Anhima cornuta HORNED SCREAMER.
Wet savanna, riverine forest, swamps, lakes. Lowlands to 100 m from
n Colombia, n Venezuela, Surinam and French Guiana, s west of the Andes
to w Ecuador and e of the Andes through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia
and Amazonian Brazil.
Chauna chavaria NORTHERN SCREAMER. Marshes, river banks, forest lagoons, lakes. Lowlands to 200 m in n Colombia and nw Venezuela.
Chauna torquata SOUTHERN SCREAMER. Marshes, wet savanna, edge of lagoons, river banks. Lowlands from se Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil and Uruguay to n Argentina.
Anseranas semipalmata MAGPIE GOOSE. Swamps, marshes, wet grassland, dry floodplains. Lowlands of s New Guinea from Frederik Hendrik I. e to Gulf of Papua; n Australia in Queensland from Fitzroy River s to Broad Sound; formerly to s Victoria.
Dendrocygna guttata SPOTTED WHISTLING-DUCK.
Marshes, grassy margins of lakes and lagoons. Lowlands in s Philippines
on Mindanao, Basilan and Jolo; Sulawesi; Moluccas incl. Sangihe and Talaud
islands; Tanimbar, Kai and Aru islands; New Guinea and Bismarck Arch.
Dendrocygna eytoni PLUMED WHISTLING-DUCK. Margins of swamps, marshes, mangroves, grassland, scrub. Lowlands in Queensland from Fitzroy R. e to Cape York Peninsula and s to New South Wales.
Dendrocygna bicolor FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK. Marshes, lagoons, wet fields, forest. Locally from s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso and Senegambia e through Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, C. Afr. Rep., Zaire, s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and s Somalia, s in Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe to n Namibia, n,e Botswana and Angola to s S. Africa; Madagascar. S Asia in Pakistan, India n to Himalayan foothills, Sri Lanka, Burma (exc. ne). Americas from c,s California, sw Arizona, c,e Texas, s Louisiana on the Gulf coast, and s Florida; s locally in Mexico to Nayarit, Jalisco, Valley of México and n Veracruz; W. Indies s to Barbados, Grenada, Tobago and Trinidad; El Salvador, c Honduras (L. Yojoa), probably nw Costa Rica; lowlands to 2600 m from n Colombia, n Venezuela and Guianas s, west of the Andes (generally absent from Amazonia) through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e,se Bolivia, and from Paraguay, Uruguay and c,e Brazil s to c Chile and n Argentina s to Santa Fe and Buenos Aires.
Dendrocygna arcuata WANDERING WHISTLING-DUCK. Grassy lagoons, swamps, flooded grassland. Borneo, Sumatra incl. Nias, Java, Sulawesi incl. Talaud Is., Lesser Sunda is. of Bali, Flores, Sumba, Roti and Timor; Philippines; New Guinea; New Britain I.; n Australia from W. Australia w to Fitzroy River e to n Queensland, rarely s in e Australia to New S. Wales and S. Australia. Formerly New Caledonia and Fiji.
Dendrocygna javanica LESSER WHISTLING-DUCK. Swamps, lakes, paddyfields. From Pakistan, Nepal, s China incl. Hainan I., Taiwan and Ryukyu Is., s through India, Burma, Thailand, Indochina and Malaya to Sri Lanka, Andaman and Nicobar is., Sumatra incl. Bangka, Belitung and Mentawi Is., sw Borneo, Java and the w Lesser Sunda is. of Sumbawa and Flores.
Dendrocygna viduata WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK. Marshes, swamps, lagoons, rivers. From Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan e to Ethiopia, Eritrea and s Somalia, s in Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Angola and in e Africa through Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to s S. Africa; Madagascar and Comoro Is. Lowlands to 2600 m in nw,w Costa Rica, e Panama, and from n,e Colombia, Venezuela, Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and Guyana s through Ecuador and Brazil to c Peru, Bolivia, n Argentina and Uruguay.
Dendrocygna arborea WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK. Mangroves, forested swamps, reedbeds. Greater Antilles incl. Isle of Pines, Grand Cayman and Î.-à-Vache off Hispaniola, Bahama I. of Great Inagua and n Lesser Antilles at least Barbuda and Antigua.
Dendrocygna autumnalis BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK. Marshes, lagoons, stream borders. Lowlands and mts. to 2600 m from c Sonora, s Arizona, Valley of México and c,se Texas s to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Aruba, Bonaire, Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam, s west of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of the Andes through e Ecudor, e Peru and e,s Brazil to n,e Bolivia, Paraguay and n Argentina.
Thalassornis leuconotus WHITE-BACKED DUCK. Quiet waters with emergent vegetation, marshy lakes. From Senegambia e through s Mali, sNiger, Cameroon and n Nigeria to Lake Chad region and Ethiopia; from s Congo Rep., sw,sc,se,ce Zaire, Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda,Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Namibia and to s S. Africa (except forested w,c and arid sw).Madagascar. The relationships of this species are unclear; it may not be a dendrocygnid.
Nomonyx dominica MASKED DUCK.
Ponds, lagoons, swamps, sluggish streams, marshes. Lowlands from
Nayarit and s Texas, s through Mexico and C. America to Panama and from
Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, west of the Andes to w Ecuador and e
of the Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru and Brazil to se Bolivia, Uruguay
and n Argentina; Greater Antilles incl. Grand Cayman I., Lesser Antilles
s to Tobago and Trinidad. The Masked Duck has been included in Oxyura
in most recent classifications, but Livezey and Harshman resurrect Nomonyx
for this species.
Oxyura jamaicensis RUDDY DUCK. Marshes, lakes, in migration also streams, brackish marshes and coastal bays. Ec Alaska, and from c,ne British Columbia, sw Mackenzie, n Alberta, n Saskatchewan and c Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and s to s Calif., c Arizona, s New Mexico, w,s Texas, sw Louisiana and n Florida; Guatemala and El Salvador; W. Indies s to Grenada. Introduced in Great Britain and a vagrant in western Europe.
Oxyura ferruginea ANDEAN DUCK. Marshes, lakes. Locally in the Andes, mostly 2400-4000 m from Colombia s through Ecuador, Peru incl. coastal lagoons, and c,w Bolivia to w,s Argentina and Chile s to Aisén and lowlands of Tierra del Fuego.
Oxyura leucocephala WHITE-HEADED DUCK. Lakes, reedbeds, sluggish rivers, often in steppe or desert country. Locally from Mediterranean region (rarely s Spain, Sardinia, Romania, formerly more widespread) and nw Africa from ne Algeria and Tunisia e through Turkey, nw Iran and nw Black Sea area, and from n of the Caspian Sea e to Kazakhstan and the Altai, s to Turkestan, to n Afghanistan, w China and s Mongolia.
Oxyura maccoa MACCOA DUCK. Lakes, ponds with emergent vegetation. Locally in highlands in Ethiopia, Kenya, ce Zaire Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, ne Botswana (probably), Namibia and S. Africa.
Oxyura vittata LAKE DUCK. Ponds, lakes with thick emergent vegetation. Lowlands from c,s Chile and c,s Argentina s to Tierra del Fuego.
Oxyura australis BLUE-BILLED DUCK. Swamps, lakes, marshes with dense emergent vegetation. Lowlands of sw Australia and se Australia from se Queensland s through New S. Wales in the Murray-Darling basin to coastal Victoria and S. Australia in the Lake Eyre region; e Tasmania.
Biziura lobata MUSK DUCK. Lakes, swamps with heavy emergent vegetation. W. Australia n to N.W. Cape and e to Esperance; e,se Australia from se Queensland s through New S. Wales to Victoria and S. Australia incl. Kangaroo I.; Tasmania.
