivia and nw,ne Argentina; occurs in Amazonian parts of se Colombia, e Peru, n Bolivia and w Brazil, probably only as a winter visitant.  Has been treated as conspecific with E. flavogaster, but their ranges apparently overlap widely in Brazil, possibly due to migrant individuals.
Elaenia ridleyana   NORONHA ELAENIA.  Forest, thickets.  I. Fernando de Noronha.  Has been treated as a race of E. spectabilis or E. chiriquiensis, but vocally distinct from both (Ridgely and Tudor 1994. Birds of S. Amer., 2:440-441).
Elaenia albiceps   WHITE-CRESTED ELAENIA.  Scrub, forest edge, hillsides.  Andes, 2100 m to treeline of sw Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and wc Colombia; arid Pacific lowlands of Peru, nw Chile to Tierra del Fuego.  Hybridizes locally with E. parvirostris where their ranges overlap in s Bolivia, but sympatric in nw Argentina (Traylor 1982. Fieldiana Zool. (n.s.) 13:12-14).  The race chilensis sometimes is treated as a species, but does not appear to differ vocally from the nominate subspecies group.

Elaenia parvirostris   SMALL-BILLED ELAENIA.  Riverine forest, open woodland, forest edge.  Lowlands from Bolivia, Uruguay and s Brazil s to c Argentina.
Elaenia strepera   SLATY ELAENIA.  Forest.  C,s,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Elaenia mesoleuca   OLIVACEOUS ELAENIA.  Forest.  Se Brazil, Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Elaenia gigas   MOTTLE-BACKED ELAENIA.  Forest.  E of Andes in se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and c Bolivia.
Elaenia pelzelni   BROWNISH ELAENIA.  Riverine forest.  E of Andes of ne Peru, n Bolivia and w,c Amazonian Brazil.
Elaenia cristata   PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA.  Open woodland, savanna, thickets.  Locally in lowlands to 1500 m, e of Andes, from Venezuela and Guianas s through n,c,e Brazil to se Peru and ne Bolivia.

Elaenia ruficeps   RUFOUS-CROWNED ELAENIA.  Open forest, bushes.  Lowlands to 1500 m, e of Andes, of e Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas and n Amazonian Brazil.
Elaenia chiriquensis   LESSER ELAENIA.  Scrub, open woodland, second growth, savanna.  Locally in foothills and mts. to 2200m from c,sw Costa Rica, Panama, incl. Coiba, Cébaco and Pearl is., Colombia, Venezuela, incl. Netherlands Antilles, and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Brazil to Paraguay and nw,ne Argentina.
Elaenia frantzii   MOUNTAIN ELAENIA.  Open forest, edge, scrub, farmlands.  Mts., 900-3600 m of c Guatemala, Honduras, nc,sw Nicaragua, Costa Rica, w Panama, Colombia and w,n Venezuela.  Sometimes considered conspecific with E. obscura.
Elaenia obscura   HIGHLAND ELAENIA.  Forest.  Andean slopes of Peru, c,se Bolivia, nw,ne Argentina, e Paraguay and se Brazil.

Elaenia dayi   GREAT ELAENIA.  Open forest, edge.  Pantepui, 1500-2600 m, of cs Venezuela; se Venezuela.
Elaenia pallatangae   SIERRAN ELAENIA.  Forest edge.  Andes, 1500-2600 m, of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and cw Bolivia; Pantepui, 900-2400 m of s Venezuela, w Guyana and extreme n Brazil.  The race olivina has been treated as a separate species.
Elaenia fallax   GREATER ANTILLEAN ELAENIA.  Forest edge, pine woodland, thickets.  Mts. of Jamaica and Hispaniola.

Mecocerculus leucophrys   WHITE-THROATED TYRANNULET.  Forest, edge, scrub.  Mts., 1300-3800 m, from Colombia, w,n,s Venezuela and extreme n Brazil s through Andes of Ecuador, Peru and c,se Bolivia to nw Argentina.
Mecocerculus poecilocercus   WHITE-TAILED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes, 1600-2700 m of Colombia, Ecuador and e Peru. Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) found that the syrinx of this species resembles that of Ornithion and Camptostoma, but pending more evidence, left it in Mecocerculus.
Mecocerculus hellmayri   BUFF-BANDED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes, 800-2600 m of se Peru, c,se Bolivia and extreme nw Argentina.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) found that the syrinx resembles that of Ornithion and Camptostoma, but pending more evidence left it in Mecocerculus.

Mecocerculus calopterus   RUFOUS-WINGED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes of c,s Ecuador and nw Peru.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) found the syrinx resembles that of Tyranniscus, but pending more evidence, left it in Mecocerculus.
Mecocerculus minor   SULPHUR-BELLIED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes, 1600-2400 m, of Colombia, extreme w Venezuela, e Ecuador and n Peru.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) found the syrinx to resemble that of Tyranniscus, but pending more evidence, left it in Mecocerculus.
Mecocerculus stictopterus   WHITE-BANDED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes, 1800-3600 m, from s,ec Colombia and nw Venezuela s through Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) found the syrinx to resemble that of Ornithion and Camptostoma, but pending more evidence, left it in Mercocerculus.

Serpophaga cinerea   TORRENT TYRANNULET.  Rocky streams.  Mts., 1500-3200, locally to 250 m, of Costa Rica and w Panama; from Colombia and nw Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador and Peru, incl. c coast, to wc Bolivia.
Serpophaga nigricans   SOOTY TYRANNULET.  Scrub.  Se Bolivia, Paraguay, se Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Serpophaga hypoleuca   RIVER TYRANNULET.  Open areas along rivers.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m of se Colombia, c Venezuela, e Peru, n Bolivia and w,c Amazonian Brazil.
Serpophaga subcristata   WHITE-CRESTED TYRANNULET.  Scrub, forest.  C,se Bolivia, Paraguay, e,s Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.  Possibly only a migrant n of Argentina.