Heteronetta atricapilla BLACK-HEADED DUCK. Marshes, ponds, reedbeds. Lowlands from e Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and se Brazil, s to c Chile and e,c Argentina. Behavior and morphology indicate that this species is an oxyurine.
Stictonetta naevosa FRECKLED DUCK. Swamps, lakes. Locally in coastal sw W. Australia; e,s Australia in the Murray-Darling basin of New S. Wales and coastal sw Victoria and se S. Australia, sporadically in s Queensland. Nomadic, wandering to all parts of Australia.
Cygnus olor MUTE SWAN. Lakes,
ponds, marshes, sluggish rivers. From Faroe Is., British Isles, s
Scandinavia and w,s Russia s locally through c Europe to s France, n Italy,
Greece and Turkey and e across s Russia to w,c Kazakhstan and L. Balkhash
to se Siberia and n China. Intro. widely; becoming a pest in the
Cygnus atratus BLACK SWAN. Lakes, bays, flooded pastures, swamps. Australia, except arid northern and central areas. Tasmania. Intro. New Zealand.
Cygnus melanocorypha BLACK-NECKED SWAN. Lakes, lagoons, grassy swamps. From Paraguay, Uruguay and se Brazil s through e,c,s Argentina and s Chile to Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn; Falkland Is.
Cygnus cygnus WHOOPER SWAN. Lakes, ponds, marshes, quiet rivers, reedbeds. From Iceland, Scotland, Scandinavia, n Russia and n Siberia e to Anadyrland and Kamchatka, s (rarely) to Poland, Caspian Sea, Turkestan and n China. Formerly the Faroe Is.
Cygnus buccinator TRUMPETER SWAN. Ponds, lakes, marshes. N,w,c,s Alaska and from s British Columbia, wc,se Alberta and sw Saskatchewan s to se Oregon, e Idaho and nw Wyoming. Formerly n to n Yukon, n Mackenzie, n Manitoba and James Bay, and s to Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri and Indiana. Sometimes treated as a subspecies of C. cygnus, but they differ in syringeal structure and voice.
Cygnus columbianus TUNDRA SWAN. Ponds, lakes, sluggish streams, swamps.
C. c. bewickii. BEWICK'S SWAN. Tundra from n Russia near Finnish border e to n Siberia at long. 160°E, incl. Kolguyev and Vaygach islands and s Novaya Zemlya. Sometimes regarded as a separate species despite free interbreeding with columbianus in e Siberia.
C. c. columbianus. WHISTLING SWAN. From e Siberia on the Chukotski Peninsula and nw Alaska s to St. Lawrence I. and Alaska Peninsula, e along Arctic coast incl. Banks I., to Baffin I., s in Hudson Bay to ne Manitoba and Belcher I.
Coscoroba coscoroba COSCOROBA SWAN. Lakes, lagoons, swamps. From Paraguay, Uruguay and s Brazil s through ne,c,s Argentina and s Chile to Tierra del Fuego.
Anser cygnoides SWAN GOOSE. Reedbeds, marshy meadows, lakes. Sw,c,s Siberia in the Altai and from e Transbaicalia e to Amurland, n Ussuriland and Sakhalin, c Mongolia and ne China.
Anser brachyrhynchus PINK-FOOTED GOOSE. Tundra lakes, ponds, sluggish rivers, swamps, wet meadows. E Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, probably Franz Josef Land, and extreme nw Russia on the Kola Peninsula. Vagrant e Canada, possibly ne U.S. Some vagrants may be escapes from captivity. Introduced in Great Britain, but not certainly established.
Anser fabalis BEAN GOOSE. Taiga (fabalis) and tundra (serrirostris). Lakes, ponds, bogs, sluggish rivers, swamps, wet meadows.
A. f. fabalis. From Scandinavia e through nw,c Russia and c,se Siberia (s of tundra) to Anadyrland and Kamchatka and s to Altai, Transbaicalia, Mongolia and Amurland.
A. f. serrirostris. From n Russia, incl. Novaya Zemlya, e through n Siberia to Chukotski Pen. Rare migrant in the Aleutian Is.; vagrant recorded in Nebraska.
Anser albifrons GREATER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Tundra lakes, ponds, wet meadows; in migration marshes, flooded fields and brackish coastal areas.
A. a. albifrons N Russia and n Siberia e to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland, Novaya Zemlya, Kolguyev and Vaygach islands; from n,w,sc Alaska s to Bristol Bay and e across n Yukon, n Mackenzie and s Victoria I. to n Keewatin; w Greenland.
Anser a. elgasi (= gambeli) TULE GOOSE. Differs from typical albifrons and may be a separate species. Breeds in the Cook Inlet area of s Alaska and winters in the Sacramento
Valley of California.
Anser erythropus LESSER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Open tundra, taiga, lakes, ponds, alpine habitats. From n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland. A specimen was taken on Attu I. in the Aleutians in May, 1994, but most records from N. America apparently are escapes from captivity, not natural vagrants (Auk 110:680).
Anser anser GREYLAG GOOSE. Reedbeds, marshy swamps, estuaries, lakes. From Iceland, Outer Hebrides, British Isles, Netherlands and Scandinavia e across c Russia incl. Ural Mts. and lower Volga River, and s Siberia n to L. Baikal and Amurland to n China; s locally or formerly to the Balkans, w Turkey, extreme nw Iran, Transcaucasus, Uzbekistan, Turkestan, Altai, se Iraq and Afghanistan. The domesticated goose was derived from the Graylag Goose.
Anser indicus BAR-HEADED GOOSE. Marshes, lake shores, highland moors. Mts. to 4600 m from the Pamir Mts., Kirghiz steppes, Altai Mts. and extreme sw Siberia (Tuva), Mongolia and n China s to ne Afghanistan, n India and w Tibet. Records from Europe are probably escapes from captivity. Introduced in Great Britain, but not certainly established.
Anser caerulescens SNOW GOOSE. Open tundra for breeding; marshes, wet prairies, flooded fields on migration. Ne Siberia on Wrangel I.and possibly the Chukotski Pen.; from n Alaska, e along the Canadian Arctic coast and islands to nw Greenland and Ellesmere and Baffin is., s to Southampton I. and Hudson Bay on both coasts s to James Bay. The former recognition of two species, A. hyperboreus, the Snow Goose, and A. caerulescens, the Blue Goose, was based on treating the two color morphs as separate species.
Anser rossii ROSS'S GOOSE. Tundra lakes, in winter marshes, wet prairies and flooded fields. N Alaska, n Mackenzie and probably Banks I., nw Keewatin, s Southampton I., and west coast of Hudson Bay s to ne Manitoba. Occurs with increasing frequency as a migrant and winter visitant in central and eastern N. America. Hybridizes with the Snow Goose to an unknown degree.
Anser canagica EMPEROR GOOSE. Tundra marshes, ponds, lakes; coastal areas in migration. Ne Siberia from the Chukotski Peninsula s to Anadyrland; w Alaska from Kotzebue Sound s to Kiskokwim Bay, and on St. Lawrence and Nunivak islands.
Branta sandvicensis NENE or HAWAIIAN GOOSE. Uplands, primarily sparsely vegetated lava flows. Mts. of the island of Hawaii. Intro. on Maui in the Haleakala area.
Branta canadensis CANADA GOOSE. Marshes, meadows, lakes, rivers, tundra; in migration also brackish coastal areas and bays. Relationships among breeding populations uncertain. This complex consists of at least two species, a large one (canadensis) and a small one (hutchinsii). B. canadensis breeds from n Alaska (exc. range of B. h. minima) and n Canada (exc. coastally e of Mackenzie) e to sw Baffin I. and Labrador, s to sc,se Alaska w to Alaska Pen., c Calif., n Utah, s Kansas, n Texas, w Oklahoma, n Arkansas, w Tennessee, w Kentucky, c Ohio and se Canada, formerly to New England. There is an east to west color cline of light to dark populations which
also differ in size.
The named races, east to west, include canadensis, interior, maxima, moffitti, parvipes, fulva and occidentalis. Resident populations now established in many areas s of original breeding distribution. Introduced (primarily canadensis) in w,n Europe, Sardinia, New Zealand.
Branta hutchinsii. TUNDRA GOOSE. Formerly treated as a subspecies of canadensis.
There is an east to west color cline from lighter in the east to darker in the west, segments of which are indicated by the named races B. h. hutchinsii (nc N. America in s Victoria I. and coastal n Keewatin e to Ellesmere, Southampton and wc Baffin islands and w Greenland. B. h. minima (coastal w,n Alaska). B. h. leucopareia (Aleutians and formerly Commander Is.).
The nomenclature and relationships among these races are uncertain.
Branta leucopsis BARNACLE GOOSE. Marshes, rivers, brackish coastal areas in migration.
E Greenland, Spitsbergen, s Novaya Zemlya and extreme cn Russia on the Yugorski Pen.
Occurs as a vagrant in ne N. America based on recoveries of birds banded in Europe, but escapes from captivity complicate the situation. Introduced in Great Britain, but not established.
Branta bernicla BRENT GOOSE. Tundra; marshes and bays in migration. The two subspecies groups were formerly recognized as species (Atlantic Brant and Black Brant), but they appear to intergrade in Siberia.
B. b. bernicla. N Greenland, Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land. N. America from Prince Patrick, Melville and Ellesmere islands, s to n Keewatin on the Adelaide Pen., probably Prince of Wales I., and Southampton, Coats and w Baffin I.
B. b. nigricans. Arctic coast of ne Siberia w to Lena River and e to Chukotski Pen and Anadyrland; from w,n Alaska s to Kiskokwim Bay, e to n Mackenzie and Banks, Melville and Prince Patrick is.
Branta ruficollis RED-BREASTED GOOSE. Grassy river banks, tundra; marshes and flooded fields in migration. W Siberia from Yamal Peninsula e to Taimyr Peninsula. Vagrant in Japan. Reports from the Pacific coast of N. America are probably escapes from captivity.
Cereopsis novaehollandiae CAPE BARREN GOOSE. Pastures, lake margins, damp scrub. Is. off s Australia from W. Australia n to Archipelago of Recherche, e to the Furneaux Group off n Tasmania.
Plectropterus gambensis SPUR-WINGED GOOSE. Lakes, rivers, marshes, swamps. From s Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, s Niger, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to w,c Ethiopia and Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, n Botswana, n Namibia and S. Africa. Absent from heavily forested c Zaire and arid sw region in Namibia and sw Botswana.
Sarkidiornis melanotos COMB DUCK.
Lakes, ponds, rivers and swamps in wooded country. The two subspecies
were formerly treated as separate species and their allopatric distributions
suggest that allospecies status is probably appropriate.
S. m. melanotos. Lowlands from s Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, s Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and s Somalia, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique to Angola, n Namibia, n,e Botswana and S. Africa in ne Cape Prov., Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natal; Madagascar. Se Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka (formerly), sw China, Burma, nw,ne,c Thailand, Cambodia, c Laos and s Vietnam in Cochinchina.
S. m. sylvicola. Locally in lowlands and mts. to 3500 m in e Panama and from Colombia, nc Venezuela and Guyana s, e of the Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru and Amazonian Brazil to c,e Bolivia, Uruguay and n Argentina, and w of the Andes in sw Ecuador and nw Peru.
Tadorna ferruginea RUDDY SHELDUCK. Lakes, lagoons, rivers, small streams, from wet areas to desert and steppes. Nw Africa in Spanish Sahara, n Morocco and w Algeria; a disjunct population now resident and breeding in the Bale Mts. in s Ethiopia; from the Balkans, nw Black Sea area and Turkey e through Caucasus and Caspian Sea to Altai, s in the Middle East and cn Arabia to s Siberia from Transbaicalia to Amurland, w China and s to Tibet and Manchuria. Often escapes from captivity.
Tadorna cana SOUTH AFRICAN SHELDUCK. Marshes, shallow lakes. Karoo area in c,s Namibia, s Botswana, se Zimbabwe and S. Africa exc. Transvaal and Natal.
Tadorna tadornoides AUSTRALIAN SHELDUCK. Marshes, shallow lakes, short grassland, pastures. Sw W. Australia n to Shark Bay, occasionaly to King Sound, e across S. Australia and Victoria to n New South Wales; Tasmania.
Tadorna variegata PARADISE SHELDUCK. Tussock river flats, streams, lakes. New Zealand, including Stewart Island.
*Tadorna cristata CRESTED SHELDUCK. Probably extinct. Known from three specimens from e Asia, two from Korea and one from Vladivostok.
Last definite record 1916, but a few recent sight records.
Tadorna tadorna COMMON SHELDUCK. Seacoasts, estuaries, lakes. Nw Europe mostly in coastal areas in the British Isles, Shetlands and from s Scandinavia and Baltic Sea coasts w to w France, locally in s France, Italy, Sardinia, Tunisia, Balkans and Turkey, and from the Caucasus, Black Sea and Caspian Sea areas e to Altai, s to nw,s,ce Iran and e to se Siberia to s Transbaicalia, Mongolia, w,n China e to Manchuria and s to Tibet.
Tadorna radjah RADJAH SHELDUCK. Muddy or sandy coastal flats, swamps, lakes, rivers, lagoons. Lowlands to 1300 m in the Moluccas n to Ternate and Halmahera, Tanimbar, Aru, and w Papuan islands, New Guinea incl. Yapen I., Goodenough and Fergusson islands in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch.; and n Australia from W. Australia w to Fitzroy River e to n Queensland
s to Bowen.
Malacorhynchus membranaceus PINK-EARED DUCK. Lignum swamps, mangroves, flooded fields. Australia, locally throughout, but mainly in the Murray-Darling basin in se Australia.
Alopochen aegyptiacus EGYPTIAN GOOSE. Lakes, marshes, swamps, rivers. Locally in Africa, incl. the entire Nile Valley from Egypt south to Lake Victoria and s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegambia, Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Namibia and South Africa. Formerly in Palestine.
Neochen jubata ORINOCO GOOSE. Rivers, marshes, lakes. Locally in lowlands to 500 m e of the Andes in e Colombia (llanos from Arauca to Meta), c Venezuela in the Orinoco basin, Guianas, e Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, Amazonian Brazil in the llanos region s to s Amazonas, n Mato Grosso and São Paulo and nw Argentina in Salta and Jujuy. A specimen record from Jamaica in 1865 may have been a vagrant or an escape from captivity (Auk 110:680).
Chloephaga melanoptera ANDEAN GOOSE. Lakes, marshes. Andes from s Peru and w Bolivia s to c Chile and nw Argentina.
Chloephaga picta UPLAND GOOSE. Semi-arid grassy plains, open slopes. Mts. from s Chile n to Linares, and c Argentina n to Neuquén and Río Negro, s to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands.
Chloephaga hybrida KELP GOOSE. Rocky seacoasts. Coasts of s Chile n to Cautín and Chiloé I., and s Argentina in Tierra del Fuego incl. Staten Island.