Serpophaga munda   WHITE-BELLIED TYRANNULET.  Thickets, weed patches.  Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil and n Argentina.  Migratory n, with records n of known breeding range probably representing migrant individuals.  
Includes S. griseiceps,.  known from four specimens from Bolivia which appear to be immature S. munda.  Has been treated as a race of S. subcristata, but S. munda is distinct in morphology and habitat and the breeding ranges overlap in nc Argentina, where the two forms were regarded as "morphs" of a single species.  Differences in vocalizations also support treatment of S. munda as a distinct species.

Inezia tenuirostris   SLENDER-BILLED TYRANNULET.  Desert scrub, open woodland.  Lowlands to 600 m of ne Colombia and nw Venezuela.
Inezia inornata   PLAIN TYRANNULET.  Scrub, riparian woodland, forest canopy.  Locally in lowlands of s Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, n Paraguay, sc Brazil and nw Argentina.  Generic allocation uncertain.
Inezia subflava   PALE-TIPPED TYRANNULET.  Mangroves, thickets, forest edge, open woodland.  Lowlands to 500 m of n,e Colombia, Venezuela, Guianas, n Bolivia and n, Amazonian Brazil.
Stigmatura napensis   LESSER WAGTAIL-TYRANT.  Riverine scrub.  Locally in lowlands to 400 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, ne Peru and c,e Brazil.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific with S. budytoides, but the two species appear to be sympatric in e Brazil.
Stigmatura budytoides   GREATER WAGTAIL-TYRANT.  Scrub.  Locally, c,se Bolivia, Paraguay and n,c Argentina; e Brazil.

Uromyias agilis   AGILE TIT-TYRANT.  Forest.  Andes, 1800-3400 m, of e Colombia and n Ecuador.

 The two species of Uromyias formerly were placed in Anairetes. Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. No. 2914) recommended their separation.

Uromyias agraphia   UNSTREAKED TIT-TYRANT.  Forest.  Locally in Andes, 2900 m to timberline, of Peru.  Closely related to U. agilis.
Anairetes alpinus   ASH-BREASTED TIT-TYRANT.  Polylepis woodland.  Andes above 3950 m in three distinct localities: n Peru on w slope of Andes in n Ancash; se Peru in Cuzco; cw Bolivia in La Paz.
Anairetes nigrocristatus   MARANON TIT-TYRANT.  Scrubby hillsides near streams, bushes in fields.  Andes, 2500-3050 m, of n Peru.  Often considered a subspecies of A. reguloides.

Anairetes reguloides   PIED-CRESTED TIT-TYRANT.  Scrub, bushes in littoral areas.  Arid littoral of w,s Peru and n Chile.
Anairetes flavirostris   YELLOW-BILLED TIT-TYRANT.  Thickets and bushes, often near water.  Highlands of Peru. Bolivia and Argentina.
Anairetes fernandezianus   JUAN FERNANDEZ TIT-TYRANT.  Bushes, thickets, scrub.  Juan Fernández Is. on I. Más-a-Tierra.
Anairetes parulus   TUFTED TIT-TYRANT.  Humid tree-line forest, bushes, dry hillsides.  Andes, 2100-3600 m, from Colombia s through Ecuador, Peru, c,sw Bolivia, w Argentina and Chile s to Tierra del Fuego.

Tachuris rubrigastra   MANY-COLORED RUSH-TYRANT.  Marshes, reedbeds.  Littoral areas of w Peru; Andes and highlands from c Peru s to w Bolivia, n,cw Chile, Paraguay, se Brazil, Uruguay and ne,e,s Argentina.
Culicivora caudacuta   SHARP-TAILED GRASS-TYRANT.  Brush, grassy areas.  n,e Bolivia, n Argentina, Paraguay and s Brazil.
Polystictus pectoralis   BEARDED TACHURI.  Marshes, swamps, open woodland, forest edge, savanna.  Locally in lowlands and mts. to 2600 m of Colombia, s Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, extreme n Brazil, e Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Polystictus superciliaris   GREY-BACKED TACHURI.  Savanna, campos.  Se Brazil.

Pseudocolopteryx sclateri   CRESTED DORADITO.  Bogs, mangrove swamps.  E of Andes in Trinidad, Guyana, n Bolivia, s Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Pseudocolopteryx dinellianus   DINELLI'S DORADITO.  Open scrub.  Locally in se Bolivia, w Paraguay and n Argentina.  Possibly only a migrant n of Argentina.
Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis   SUBTROPICAL DORADITO.  Shrubbery, grass clumps, usually near water.  Andes, 600-2600 m of Colombia s through e Ecuador, e Peru and Bolivia to n Argentina, breeding n at least to Bolivia; perhaps only a migrant elsewhere.
Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris   WARBLING DORADITO.  Scrub near water, swamps, rushes.  C Chile, e Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil, Uruguay and n,c Argentina.

Euscarthmus meloryphus   TAWNY-CROWNED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Dry scrub, swampy woodland, open woodland.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m of n,c Colombia, w,n Venezuela, sw Ecuador, nw Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, n Argentina, Paraguay and e,s Brazil.
Euscarthmus rufomarginatus   RUFOUS-SIDED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Savanna, open cerrado.  Surinam; ne Bolivia in ne Santa Cruz and e,s Brazil in Maranhão, Piauí, São Paulo and s Mato Grosso.
Phylloscartes ophthalmicus   MARBLE-FACED BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Forest.  Mts., 600-2400 m, of Colombia and n Venezuela s through Andes of nw,e Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.  The subspecies ottonis has been treated as a separate species.
Phylloscartes venezuelanus   VENEZUELAN BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-1400 m, of n Venezuela.
Phylloscartes lanyoni   ANTIOQUIA BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Poorly known.  Recorded from lower growth of tall secondary forest and adjacent clearings and treefalls; range extensively deforested.  450-750 m in the n end of the Central Andes of Colombia in Antioquia and e Caldas.  A recently-described species by Graves (1988. Wilson Bull. 100:529-534).  See Ridgely and Tudor (1994. Birds of S. Amer., 2:500).
Phylloscartes orbitalis   SPECTACLED BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Forest.  Andean slopes, 600-1500 m of s Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and c Bolivia.