Chloephaga poliocephala ASHY-HEADED GOOSE. Lake shores, open woods, grassland. Coasts and Andes from s Chile n to Llanquihue and Bío-Bío and s Argentina n to Neuquén and Río Negro, s to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Chloephaga rubidiceps RUDDY-HEADED GOOSE. Grassland. Lowlands of s Chile from Magallanes to Cape Horn and s Argentina from Santa Cruz to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Cyanochen cyanopterus BLUE-WINGED GOOSE. Marshes, swamps, streams in grasslands. Uplands above 2100 m of Ethiopia.
Hymenolaimus malacorhynchus BLUE DUCK. Mt. streams. New Zealand from the Coromandel Peninsula on the North Island, s to Fiordland on the S. Island.
The bill of the Blue Duck is adapted for feeding on algae sucked from stones in fast-running streams.
Merganetta armata TORRENT DUCK. Turbulent mt. streams. Mts., 1000-3500 m in Colombia, nw Venezuela and n,c Ecuador; Andes of Peru, w,c Bolivia and nw Argentina; Andes of Chile and Argentina from Atacama and Mendoza s to Tierra del Fuego.
Tachyeres pteneres FLIGHTLESS STEAMERDUCK. Seacoasts, coastal islands. Islands and coasts in s Chile and extreme s Argentina from Chiloé I. s to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego, incl. Staten Island.
Tachyeres leucocephalus CHUBUT STEAMERDUCK. Rocky shores. Coast of s Argentina in Chubut.
Tachyeres brachypterus FALKLAND STEAMERDUCK. Rocky shores. Falkland Islands.
Tachyeres patachonicus FLYING STEAMERDUCK. Seacoasts, rivers, lakes. Coasts and lowlands to 1600 m from s Chile n to Concepción and Ñuble, and s Argentina n to Neuquén and Río Negro, s to Cape Horn and Tierra del Fuego incl. Staten I.; Falkland Is.
Pteronetta hartlaubii HARTLAUB'S
DUCK. Forest streams. S Mali, s Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo,
C. African Rep., s Sudan, n,ne Zaire, w Uganda and s to ne Angola and sw,cs,ce
Cairina moschata MUSCOVY DUCK. Forest streams, ponds, marshes, swamps. Lowlands mostly below 500 m of both slopes of the Neotropics from Sinaloa, Tamaulipas and Yucatán Peninsula, Cozumel I., s to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, west of the Andes to sw Ecuador and e of the Andes to e Ecuador, e Peru, Bolivia, s Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina to Tucumán, Santiago del Estero and Santa Fe. Widely domesticated esp. in N. America; often escapes and has become feral in southern Florida. Records from south Texas may be escapes or the result of natural expansion from Mexico.
Cairina scutulata WHITE-WINGED DUCK. Forest streams, swamps. Lowlands to 1500 m in e India, Burma, Thailand, c,s Laos, c,s Vietnam, Malaya (vagrant?), Sumatra and Java.
Aix sponsa WOOD DUCK. Wooded swamps, streams, marshes. From s British Columbia and sw Alberta to s coastal and c int. Calif., wc Nevada, s Oregon, n Idaho and w Montana; c Arizona, s New Mexico; c Mexico; e of the Rockies from ec,s Saskatchewan e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and s to c,se Texas, Gulf coast, s Florida and Cuba. Introduced in Great Britain, not certainly established.
Aix galericulata MANDARIN DUCK. Wooded ponds, swamps, marshes, rocky streams. From se Siberia and s Kuril Is. s through Korea, ne China and Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu) to the Ryukyu Is. Introduced in England; escapes from captivity occur widely.
Lophonetta specularioides CRESTED DUCK. (=Anas specularioides). Lakes, marshes, wet grasslands. Andes, 2000-4300 m from Peru, c,s Bolivia, Chile in highlands and seacoast from Aisén s, and nw,s Argentina in the Andes s to Mendoza and from Neuquén and Chubut s to Tierra del Fuego and Cape Horn; Falklands.
Nettapus pulchellus GREEN PYGMY-GOOSE. Lagoons, lakes, swamps. Lowlands in n Sulawesi, s Moluccas on Buru, Ambon, Seram; Tanimbar Is., w,s New Guinea in the Vogelkop, Geelvink Bay and s lowlands; n Australia from W. Australia w to Fitzroy River and e to Queensland s to Rockhampton.
Nettapus coromandelianus COTTON PYGMY-GOOSE. Marshes, ponds, rivers, paddyfields, lakes. Lowlands to 500 m from Pakistan, India, Nepal and se China, s through se Asia to Sri Lanka, Andaman Is., Sumatra incl. Riau and Lingga arch., Java, Borneo, n Sulawesi; questionably on n Luzon in the n Philippines. N New Guinea on the Sepik River; c highlands where possibly vagrant; and ne Australia in Queensland from Cape York Pen., s to ne New S. Wales.
Nettapus auritus AFRICAN PYGMY-GOOSE. Lakes and marshes with emergent vegetation. Senegambia, s Mali, s Mauritania, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania incl. Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia is., s locally to Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, n,e Namibia, n,e Botswana and ne S. Africa in n,e Transvaal and n Natal; Madagascar.
Callonetta leucophrys RINGED TEAL. Ponds, marshes, often in forested areas. N,e,se Bolivia, s Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and ne Argentina.
Chenonetta jubata MANED DUCK. Wooded streams, ponds, lakes. Australia, except arid interior; Tasmania.
Amazonetta brasiliensis BRAZILIAN TEAL. Ponds, marshes, streams, often in wooded areas, flooded fields. Lowlands e of the Andes from e Colombia, c Venezuela and Guyana s through e Ecuacor, e Peru, and Brazil to n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Salvadorina waigiuensis SALVADORI'S TEAL. Mt. streams. Mts. above 600 m of New Guinea in the Vogelkop, c highlands and the Huon Peninsula. May be an Anas. Not studied by Livezey.
Anas specularis SPECTACLED DUCK. Rivers, mt. streams, lakes, mainly in forested areas. Andes from s Chile n to Talca, and s Argentina n to Neuquén and s to Tierra del Fuego.
Anas capensis CAPE TEAL. Shallow lakes, marshes, coastal lagoons. Locally in se Libya (possibly), Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, w Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, w Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa. Ranges locally throughout e,s Africa north and west to se Niger, s Chad, Angola and se Zaire.
Anas strepera GADWALL. Marshes, lakes, in migration also rivers, flooded fields, brackish coastal areas. From Iceland, British Isles, continental Europe and s Sweden e across nw,c Russia
to w,s Siberia e to Sakhalin, s to n Mediterranean region, (formerly Algeria), Turkey, nw Iran, Afghanistan, w,n China and s Tibet. From s Alaska w to Alaskan Peninsula, s Yukon, sw Mackenzie, n Saskatchewan and c Manitoba e across s Canada to New Brunswick, s locally to s Calif., s Nevada, n Arizona, s New Mexico, sc Texas, and from s Kansas e across n U.S. to Pennsylvania, and s along Atlantic coast to N. Carolina. Formerly on Teraina I. in the n Line Is.
(A. s. couesi), but now extinct.
Anas falcata FALCATED TEAL. Ponds, small lakes, rivers, also brackish coastal area in migration. C,s Siberia from Yenisei R. e to Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka, s to Tuva, Transbaicalia, Ussuriland and Sakhalin, Mongolia, Manchuria, Kuril Is. and n Japan on Hokkaido.
Anas penelope EURASIAN WIGEON. Marshes, lakes with emergent vegetation, open moors, in migration also flooded fields and coastal marshes. From Iceland, British Isles and Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Kamchatka, s to Poland, e Germany, s Russia and w,n China. Occurs widely in North America, especially in coastal areas, on migration and in winter.
Anas americana AMERICAN WIGEON. Marshes, lakes, in migration rivers, farms and coastal areas. From cAlaska, c Yukon, nw,c Mackenzie, s Keewatin and ne Manitoba e through c Canada to New Brunswick and Newfoundland, s to ne Calif., n Nevada, n Utah, n New Mexico, c Colorado, and from S. Dakota e across n U.S. to New England.