Phylloscartes poecilotis   VARIEGATED BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Forest.  Mts., 1500-2300 m, from Colombia and nw Venezuela s through Andes of nw,e Ecuador to e Peru.
Phylloscartes eximius   SOUTHERN BRISTLE-TYRANT.  Forest.  Se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Phylloscartes nigrifrons   BLACK-FRONTED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Pantepui, 900-1800 m, of s Venezuela.
Phylloscartes chapmani   CHAPMAN'S TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Pantepui, 1000-2000 m, of s Venezuela and adj. n Brazil.
Phylloscartes gualaquizae   ECUADORIAN TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes of e Ecuador and n Peru.  Formerly called a Bristle-Tyrant, but differs in behavior from that group.

Phylloscartes flaviventris   RUFOUS-LORED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Locally in two disjunct areas:  one in mts., 750-1000 m, of Venezuela; the other in se Peru in Pasco and Cuzco.  Formerly called Yellow-bellied Bristle-Tyrant, but differs in behavior from the bristle-tyrants.  Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet is the English name of Ornithion semiflavum.
Phylloscartes roquettei   MINAS GERAIS TYRANNULET.  Presumably forest.  Known only from type specimen from e Brazil in nw Minas Gerais.
Phylloscartes paulistus   SAO PAULO TYRANNULET.  Forest.  E Paraguay and se Brazil.
Phylloscartes oustaleti   OUSTALET'S TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Se Brazil from Espíritu Santo to Santa Catarina.

Phylloscartes difficilis   SERRA DO MAR TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Coastal mts. of se Brazil.
Phylloscartes ceciliae   ALAGOAS TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Known only from ne Brazil in Alagoas.
Phylloscartes ventralis   MOTTLE-CHEEKED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Andes of e Peru and c,se Bolivia; nw,ne Argentina, e Paraguay, se Brazil and Uruguay.
Phylloscartes kronei  RESTINGA TYRANNULET.  New species:  Willis and Oniki (1992. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 112:158).  Type locality Jardim Europa on Ilha Comprida opposite Cananéia, São Paulo State, Brazil.  Occurs in restinga formation (= sand ridge woodland) on the coast of se São Paulo State from Ilha do Cardoso n just past the mouth of the Rio Ribeira at the s base of the São Paulo interior plateau, Joinville, Santa Catarina and probably other coastal localities between there and São Paulo.

Phylloscartes flavovirens   YELLOW-GREEN TYRANNULET.  Open forest, humid woodland.  Ce Panama.
Phylloscartes virescens   OLIVE-GREEN TYRANNULET.  Forest.  Lowlands of Guianas.
Phylloscartes superciliaris   RUFOUS-BROWED TYRANNULET.  Forest, edge.  Locally in mts., 600-2000 m of Costa Rica, w,e Panama, e Colombia and nw Venezuela.
Phylloscartes sylviolus   BAY-RINGED TYRANNULET.  Forest.  E Paraguay, ne Argentina and se Brazil.
 Myiornis  May be Mionectine.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923) included Myornis in Hemitriccus.

Myiornis albiventris   WHITE-BELLIED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge.  C Peru and c Bolivia.  Sometimes treated as a race of Hemitriccus auricularis.
Myiornis auricularis   EARED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge.  Se Paraguay, ne Argentina and se Brazil.
Myiornis atricapillus   BLACK-CAPPED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands to 900 m.  on Caribbean slope of Costa Rica and Panama, locally to Pacific slope, w Colombia and w Ecuador.  May be conspecific with M. ecaudatus.
Myiornis ecaudatus   SHORT-TAILED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, of e Colombia, w,s Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas, Amazonian, ne Brazil, e Peru and n,e Bolivia.

Lophotriccus  Probably a genus of the Mionectinae.  Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923) included Lophotriccus in the Todirostrum group, and the DNA hybridization data are not contradictory.

Lophotriccus pileatus   SCALE-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands and mostly in mts. to 2000 m from Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and n Venezuela s, w of Andes, to nw Peru and, e of Andes, to se Peru; a record from Brazil is erroneous.
Lophotriccus vitiosus   DOUBLE-BANDED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest undergrowth.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m of se Colombia, Guianas, e Ecuador, ne Peru and nw,ne Brazil; w Amazonian Brazil.

Lophotriccus eulophotes   LONG-CRESTED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Bamboo thickets, forest clearings.  Known only from extreme w Brazil, se Peru and n Bolivia.
Lophotriccus galeatus   HELMETED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1100 m of e Colombia, e,s Venezuela, Guianas and ne Brazil.
Atalotriccus pilaris   PALE-EYED PYGMY-TYRANT.  Arid scrub, thorn bush, thickets, often near water.  Locally to 2000 m of w,c Panama, n,e Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana.  Possibly a mionectine.  Placed in Lophotriccus by Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2923).
Oncostoma cinereigulare   NORTHERN BENTBILL.  Forest edge, thickets, undergrowth, brushy areas.  Lowlands to 1500 m from Mexico in c Veracruz, n,se Oaxaca and Chiapas, s along both slopes, incl. Yucatán Pen., to w Panama.  The two species of Oncostoma may be conspecific and possibly are mionectines, closely related to Hemitriccus.

Oncostoma olivaceum   SOUTHERN BENTBILL.  Forest edge, thickets, undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1000 m of e Panama and n Colombia.  May be conspecific with O. cinereigulare.
Cnipodectes subbrunneus   BROWNISH FLYCATCHER.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1200 m from e Panama and n,w,se Colombia s, w of Andes, to w Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Rhynchocyclus brevirostris   EYE-RINGED FLATBILL.  Forest, edge, shaded woodland.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m from Mexico in Oaxaca, Puebla and c Veracruz s, incl. Yucatán Pen., to Costa Rica and w,e Panama; lowlands to 1100 m of w Colombia and nw Ecuador.  R. b. pacificus has been regarded as a separate species, but is treated here as a subspecies.

Rhynchocyclus olivaceus   OLIVACEOUS FLATBILL.  Forest, edge, swamps, open woodland.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m from c,e Panama, n,e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to c Bolivia and Amazonian, n,e Brazil.
Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus   FULVOUS-BREASTED FLATBILL.  Forest.  Foothills and mts., 750-2300 m, from Colombia s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, in e Ecuador, e Peru and c Bolivia.
Tolmomyias sulphurescens   YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER.  Open forest, woodland, edge, riverine forest.  Lowlands to 2000 m from Mexico in n,se Oaxaca, c Veracruz and Yucatán Pen., s to Panama and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Peru and, e of Andes, locally to n Argentina and s Brazil, but not recorded from Uruguay.

Tolmomyias assimilis   YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1200 m from Costa Rica, Panama, w,n,se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Tolmomyias poliocephalus   GREY-CROWNED FLYCATCHER. Forest, savanna, open woodland.  Lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, from e Colombia, s,e Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian,n,e Brazil.
Tolmomyias flaviventris   YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Mangroves, riverine woodland, swamps, open woodland, cerrado.  Lowlands to 1000 m of n,e Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Guianas, e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian,e,e Brazil.  Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that the T. f. viridiceps subspecies group may be a separate species.

Platyrinchus saturatus   CINNAMON-CRESTED SPADEBILL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, in extreme se Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas, ne Peru and Amazonian Brazil.
Platyrinchus cancrominus   STUB-TAILED SPADEBILL.  Forest undergrowth, edge, deciduous woodland.  From Mexico in n,se Oaxaca, c Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, s Campeche and Quintana Roo, s along both slopes to nw,c Costa Rica and nw Panama.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific with P. mystaceus, but they seem to be distinct where they are in contact in Costa Rica and nw Panama.
Platyrinchus mystaceus   WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL.  Forest undergrowth, edge, open brush.  Lowlands and foothills to 2000 m, mostly above 500 m, from Costa Rica, w,e Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of Andes, to w Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia; lowlands of n,c,e Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.

Platyrinchus coronatus   GOLDEN-CROWNED SPADEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1500 m of e Honduras, Nicaragua on Caribbean slope, Costa Rica, Panama and from w,nc,se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador, e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Platyrinchus flavigularis   YELLOW-THROATED SPADEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Mts., 1200-2300 m of c,ne Colombia, w Venezuela, ne Ecuador and e Peru.
Platyrinchus platyrhynchos   WHITE-CRESTED SPADEBILL.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, from extreme e Colombia, s Venezuela, Guyana and Surinam s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Platyrinchus leucoryphus   RUSSET-WINGED SPADEBILL.  Forest.  Lowlands of e Paraguay and se Brazil.

Onychorhynchus coronatus   ROYAL FLYCATCHER.  Forest undergrowth, edge, woodland, esp. near water.  From Mexico in Oaxaca and c Veracruz, s through s Mexico, incl. Yucatán Pen., to Panama, n Colombia and nw Venezuela; w of Andes, in w Ecuador and extreme nw Peru; e of Andes, from e Colombia, s,e Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil; se Brazil.  The mexicanus subspecies group, including fraterculus, is sometimes treated as a species.  The subspecies swainsoni and occidentalis also have been treated as species.  Relationships of Onchorhynchus are unclear; perhaps closest to Myiobius.
Myiotriccus ornatus   ORNATE FLYCATCHER.  Forest, edge.  Andean slopes, 400-2300 m, from w,nc,e Colombia s through w,e Ecuador to e,se Peru.

Myiophobus  Lanyon (1986. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2484 and 1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2914) separated phoenicomitra, roraimae, ochraceiventris and lintoni from the other species and suggested that they are more or less closely allied to Myiotriccus, but has not made a formal transfer until additional evidence is available.

Myiophobus flavicans   FLAVESCENT FLYCATCHER.  Forest, bamboo thickets.  Mts., 900-2700 m, from Colombia and w,n Venezuela s through Andes of e Ecuador to e Peru.
Myiophobus phoenicomitra   ORANGE-CRESTED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1200 m of nw Colombia, w,e Ecuador and n Peru.

Myiophobus inornatus   UNADORNED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Andes of se Peru and wc Bolivia.
Myiophobus roraimae   RORAIMAN FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands to 250 m of se Colombia; Pantepui, 900-2000 m, of s Venezuela, w Guyana and n Brazil; e Peru.  The disjunct subspecies rufipennis differs markedly in habitat and may be a separate species.
Myiophobus pulcher   HANDSOME FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Andes, 800-2600 m, of Colombia, nw,ne Ecuador and se Peru.
Myiophobus lintoni   ORANGE-BANDED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, second growth.  Andes, 2400-2700 m, of se Ecuador and n Peru.

Myiophobus ochraceiventris   OCHRACEOUS-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, edge.  E slope of Andes, 2500-3300 m of Peru and cw Bolivia.
Myiophobus fasciatus   BRAN-COLORED FLYCATCHER.  Forest undergrowth, woodland, brushy pastures, savanna, cerrado.

 Intermediates between M. f. fasciatus and M. f. rufescens have been reported, but vocalizations are different and rufescens may be a distinct species.
 M. f. fasciatus  Locally in lowlands to 2600 m, mostly above 600 m, from sw Costa Rica, w,c Panama, incl. Pearl Is., Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, incl. Chacachacare I., and Guianas s, w of Andes, to nw Peru. and, e of Andes, through n,c,e,se Brazil, e Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay to Uruguay and ne Argentina.
 M. f. rufescens  Arid Pacific lowlands of w Peru and n Chile.

Myiophobus cryptoxanthus   OLIVE-CHESTED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Lowlands, e of Andes, of e Ecuador and ne Peru.
Myiobius erythrurus   RUDDY-TAILED FLYCATCHER.  Forest, woodland.  Lowlands to 1000 m from Mexico in Tabasco, s along Caribbean slope to Nicaragua, both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama and from w,n,e, w,s Venezuela and Guianas s, w o Andes to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian,c,ne Brazil.  Formerly placed in Terenotriccus; see Lanyon (1988. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2915).
Myiobius villosus   TAWNY-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.  Foothills and mts., 800-2300 m, from extreme e Panama, w,ne,ec Colombia and w Venezuela s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to cw Bolivia.

Myiobius barbatus   SULPHUR-RUMPED FLYCATCHER.  Forest.