Anas sibilatrix CHILOE WIGEON. Lakes, marshes, lagoons, rarely streams. From c Chile n to Atacama, c,ne Argentina n to Córdoba, Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires, and Uruguay s to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands.
Anas sparsa AFRICAN BLACK DUCK. Forest streams, lakes, swamps. Se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, n Tanzania, se Zaire, Zambia, Angola, s Namibia, e Botswana, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa. Ranges widely in c,e,s Africa, north and west to e Guinea, n Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon and w,n Zaire.
Anas rubripes AMERICAN BLACK DUCK. Marshes, swamps, ponds, lakes, bays, estuaries, tidal flats. From n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to Labrador and Newfoundland, s to n S. Dakota, n Illinois, and sporadically to n Gulf states, Georgia and N. Carolina. May be conspecific with platyrhynchos, but current evidence of limited hybridization suggests species, or semispecies, status.
Anas fulvigula MOTTLED DUCK. Coastal wetlands, marshes, ponds. From Texas and s Louisiana s to Tamaulipas; peninsular Florida n to Alachua County; inland n to se Colorado, w Kansas, Oklahoma and ne Texas. May be conspecific with platyrhynchos.
Anas platyrhynchos MALLARD. Ponds, lakes, marshes, flooded fields, streams, farmland, seacoasts, bays. A. p. platyrhynchos and A. p. diazi hybridize extensively and the characters of
diazi have been mostly swamped by those of platyrhynchos.
A. p. platyrhynchos. From sw Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles and n Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka, s to nw Africa in Morocco,
ne Algeria and Tunisia; n Mediterranean region incl. most islands exc. Cyprus; Turkey, Egypt, Near East, nc,ne Arabia, n Iran, n Afghanistan, n India in Kashmir, n China mostly n of lat. 40°N, and Japan. N. America from Alaska incl. Pribilof and Aleutian is., n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin and ne Manitoba, n Ontario, s Quebec and s Main s to s Calif., s Great Basin, s New Mexico, and from Oklahoma e through Ohio Valley to Virginia, locally to Gulf coast and Florida. Intro. Australia and New Zealand. Widely domesticated; the Peking Duck and other domesticated breeds were derived from Eurasian populations of A. p. platyrhynchos.
A. p. diazi. From se Arizona, s New Mexico and wc Texas s in the highlands of Mexico to Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Distrito Federal, Tlaxcala and Puebla.
Anas wyvilliana HAWAIIAN DUCK. Coastal lagoons, marshes, mt. streams. Kauai; formerly on most main Hawaiian Is. Re-intro. Oahu, Hawaii. Has been considered conspecific with platyrhynchos, but insular endemism suggests treatment as an allospecies and Browne, et al. (1993. Auk 110:49-56) have shown that wyvilliana differs more genetically from platyrhynchos than does rubripes.
Anas laysanensis LAYSAN DUCK. Brackish lagoons, dense brush, sedges. Laysan Island in the Hawaiian chain. Genetically close to wyvilliana
and probably should be merged with it (Browne, et al., cited above).
Anas poecilorhyncha SPOT-BILLED DUCK. Marshes, rivers, lakes. From s Siberia in Lake Baikal, Transbaicalia, s Amurland, s Ussuriland, s Sakhalin and Kuril is., s to n,c,e China, Korea and Japan to India, Tibet, Sri Lanka, sw China, c,s,e Burma, Laos and n Vietnam. Vagrant record in Alaska. Closely related to superciliosa.
Anas superciliosa PACIFIC BLACK DUCK. Marshes, lakes, ponds, streams with emergent vegetation. Mainly lowlands, but up to 2000 m from Sumatra (probably), Java incl. Kangean Is., Sulawesi, Buru in the s Moluccas, Palau and Caroline Is. s to Australia and Tasmania, and Kermadec, Chatham, Snares, Auckland, Campbell and Macquarie islands, and e through Louisiade and Bismarck archipelagos, the Solomon and Santa Cruz islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Loyalty Is., Fiji, Tonga and Samoa to Cook, Society and Tubuai islands. An extinct population named A. oustaleti from the Marianas was probably a hybrid platyrhynchos x superciliosa. Hybridization with introduced platyrhynchos is extensive in New Zealand.
Anas luzonica PHILIPPINE DUCK. Lakes, marshes, streams. Philippines.
Anas undulata YELLOW-BILLED DUCK. Lakes, ponds, marshes, streams. Locally in Ethiopia, w Uganda, Kenya, se Zaire, Zambia, s Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, s Mozambique and S. Africa in Transvaal, Swaziland, Natal, Orange Free State, Lesotho and ne,e,s Cape Province. Ranges widely in e,s Africa s of the Congo basin, n and w to Angola, sc,ne Zaire and s Somalia, rarely to Cameroon.
Anas melleri MELLER'S DUCK. Lakes, ponds, marshes. Lowlands to 1800 m in Madagascar, mainly the eastern side. Intro. Mauritius.
Anas discors BLUE-WINGED TEAL. Marshes, ponds, sloughs, lakes, sluggish streams; in migration also streams and brackish marshes. From ec Alaska, s Yukon, s Mackenzie, n Saskatchewan and c Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and sw Newfoundland, s to s Calif., c Arizona, s New Mexico, w,s Texas, Gulf coast and c Florida; Island of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Is. Has hybridized with cyanoptera.
Anas cyanoptera CINNAMON TEAL. Shallow lake margins, reedbeds, ponds, lagoons, sluggish streams, marshes. From s British Columbia, s Alberta, s Saskatchewan, c N. Dakota, w Nebraska and c Kansas s to n Baja Calif., and n Mexico to Jalisco, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas and to c Texas; w Ontario; highlands to 3600 m in Colombia and n Ecuador (formerly?) and from c Peru incl. Pacific lowlands, c,sw Bolivia, Paraguay and s Brazil s through Chile and Argentina to Straits of Magellan; Falkland Islands.
Anas smithii CAPE SHOVELER. Ponds, lakes, marshes, sluggish streams. Locally in Namibia and S. Africa. Ranges n to s Angola, se Zaire, Botswana, Zimbabwe and s Mozambique.
Anas platalea RED SHOVELER. Shallow ponds, marshes, coastal lagoons. Lowlands from s Peru, Paraguay, s Brazil and Uruguay s through Argentina to s Chile n to Aconcagua, and Tierra del Fuego. Possibly as a migrant occurs in the n Andes to 3350 m.
Anas rhynchotis AUSTRALIAN SHOVELER. Swamps, lakes, ponds, streams, coastal lagoons. Sw,s,e Australia mostly coastal and in the Murray-Darling basin, W. Australia from Esperance Bay to N.W. Cape; from ne Queensland at Cairns s to Victoria and w to the Eyre Peninsula in S. Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand; formerly Chatham Is.
Anas clypeata NORTHERN SHOVELER. Shallow lakes, marshes, wet meadows, reedbeds, sluggish streams; in migration also flooded fields, rivers and brackish marshes. From Iceland, British Isles and s,e Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Kolyma River, Kamchatka and Commander Is., s locally to s Europe in Spain, s France, Corsica, Balkans to Turkey, s Russia except Turkestan and area between Caspian and Aral seas; w China, Mongolia, Manchuria and s Siberia from Transbaicalia e to Ussuriland and Sakhalin. N. America from n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie and n Manitoba e across s Canada to New Brunswick and s Newfoundland, s to s Calif., c Arizona, s New Mexico, se Texas, and ec U.S. from Kansas e to ne Maryland and Delaware.