 M. b. sulphureipygius  Lowlands from Mexico in c Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, s Campeche and s Quintana Roo s on Gulf-Caribbean slope to Nicaragua, both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama and w,nc Colombia 
and w Ecuador.
 M. b. barbatus  lowlands to 1300 m, e of Andes, from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador to e Peru and Amazonian Brazil n or the Amazon from w Amazonas e to Rio Jari, and s of the Amazon from Rio Solimões and Rio Purús e to e Pará.  Contacts mastacalis in w Mato Grosso.
 M. b. mastacalis  Se Brazil from Paraíba, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro s to w Santa Catarina.  The population in w Mato Grosso is intermediate between M. b. barbatus and M. b. mastacalis.

Myiobius atricaudus   BLACK-TAILED FLYCATCHER.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands to 1500 m of w Costa Rica, Panama, sw Ecuador and nw Peru and from Colombia s,e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to Amazonian and se Brazil.  The subspecies ridgwayi is sometimes treated as a species.
Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea   CINNAMON FLYCATCHER.  Forest, edge.  Mts., 600-3400 m, of ne Colombia, in Santa Marta Mts., and n Venezuela; mts. from Colombia s through Andes of w,e Ecuador and e Peru to c,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.  The vieillotioides subspecies group has been treated as a separate species.
Hirundinea ferruginea   CLIFF FLYCATCHER.  Ravines, rock faces, arid hillsides, towns, open woodland.  Locally in lowlands and mts. to 2000 m of ne,ec Colombia, w,s Venezuela, s Guyana, French Guiana, extreme n Brazil, e Ecuador, e Peru, Bolivia and nw Argentina.  Closely related to H. bellicosa and possibly conspecific, but intergradation has not been demonstrated.

Hirundinea bellicosa   SWALLOW FLYCATCHER.  Ravines, rock faces, arid hillsides, towns, open woodland.  Locally in s,e Brazil, e Paraguay, ne Argentina and Uruguay.  Often treated as conspecific with H. ferruginea, but appears to be a distinct species.
Cnemotriccus fuscatus   FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER.  Forest, riparian woodland, dense undergrowth.  Lowlands to 2000 m from n,c,e Colombia, Venezuela (locally), Trinidad, incl. Monos and Chacachacare is., Tobago and Guianas, e of Andes, through e Ecuador, ne Peru, Bolivia, Brazil (locally), and Paraguay to n Argentina.  Differences in vocalizations and nesting behavior in s Brazilian populations suggest that more than one species may be included under this name (Belton 1984. Natl. Geogr. Res. Reports 17:183-188).

Lathrotriccus euleri   EULER'S FLYCATCHER.  Forest, open woodland.  S Lesser Antilles on Grenada, where possibly extirpated;.  lowlands to 1500 m, e of Andes, from e Colombia, w,n,s Venezuela, Trinidad, French Guiana and possibly Surinam s through e Ecuador and e Peru to Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil; e Bolivia, Paraguay, e,se Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.  
Formerly placed in Empidonax, and for that reason the subspecies flaviventris is usually listed as (L. euleri) lawrencei, because the name flaviventris is preoccupied in Empidonax; that subspecies group is sometimes treated as a species.
Lathrotriccus griseipectus   GREY-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Arid woodland.  Foothills, 400-1000 m, of sw Ecuador and nw Peru.  
Vocalizations of L. griseipectus are nearly identical to those of L. euleri; thus the former belongs in Lathrotriccus as previously suspected.

Aphanotriccus capitalis   TAWNY-CHESTED FLYCATCHER.  Forest edge, undergrowth, dense second growth, bamboo thickets, usually near streams.  Caribbean slope of e Nicaragua and ne,ec Costa Rica.
Aphanotriccus audax   BLACK-BILLED FLYCATCHER.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 600 m of e Panama and n Colombia.
Xenotriccus callizonus   BELTED FLYCATCHER.  Brushy hillsides, usually near water.  Locally in highlands of Mexico in Chiapas, c Guatemala and El Salvador.
Xenotriccus mexicanus   PILEATED FLYCATCHER.  Arid scrub, mesquite.  Highlands of c Mexico from e Michoacán s through Guerrero, Morelos and sw Puebla to c Oaxaca.

Mitrephanes phaeocercus   TUFTED FLYCATCHER.  Forest edge, brushy hillsides, pine-oak woodland. Locally in mts. to 1200 m from Mexico in ne Sonora, w Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, w Zacatecas, s San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s through int. Mexico, incl. coastal areas in Jalisco, to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras to nc Nicaragua; from c Costa Rica s through Panama and w Colombia to nw Ecuador.
Mitrephanes olivaceus   OLIVE FLYCATCHER.  Forest edge, woodland.  Andes of Peru and wc Bolivia.  May be a race of M. phaeocercus.
Contopus borealis   OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER.  Coniferous forest, open woodland.  From w,c Alaska, c Yukon, wc,s Mackenzie, n Saskatchewan, nc Manitoba, n Ontario,sc Quebec, s Labrador and c Newfoundland to n Baja Calif., s Calif., s Nevada, c Arizona, s new Mexico, w Texas and, e of Rockies, to s Canada and extreme n U.S., New England and s in Appalachian Mts. to e Tennessee and w N. Carolina.

Contopus pertinax   GREATER PEWEE.  Coniferous forest, riparian woodland, forest edge.  Highlands from c Arizona and sw New Mexico, s in Chihuahua, s Coahuila, c Nuevo León and s Tamaulipas s through Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras to nc Nicaragua.
Contopus lugubris   DARK PEWEE.  Forest edge, open woodland.  Mts., 1200-2150 m of Costa Rica and extreme w Panama.
Contopus fumigatus   SMOKE-COLORED PEWEE.  Forest edge, clearings, open woodland.  Foothills and mts., 300-3000 m, from Colombia, n,s Venezuela and w Guyana s through Andes of Ecuador, Peru and c,se Bolivia to nw Argentina.  C. pertinax and C. lugubris are often considered conspecific with C. fumigatus, but there are morphological and vocal differences between these isolated populations.