Anas bernieri BERNIER'S TEAL. Lakes, marshes. Lowlands of Madagascar; now rare and local, probably confined to w Madagascar. Closely related to gibberifrons.
Anas gibberifrons INDONESIAN TEAL. Marshes, lakes. Andaman Is. (= A. (g.) albigularis, may be a separate species); Sumatra (possibly), Java, Sulawesi incl. Salayar, Muna, Butung, and Banggai and Sula is., and Lesser Sunda Is. e to Wetar and Timor.
Anas gracilis GREY TEAL. Marshes, lakes. Kai and Aru islands; Ambon I. in the s Moluccas; New Guinea; Rennell I. in the Solomons; Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand. Wanders to Lord Howe I., Macquairie I. and New Caledonia. May be conspecific with gibberifrons.
Anas castanea CHESTNUT TEAL. Swamps, marshes. Coastal w,s,e Australia from W. Australia n to N.W. Cape, e to Queensland n to Bowen, and locally in interior s Australia from sw W. Australia n to Cape Leeuwin, e to Victoria, New S. Wales and s Queensland; incl. Kangaroo I. off S. Australia, islands in Bass Strait and Tasmania.
Anas chlorotis BROWN TEAL. Seacoasts, lakes and streams near coasts. New Zealand, formerly widespread, now on n N. Island, Great Barrier I., Fiordland on S. Island and Stewart I. Often included in aucklandica.
Anas aucklandica FLIGHTLESS TEAL. Seacoasts, lakes and streams near coasts. Auckland, Dent and Campbell islands; formerly on the Chatham Is.
Anas bahamensis WHITE-CHEEKED PINTAIL. Ponds, lakes, lagoons, inlets, usually with emergent vegetation. From the Bahamas n to Abaco, and Antilles s to Guadeloupe; islands off n coast of Venezuela from the Netherlands Antilles e to Trinidad and Tobago; n Colombia, n Venezuela, Guianas and ne Brazil; along Pacific slope of sw Ecuador, Peru and n Chile s to Bío-Bío, and e of the Andes in c,s Bolivia, Paraguay, c,e,s Brazil and ne Argentina, s to La Pampa and Buenos Aires; Galapagos Is.
Anas erythrorhyncha RED-BILLED DUCK. Shallow lakes, ponds, marshes, streams. Resident from Ethiopia and s Sudan through w Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, e Zaire, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and Mozambique, s locally to s S. Africa. Ranges widely in e,s Africa n,w to Angola, sc,ne Zaire. Madagascar. The most abundant duck in S. Africa.
Anas flavirostris SPECKLED TEAL. Ponds, wooded swamps, marshes, lagoons.
A. f. andium. Andes, 2600-4300 m in Colombia, nw Venezuela and Ecuador. May be a
A. f. flavirostris. Andes of Peru, incl. to coast in Ica and Arequipa, w,c Bolivia, n Chile and n Argentina and lowlands in Chile n to Coquimbo, Uruguay and Argentina from Córdoba, Santa Fe, Entré Ríos and Buenos Aires s to Tierra del Fuego. Falkland Is. and South Georgia.
Anas acuta NORTHERN PINTAIL. Lakes, rivers, marshes, ponds, barrens, tundra. From w Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles, Spitsbergen and Scandinavia e across Arctic Russia and Siberia to the Chukotski Peninsula, Kamchatka and Commander Is., s in continental Europe to Netherlands, w Germany, Austria and the Balkans, sporadically to Iberian Pen., Italy and Turkey; nw Africa rarely to Morocco and Tunisia; s Russia s to Black, Caspian and Aral seas, Caucasus and n Kazakhstan, w China, Tibet, se Siberia and Kuril Is. From n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzie, sw Banks and s Victoria islands, n Keewatin, Southampton I., n,e Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia s to sw,sc,se Alaska, s Calif., n Arizona, s New Mexico, and from Kansas e across c U.S. to Virginia. Winters s widely in subSaharan Africa, Indian Ocean, Borneo, Philippines, Micronesia, Hawaiian Is. and n S. America. Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993, p. 122) record breeding in Burundi.
Anas eatoni EATON'S PINTAIL. Lakes, marshes, ponds. Crozet and Kerguelen is. in the s Indian Ocean.
A. e. drygalskii of Crozet Is. may be a separate species; sometimes included in A. acuta.
Anas georgica YELLOW-BILLED PINTAIL. Rivers, lakes, coastal lagoons, marshes. Andes to 3300 m from s Colombia and Ecuador s, and lowlands from coastal Peru, c,s Bolivia, Paraguay, se Brazil and Uruguay s through Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
(=A. g. niceforo), formerly in the Andes of c Colombia now probably extinct.
Anas querquedula GARGANEY. Shallow lakes, ponds, streams with emergent vegetation, reedbeds, marshes, wet meadows. From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across c Russia and c Siberia s of the Arctic Circle to Amurland and s Kamchatka, s to n Mediterranean region incl. Corsica, Sardinia and Cyprus (at least formerly), Turkey, nw Iran, to Black and Caspian seas, Transcaucasua, Aral Sea and Kazakhstan; Turkmenia-Uzbek border, w China, Mongolia, Manchuria and s Siberia e to Sakhalin. Rare migrant in North America; some reports probably of escaped captives.
Anas formosa BAIKAL TEAL. Ponds, pools, lakes, rivers. N,c Siberia from Yenisei River e to w Anadyrland and Kamchatka, and s to Lake Baikal and Sea of Okhotsk. Vagrant w,n Alaska, w U.S.
Anas crecca GREEN-WINGED TEAL. Lakes, marshes, ponds, shallow streams, farmlands; in migration also streams and brackish marshes. Formerly treated as two separate species.
A. c. crecca. From Iceland, British Isles and n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and Commander, Kuril and Bering islands, s to c continental Europe to w,c France and n Italy, cn Turkey, sw,c Russia to Black, Caspian and Aral seas and Lake Balkhash; Caucasus, w China, Mongolia, Manchuria, s Siberia and Japan; Pribilof and Aleutian islands e to Akutan, Alaska.
A. c. carolinensis. From w,n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin and ne Manitoba e across ec Canada to nc Labrador and Newfoundland, s locally to s Calif., sw U.S., and c U.S. from Kansas e to W. Virginia and Delaware.
Anas puna PUNA TEAL. Lakes, marshes, ponds. Puna zone of the Andes above 3600 m from c Peru s through w Bolivia to n Chile and nw Argentina in Jujuy. Sometimes included in versicolor.
Anas versicolor SILVER TEAL. Ponds, marshes, lakes. From c Chile, c,s Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil and Uruguay s through Argentina to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Is.
Anas hottentota HOTTENTOT TEAL. Lakes, ponds, marshes, streams, esp. with emergent vegetation. Locally in n Nigeria, Cameroon, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, se Zaire, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, n Namibia, n,e Botswana, Mozambique and e S. Africa in Transvaal, Natal, Orange Free State and s,se Cape Prov. Ranges in wc Africa from s Niger and e to Lake Chad and e,s Africa, n,w to s Angola, ce,ne Zaire, se Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia; Madagascar.
Marmaronetta angustirostris MARBLED TEAL. Shallow boggy lakes, reedbeds, wooded swamps, often in desert regions. Senegal; s Spain, nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia; from sc Turkey, Near East and Egypt in the lower Nile Valley, e through nw,s Iran, Iraq and to the w shore of the Caspian Sea and from the Aral Sea s,se to Afghanistan, Pakistan and (probably) w China. Formerly s Europe n to France, Italy and Yugoslavia to Greece.
*Rhodonessa caryophyllacea PINK-HEADED DUCK. Presumbly extinct.
Formerly in ne,e India.
Netta rufina RED-CRESTED POCHARD. Lakes, lagoons, marshes, river deltas. From Denmark and Netherlands s to s,e Spain, Corsica, Sardinia, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Austria and Romania, e across Turkey, n Iran (possibly), from ne Black Sea e to n Caspian Sea area, s to Transcaucasus, e to Kazakhstan, Kirghiz steppes, Turkestan and Afghanistan to Mongolia and n China to Inner Mongolia. Formerly in Algeria.
Netta peposaca ROSY-BILLED POCHARD. Marshes, shallow ponds, lagoons, esp. with emergent vegetation. Lowlands from e Bolivia, Paraguay, s Brazil and Uruguay s to s Argentina in Tierra del Fuego and s Chile from Atacama to Magallanes. May be a vagrant in northern end of range.
Netta erythrophthalma SOUTHERN POCHARD. Coastal lagoons, river marshes, shallow ponds with emergent vegetation. These widely allopatric populations may be separate species.
N. e. brunnea. Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia s locally through Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, ce,se Zaire, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, s Angola and Namibia to s S. Africa.
N. e. erythrophthalma. Locally in South America (breeding range uncertain) in Colombia, nw Venezuela, Ecuador, w Peru and e Brazil. Ranges locally s to nw Argentina and n Chile.
Aythya ferina COMMON POCHARD. Lakes, ponds, sluggish streams, esp. with emergent vegetation. From Iceland, British Isles, s Sweden and s Finland e across c Russia and sw Siberia to Lake Baikal and w Yakutia, s to s,e Spain, s France, Switzerland and the Balkans, locally in Turkey and nw Iran, to the Black, Caspian and Aral seas and Kazakhstan, and w,ne China. Formerly Tunisia. Vagrant to w Alaska and California.
Aythya valisineria CANVASBACK. Marshes, ponds, lakes, rivers, in migration also estuaries and bays. From c Alaska, n Yukon, w,s Mackenzie, n Saskatchewan, c,ne Manitoba and w Ontario s to sc Alaska and locally inland to ne Calif., n Nevada, n Utah, c New Mexico, c Kansas, nw Iowa and s Ontario.
Aythya americana REDHEAD. Marshes, lakes, lagoons, rivers, esp. with emergent vegetation. Locally from sc,se Alaska and c British Columbia e to s Manitoba and nw,c Minnesota, s to s Calif., s Arizona, c New Mexico, n Texas, c Kansas and n Iowa. Sporadically from s Canada s to ne U.S.
Aythya collaris RING-NECKED DUCK. Marshes, lakes, rivers, swamps, esp. with dense emergent vegetation. From ec,se Alaska and c British Columbia e across c Canada Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, and s to ne Calif., se Arizona, s Colorado, and from n Nebraska e across n U.S. to New York and New England; Georgia (Augusta), n Florida in Alachua County. Vagrant w Europe, annually in Great Britain.
Aythya nyroca FERRUGINOUS POCHARD. Lakes with emergent vegetation, quiet lagoons, marshes, often in steppe or desert regions. From w Europe w to France and Spain and n Africa in Morocco and Libya, e across s Europe, Turkey, s Russia and Iran to cn Arabia, Altai, Kazakhstan, w Afghanistan, n India and w,c China from Sinkiang e to Inner Mongolia and n Szechwan.
Aythya innotata MADAGASCAR POCHARD. Nearing extinction. Local on Lake Alaotra, eastern Madagascar. A few records outside the Lake Alaotra region, but in decline since 1930 due to hunting and trapping and the introduction of exotic species of fish that have reduced the native aquatic flora, plus the transformation of Lake Alaotra into rice paddies.
Aythya baeri BAER'S POCHARD. Marshes, lakes with emergent vegetation. In se Siberia from e Tranbaicalia e to Ussuriland and Amurland and Manchuria in Heilungkiang, Kirin and Liaoning.
Aythya australis HARDHEAD. Swamps, lakes with emergent vegetation, marshes. In n sw W. Australia; n,e,se Australia from N. Territory and Queensland s to S. Australia and Victoria, breeding primarily in the Murray-Darling basin; Tasmania. Locally in New Guinea, Banks Is., New Zealand, probably Vanuatu and New Caledonia.
Aythya fuligula TUFTED DUCK. Marshes, ponds, lakes, swamps, esp. with emergent vegetation. From Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles, Bear I. (probably) and Scandinavia e across n,c Russia s to ca. 50°N, and n Siberia to Kamchatka and Commander and Kuril is., s to France, Switzerland, Yugoslavia and Romania, Transcaucasus, n Mongolia, ne China, s Siberia e to Sakhalin and Japan. Rare migrant and wintering in coastal N. America, vagrant inland; some records of escaped captives. Almost annually in New England, New York, Calif. Hybridizes with several species of Aythya.
Aythya novaeseelandiae NEW ZEALAND SCAUP. Lagoons, lakes, ponds. Lowlands to 1000 m New Zealand on North and South islands.
Aythya marila GREATER SCAUP. Tundra lakes and ponds, in migration open fresh water and seacoasts. From Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles, Scandinavia incl. Gotland, and Estonia e across Arctic Russia and Siberia to Kamchatka and Kuril and Commander is. From w,c,s Alaska from Kotzebue Sound s to Aleutians and Alaska Peninsula, e across n Yukon, nw,nc,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin, n Ontario, and around Hudson and James bays, rarely s to c Canada.
Aythya affinis LESSER SCAUP. Grassy ponds, lakes, marshes, rivers, in migration also seacoasts. From c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, n Manitoba, w,s Ontario and wc Quebec s to c,ne Calif., s Idaho, ne Colorado, c Nebraska, Iowa, n Illinois, n Kentucky and n Ohio. Vagrant in w Europe, but many reports have been of A. marila x A. fuligula hybrids.
Somateria mollissima COMMON EIDER. Tundra ponds, lakes, in migration seacoasts. The two races have been treated as separate species, but they apparently intergrade where in contact.
S. m. mollissima. Arctic coasts and islands from Greenland, Iceland, Faroe and Shetland islands, n British Isles, e to Denmark, Switzerland, Estonia and n Russia on the Kola and Kanin peninsulas, Novaya Zemlya and Vaygach Is., s locally to coastal n Europe from n France e to Denmark. Arctic N. America on s Ellesmere, Cornwallis, Devon, Somerset and Baffin islands, along coasts and islands in Hudson and James bays, and coasts from n Quebec and Labrador s to Maine and Nova Scotia.
S. m. v-nigrum. Ne Siberia and nw N. America from New Siberian and Wrangel islands and Arctic coast w to Chaun Bay, e to ne Kamchatka, Karagin and Commander islands, Sea of Okhotsk, islands in the Bering Sea, and from n Alaska e to n Mackenzie and s Banks and Victoria islands, s to Aleutians and sc Alaska e to Glacier Bay.
Somateria spectabilis KING EIDER. Tundra ponds, pools, lakes, seacoast in migration. From Spitsbergen, Kolguyev I., Novay Zemlya and n Russia w to Kanin Pen., e to e Siberia to Chukotski Pen. and St. Lawrence and St. Mathew islands; from n Alaska e to Greenland, w coast of Hudson Bay, James Bay and n Labrador.
Somateria fischeri SPECTACLED EIDER. Tundra ponds, lakes, seacoasts in migration. Arctic coast of n Siberia from Yana R. delta e to Chukotski Pen. and w,n Alaska from Point Barrow s to Yukon-Kuskokwim delta.
Polysticta stelleri STELLER'S EIDER. Tundra ponds, lakes, seacoasts in migration. From n Scandinavia, New Siberian Is. (probably) and Lena River delta e to Chukotski Pen. and w,n Alaska s to St. Lawrence I. and Yukon-Kuskokwim delta.