Contopus ochraceus   OCHRACEOUS PEWEE.  Forest.  Mts., 2200-3000 m, of c Costa Rica and, probably, w Panama.
Contopus sordidulus   WESTERN WOOD-PEWEE.  Forest, primarily coniferous, edge, riparian woodland.  From ec Alaska, s Yukon, s Mackenzie, n Alberta, nw,ec Saskatchewan, sc Manitoba and nw Minnesota s to s Baja Calif., through int. mts. of w N. America, Mexico and Guatemala to Honduras and, probably, nc Nicaragua and e to w Texas and s Tamaulipas.  
Has been considered conspecific with C. virens, but they are distinct.  
Tyrannula richardsonii, sometimes used for this species, is a synonym of Sayornis phoebe (Phillips and Parkes 1955. Condor 57:244).
Contopus virens   EASTERN WOOD-PEWEE.  Deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forest, edge, open woodland, towns.  From s Saskatchewan, s Manitoba, w,s Ontario, s Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia s to sc,e Texas, Gulf coast and c Florida.

Contopus cinereus   TROPICAL PEWEE.  Scrub, open woodland, forest edge, mangroves.  From Mexico in Oaxaca, s Veracruz s along both slopes, incl. Yucatán Pen., and Cozumel and Cancun is., through C. America, to Panama, incl. I. Coiba; lowlands and mts. to 2600 m, from n,e Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s through nw,ne,c,e,se Brazil, incl. I. Mexiana and I. Marajó, to c,se Bolivia, e Paraguay and ne Argentina; arid lowlands of sw Ecuador, incl. I. Puná; Andes of w,e Peru.  Variation in songs suggests that more than one species is involved; punensis is especially distinct.
Contopus nigrescens   BLACKISH PEWEE.  Forest.  Disjunct distribution: e Ecuador and n Peru in n San Martín; mts. of s Guyana and ce Brazil in n Pará and n Maranhão.  Sometimes included in C. cinereus, but nigrescens is a distinct species.

Contopus albogularis   WHITE-THROATED PEWEE.  Forest.  Lowlands in Surinam, adj. French Guiana and ne Brazil.
Contopus caribaeus   CUBAN PEWEE.  Forest, open woodland, scrub, mangroves.  W. Indies in N. Bahama Is., s to Eleuthera and Cat is., Cuba, incl. small cays and Isle of Pines.
Contopus pallidus  JAMAICAN PEWEE.  Mid-level forest, moves to lower levels in winter.  Jamaica.  Treatment as a species follows Reynard, et al. 1993. Wilson Bull. 105:217-227.
Contopus hispaniolensis  HISPANIOLAN PEWEE.  Forest.  Hispaniola, incl. Gonâve I.  Treatment as a species follows Reynard, et al. 1993. Wilson Bull. 105:217-227.

Contopus latirostris   LESSER ANTILLEAN PEWEE.  Forest, woodland.  Highlands of W. Indies in Puerto Rico and n Lesser Antilles on Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia.
Empidonax flaviventris   YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER.  Boreal coniferous forest, second growth, swamps.  From n British Columbia, wc Mackenzie, c Alberta and n Saskatchewan e across s Canada to s Labrador and Newfoundland s to n U.S., from n N. Dakota e to c New York, New Brunswick, Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia; locally in Appalachian Mts. in ce W. Virginia and w Virginia.
Empidonax virescens   ACADIAN FLYCATCHER.  Forest, woodland.  From se S. Dakota, n Iowa, se Minnesota, s Wisconsin, s Michigan, s Ontario, ne Pennsylvania, s New York and New England s to c,s Texas, Gulf coast and c Florida.

Empidonax alnorum   ALDER FLYCATCHER.  Bogs, alder thickets, brushy stream banks.  From c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie and n Alberta e across c Canada to c,e Quebec, s Labrador and s Newfoundland and s to s Canada, n U.S. and s in Appalachian Mts. to e Tennessee and w N. Carolina.  Formerly considered a form, "song type", of a single species, E. traillii, but the two species are distinct ecologically and vocally as well as being sympatric.

 In a search for evidence of hybridization, Winker (1994. Auk 111:710-713) used restriction enzyme markers to compare mtDNAs of alnorum and traillii from an area of sympatry in Minnesota.  He found no evidence of hybridization and suggested that widespread hybridization does not seem to occur.

Empidonax traillii   WILLOW FLYCATCHER.  Swampy thickets, especially willow and buttonbush.  From c British Columbia and s Alberta e across extreme s Canada to s Quebec, Prince Edward I., and Nova Scotia and s to sc Calif., s Arizona, s New Mexico, w,c Texas, ne Oklahoma, Arkansas, ne Louisiana, c Tennessee, n Georgia, w S. Carolina, w N. Carolina and c,e Virginia.
Empidonax albigularis   WHITE-THROATED FLYCATCHER.  Brushy fields, scrub.  Highlands from Mexico in sw Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s to nc Nicaragua; mts. of c Costa Rica and w Panama.
Empidonax minimus   LEAST FLYCATCHER.  Open woodland, forest edge, towns.  From s Alaska, s Yukon, wc,s Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to s Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia s to s British Columbia, probably e Oregon, locally ne Calif., c Montana, ne Wyoming, ne Colorado, c,se S. Dakota, e Nebraska, sw Mississippi, c Illinois, sc Indiana, n Ohio, c New Jersey and, in Appalachians to e Tennessee, w N. Carolina and nw Georgia.

Empidonax hammondii   HAMMOND'S FLYCATCHER.  Coniferous forest.  Ec Alaska, s Yukon, n British Columbia, sw Alberta, w,sc Montana and nw Wyoming s to ec Calif., ec Nevada, c Utah, ne Arizona, w Colorado and nc New Mexico.
Empidonax wrightii   GREY FLYCATCHER.  Arid woodland, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper.  From sc Washington, extreme s British Columbia, c,e Oregon, sc Idaho, s Wyoming, ne Utah and c Colorado s to sc Calif., s Nevada, c Arizona and sc New Mexico.  Formerly known as E. griseus which was described by Brewster in 1889, but the type specimen of E. wrightii (Baird 1858) is a specimen of griseus, therefore the name wrightii has priority over the name griseus.

Empidonax oberholseri   DUSKY FLYCATCHER.  Aspen groves, open coniferous forest,willow thickets, mt. chaparral, often near water.  From sw Yukon s through nw,c British Columbia to nc Washington thence e through s Alberta to sw Saskatchewan, se Montana and w S. Dakota s, except coastal Washington and Oregon, to s Calif., s Nevada, sw Utah, c Arizona and c,ne New Mexico.  
Formerly known as E. wrightii, but the type specimen of wrightii is an example of the GREY FLYCATCHER, above.
Empidonax affinis   PINE FLYCATCHER.  Pine and pine-oak woodland.  Highlands of Mexico from Sinaloa, c Chihuahua, s Coahuila, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí s to c Oaxaca, Puebla and wc Veracruz.
Empidonax difficilis   PACIFIC-SLOPE FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest, woodland, esp. near water.  Coastal ranges and w slopes of Sierra Nevada from se Alaska s to mts. of Calif. and n Baja Calif.; locally s Baja Calif.;
Channel Is. off sw Calif.  Formerly considered a single species, but E. difficilis and E. occidentalis differ in
vocalizations, isozymes and, to a lesser degree, morphology and habitat; they breed sympatrically in the Siskiyou 
region of n Calif.

Empidonax occidentalis   CORDILLERAN FLYCATCHER.  Coniferous forest, woodland.  From se Washington, sw Alberta, ne Idaho, w Montana, Wyoming and w S. Dakota s in mts., from e slope of Cascades and Sierra Nevada e, s to Mexico in Oaxaca, Puebla and wc Veracruz, and to w Texas.
Empidonax flavescens   YELLOWISH FLYCATCHER.  Humid forest.  Locally in mts. of Mexico in se Veracruz, e Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, nc Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w Panama.  Sometimes considered conspecific with E. difficilis.
Empidonax fulvifrons   BUFF-BREASTED FLYCATCHER.  Pine, pine-oak woodland, riparian woodland.  Highlands from se Arizona, wc New Mexico, s in Mexico in ne Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, w Nuevo León and San Luis Potosí s to c Honduras.

Empidonax atriceps   BLACK-CAPPED FLYCATCHER.  Forest edge, brushy clearings.  Mts., 1800-2500 m, of c,s Costa Rica and w Panama.
Sayornis phoebe   EASTERN PHOEBE.  Open woodland, scrub, usually near water, towns.  From ne British Columbia, wc,s Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c,se Canada to c New Brunswick and s Nova Scotia and s, e of Rockies, to c New Mexico, c,ne Texas, n portions of Gulf states and w,ne S. Carolina.
Sayornis saya   SAY'S PHOEBE.  Arid scrub, desert.  From w,n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,c Mackenzie, c Alberta, c Saskatchewan and sw Manitoba s to n Baja Calif., Michoacán, nw Oaxaca, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, w,n Texas, w Oklahoma and c portions of Great Plains.
Sayornis nigricans   BLACK PHOEBE.  Open country to woodland, often near water.

 The latirostris subspecies group, including amnicola and angustirostris, is sometimes treated as a species.
 S. n. nigricans  From nw Calif., s Nevada, sw Utah, c Arizona, sc Colorado, c New Mexico and w,wc Texas s through sw U.S. to s Baja Calif., and mostly in highlands through Mexico to w Panama.
 S. n. latirostris  Lowlands and mts. to 3000 m from c,e Panama, Colombia and w,n Venezuela, s through the Andes of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia to nw Argentina in Jujuy, Salta and Tucumán.

Pyrocephalus rubinus   VERMILION FLYCATCHER.  Arid scrub, farmlands, riparian woodland, edge, savanna.  Locally in lowlands from s Calif., s Nevada, c Arizona, c New Mexico, s Colorado, w,c Texas and w Oklahoma s through sw U.S. and Mexico to n Guatemala in Petén and Belize; lowland pine savanna of e Honduras and ne Nicaragua; lowlands and mts. to 2600 m from ne,nc Colombia e across n Venezuela to Guyana and extreme n Brazil and s, w of Andes, to extreme n Chile and, e of Andes, from se Peru, Bolivia, probably Paraguay, Uruguay and 
s Brazil s to n,c Argentina; Galapagos Is.  The Galapagos population is sometimes treated as a separate species;
some S. American populations include a black morph.
Silvicultrix frontalis   CROWNED CHAT-TYRANT.  Brushy hillsides, forest undergrowth.  Locally in E. Andes, 1300-2600 m, of Colombia; Andes, 2300-3600 m, from Colombia s through w,e Ecuador and e Peru to c Bolivia.

Silvicultrix jelskii   JELSKI'S CHAT-TYRANT.  Brushy hillsides.  Andes, 1200-3400 m, of sw Ecuador and w Peru.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific with S. pulchella, but jelskii is a distinct species related to S. frontalis.  See Traylor 1985. Ornith. Monogr. 35:431-461.  Has been placed in Ochthoeca.
Silvicultrix diadema   YELLOW-BELLIED CHAT-TYRANT.  Brushy hillsides, secondary forest.  Mts., 1200-3200 m, of Colombia, w,n Venezuela, n Ecuador and n Peru.
Silvicultrix pulchella   GOLDEN-BROWED CHAT-TYRANT.  Brushy hillsides, forest undergrowth.  Andes, 1100-3400 m, of e Peru and c Bolivia.

Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris   SLATY-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT.  Forest near streams.  Andes, 1900-2900 m, of w Venezuela; Andes, 900-3000 m, from Colombia and extreme w Venezuela s to n Peru; Andes of Peru and c Bolivia.  The subspecies nigrita and thoracica have sometimes been treated as separate species and vocal differences between some forms are known.
Ochthoeca rufipectoralis   RUFOUS-BREASTED CHAT-TYRANT.  Brushy hillsides.  Mts., 2000-3600 m, from Colombia and nw Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador and Peru to c Bolivia.
Ochthoeca fumicolor   BROWN-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT.  Thickets, bushy hillsides, open woodland.