*Camptorhynchus labradorius LABRADOR DUCK. Extinct. Last record 1878. Recorded from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick s to New Jersey, inland to Quebec. Alleged to have bred
Histrionicus histrionicus HARLEQUIN DUCK. Forested mountain streams, open tundra, in migration large lakes and seacoasts. Greenland and Iceland; n Siberia from Lena River e to Kamchatka and s to n Mongolia and Kuril Is. From w Alaska, n Yukon, n British Columbia and s Alberta s to sc,se Alaska w to Alaska Peninsula, Vancouvr I., Sierra Nevada of e Calif., c Idaho, w Wyoming and sw Colorado; from s Baffin I. s to c,e Quebec and e Labrador, possibly n New Brunswick and Newfoundland.
Clangula clangula LONG-TAILED DUCK. (previously OLDSQUAW in America). Tundra lakes, in migration large lakes and seacoasts. From Greenland, Iceland, (formerly Scotland and Orkney Is.), Spitsbergen and Scandinavia e across Arctic Russia, incl. New Siberian and Wrangel islands to Chukotski Pen., Anadyrland and Commander Is. From n Alaska e across n Canada and Arctic islands to Ellesmere and Baffin is. and n Labrador, s to s,c Alaska and nw British Columbia, and around Hudson and James bays. (= Oldsquaw).
Melanitta nigra BLACK SCOTER. Tundra lakes, pools, in migration streams. The two subspecies differ in bill structure and may be separate species, but their contact zone in Siberia has not been studied.
M. n. nigra. From Iceland , Faroe Is., British Isles, Spitsbergen and Scandinavia e across n Russia incl. Novaya Zemlya and n Siberia (generally n of lat. 60°N) to Lena River.
M. n. americana. E Siberia from Lena River e to Anadyrland, Sakhalin and Kamchatka; nw Alaska from Cape Lisburne and the Alaska Range s to Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island; locally in s Kewatin, n Quebec and Newfoundland.
Melanitta perspicillata SURF SCOTER. Forested bogs, ponds, sluggish streams, in migration large streams, lakes and seacoasts. From Mackenzie R. delta e across c Mackenzie and n Manitoba to Hudson Bay, s to w,c Alaska w to Alaska Pen., s Yukon, c British Columbia, c Alberta, n Saskatchewan, wc,e Quebec and Labrador.
Melanitta fusca WHITE-WINGED SCOTER. Tundra ponds, lakes, sluggish streams, in migration large streams, lakes and seacoasts. Deglandi plus stejnegeri may constitute a species separate from fusca.
M. f. fusca. From Spitsbergen (at least formerly) and Scandinavia e across n Russia to w Siberia e to Yenisei River and s to Gotland, Estonia and wc Russia; Transcaucasus and adjacent e Turkey.
M. f. stejnegeri. C,sw Siberia from Yenisei R. e to Anadyrland, Koryakland and Kamchatka, s to Altai, Transbaicalia, Amurland, Sakhalin and Kuril Is.
M. f. deglandi. From n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin and n Manitoba s to c Alaska, s Yukon, sc British Columbia, ne Washington, se Alberta, n N. Dakota, s Manitoba, n Ontario and w Quebec.
Bucephala clangula COMMON GOLDENEYE. Ponds, lakes, rivers, in migration also seacoasts. From British Isles (rarely) and Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia (generally to ca. Arctic Circle) to w Anadyrland and Kamchatka, s to Germany, Czechslovakia, Poland, c Russia, s Siberia w to Altai and e to Sakhalin, (but not in Transbaicalia and s Ussuriland) and Manchuria. From w,c Alaska, n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, sw Keewatin and n Manitoba e across n Canada to c Labrador and Newfoundland, and s to n Washington, c Montana, s Saskatchewan and from n N. Dakota e to New England and Nova Scotia. Hybridizes rarely with the Hooded Merganser, see below.
Bucephala islandica BARROW'S GOLDENEYE. Lakes, ponds, rivers, in migration also seacoasts. Sw Greenland and Iceland; Arctic coasts and mts. from c,s,se Alaska w to Alaska Pen., s Yukon, w Mackenzie, n British Columbia and sw Alberta s to the Sierra Nevada in e Calif., n Montana, nw Wyoming and sw Colorado; ne Quebec, n Labrador.
Bucephala albeola BUFFLEHEAD. Lakes, ponds, rivers, in migration also seacoasts. From c Alaska, s Yukon, w,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin, ne Manitoba and n Ontario s to s British Columbia, n Washington, n Montana, c Colorado and s Canada e to s Ontario and wc Quebec; locally s in mts. to n Calif., rarely to n Iowa, se Minnesota and se Wisconsin.
Mergellus albellus SMEW. Lakes, ponds, in migration also rivers and bays. From n Scandinavia locally e through n,c Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland and Kamchatka, s to Lake Baikal, Manchuria, n Amurland and n Sakhalin; sc Russia on the lower Volga River. Rare migrant in the Aleutian Is.; vagrant records s to California, Niagara River, Rhode Island, some may be escaped captives. Often included in Mergus.
Lophodytes cucullatus HOODED MERGANSER. Swamps, streams, lakes, marshes, in migration also rivers and brackish coastal waters. From se Alaska, c British Columbia and sw Alberta s to sw Oregon, c Idaho and n Colorado; c New Mexico; from c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to New Brunswick and s Nova Scotia, s to se Kansas, c Arkansas, ne Texas, n Louisiana, n Gulf states and c Florida. Often included in Mergus. Hybridizes rarely with the Common Goldeneye.
Mergus octosetaceus BRAZILIAN MERGANSER. Rivers, small swift-flowing streams. Lowlands (at least formerly) in e,se Brazil, e Paraguay and ne Argentina in Misiones. Former numbers much reduced.
Mergus serrator RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. Rivers, ponds, lakes, in migration also seacoasts. From Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles, Scandinavia and n continental Europe, rarely s to Netherlands, Germany and Poland; e across n Russia incl. Novaya Zemlya, and n,c Siberia to Kamchatka and Commander Is., s to Lake Baikal, Manchuria, Ussuriland and Amurland; Crimea, Armenia, Lake Balkash, Altai, Tuva. From n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzie, c Keewatin, n Baffin I., Labrador and Newfoundland s to s,se Alaska incl. Aleutian Is., n British Columbia, sw,c Saskatchewan, s Manitoba and n U.S. from c Minnesota e to New Jersey, New England and Nova Scotia.
Mergus squamatus SCALY-SIDED MERGANSER. Breeding habitat unknown. Occurs near rivers in mountainous taiga areas. Manchuria in n Heilungkiang and se Siberia in Ussuriland and Amurland.
Mergus merganser COMMON MERGANSER. (=GOOSANDER in Europe). Lakes, rivers, in migration also brackish seacoast waters. From Iceland, British Isles and Scandinavia e across n,c Russia and Siberia generally s of Arctic Circle, to Anadyrland and Kamchatka, s to Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Germany and Poland; c Russia, s Siberia w to Altai, ne Afghanistan, w China, se Tibet, n Mongolia and Manchuria; Uzbekistan and Turkestan. From c,sc Alaska w to lower Kuskokwim R. and Kodiak I., s Yukon, s Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c Labrador, Newfoundland and wc Nova Scotia, s to mts of c Calif., c Nevada, c Arizona and sw,n New Mexico, and e of the Rockies to n U.S. from ne Minnesota e to nw New Jersey and New England.
*Mergus australis AUCKLAND ISLANDS MERGANSER. Extinct since 1905. Formerly in the Auckland Is., s of New Zealand.