 The race superciliosa is not known to intergrade with the other races.
 O. f. superciliosa  Andes, 2400-4200 m, of w Venezuela in Trujillo, Mérida and e Táchira.
 O. f. fumicolor  Andes, 1800-3600 m, from Colombia and extreme w Venezuela s through Ecuador and Peru to c Bolivia.

Ochthoeca oenanthoides   D'ORBIGNY'S CHAT-TYRANT.  Bushy hillsides, wooded valleys near streams.  Andes from Peru s to extreme nw Chile, c,s Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Ochthoeca leucophrys   WHITE-BROWED CHAT-TYRANT.  Riverine bushes, farmland, hedgerows.  Andes of Peru, c,s Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Ochthoeca piurae   PIURA CHAT-TYRANT.  Shrubby hillsides, arid regions.  Andes of nw Peru.  Sometimes regarded as a race of O. leucophrys, but they occur sympatrically in n Peru.
Ochthoeca salvini   TUMBES TYRANT.  Dry woodland.  Andean foothills of w Peru.

Colorhamphus parvirostris   PATAGONIAN TYRANT.  Nothofagus forest in the s, riparian habitats in c Chile.
 W and e slopes of the Andes from Tierra del Fuego n to the Coronel/Pichinahuel area of Chile.  Winters mainly in c Chile, n to El Palomo and Ovalle; some winter within the breeding range between Concepción and Chiloé.  (Chesser and Marín A. 1994. Wilson Bull. 106:649-667).
Ochthornis littoralis   DRAB WATER-TYRANT.  Riverbanks.  E of Andes in s Venezuela, Guyana, Cayenne and n Brazil; from se Colombia s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Cnemarchus erythropygius   RED-RUMPED BUSH-TYRANT.  Shrubby slopes, ravines, paramo.  Mts., 3000-4000 m, from Colombia s through Andes of w,e Ecuador and e Peru to wc Bolivia.

Myiotheretes striaticollis   STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT.  Bushy areas, shrubby ravines.  Mts., 1500-3600 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s to Peru, c,se Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Myiotheretes pernix   SANTA MARTA BUSH-TYRANT.  Shrubby ravines.  Santa Marta Mts., 2100-2900 m, of ne Colombia.
Myiotheretes fumigatus   SMOKY BUSH-TYRANT.  Shrubby hillsides, open forest, swampy areas.  Mts., 1800-3600 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador to Peru.
Myiotheretes fuscorufus   RUFOUS-BELLIED BUSH TYRANT.  Shrubby hillsides.  Andes of se Peru and wc Bolivia.

Xolmis pyrope   FIRE-EYED DIUCON.  Open woodland.  Andes from c Chile and c Argentina s to Tierra del Fuego and Straits of Magellan.
Xolmis cinerea   GREY MONJITA.  Open country, often near water, towns, cerrado.  Lowlands, e of Andes, from Surinam s through Amazonian,e,se Brazil, extreme se Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay to n Argentina.
Xolmis coronata   BLACK-CROWNED MONJITA.  Open scrub.  Lowlands, e of Andes, of e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Xolmis velata   WHITE-RUMPED MONJITA.  Scrub, campos, savanna.  Lowlands of e,s Brazil, incl. I. Marajó and I Mexiana, Paraguay and n,e Bolivia.

Xolmis irupero   WHITE MONJITA.  Open country, often near human habitation.  E,se Brazil, n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina.
Xolmis dominicana   BLACK-AND-WHITE MONJITA.  Open scrub.  Paraguay, Uruguay, se Brazil and ne Argentina.  Lanyon (1986. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2846) placed this species in Heteroxolmis.

Neoxolmis rubetra   RUSTY-BACKED MONJITA.  Open scrub.  W Argentina. 
X. rubetra has been placed in Neoxolmis on the basis of wing pattern and syringeal structure (Lanyon 1986. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2846);
X. salinarum was unavailable for study, but this treatment has been confirmed by other evidence.

Neoxolmis salinarum   SALINAS MONJITA.  Shrubby vegetation in lake margins. Nc Argentina.  Originally described as a race of X. rubetra.
Neoxolmis rufiventris   CHOCOLATE-VENTED TYRANT.  Open scrub.  Extreme s Chile and s Argentina in Tierra del Fuego and s Santa Cruz.
Agriornis montana   BLACK-BILLED SHRIKE-TYRANT.  Rocky and grassy slopes, towns.  Mts., 2800 m to treeline, of se Colombia s through Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia to c Chile and Argentina.
Agriornis andicola   WHITE-TAILED SHRIKE-TYRANT.  Open scrub.  Andes of Ecuador, Peru, cw Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina.

Agriornis livida   GREAT SHRIKE-TYRANT.  Scrub, fields.  Coast and mts. to 1800 m of Chile and Argentina, s to Tierra del Fuego.
Agriornis microptera   GREY-BELLIED SHRIKE-TYRANT.  Bushy country.  Lowlands and Andes to 4200 m of se Peru, c,s Bolivia, n Chile and nw,s Argentina.
Agriornis murina   LESSER SHRIKE-TYRANT.  Open scrub.  C,se Bolivia, w Paraguay and w Argentina.  Apparently breeds in s part of range, winters in n.
Polioxolmis rufipennis   RUFOUS-WEBBED BUSH-TYRANT.  Brushland, Polylepis woodland, grasslands.  Andes of Peru and c,sw Bolivia.

Muscisaxicola maculirostris   SPOT-BILLED GROUND-TYRANT.  Open, stony hillsides.  Andes, 2600-3500 m, from Colombia and Ecuador s through Peru and Bolivia to Chile and w Argentina.
Muscisaxicola fluviatilis   LITTLE GROUND-TYRANT.  Riverbanks, sandbars, rocks.  E of Andes in e Peru, n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Muscisaxicola macloviana   DARK-FACED GROUND-TYRANT.  Open, stony hillsides.  S Chile and s Argentina.
Muscisaxicola capistrata   CINNAMON-BELLIED GROUND-TYRANT.  Open, stony hillsides.  S Chile to Tierra del Fuego.
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              Passeriformes 1a

© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi