Suborder Ciconii
    Infraorder Ciconiides
      Parvorder Podicipedida

Rollandia rolland  WHITE-TUFTED GREBE.  Lakes, streams, ponds, marshes, bays.  From nw Peru, c,s Bolivia, Paraguay and s Brazil s to Rio Grande do Sul.  Falkland Islands.
Rollandia microptera  SHORT-WINGED GREBE.  Shallows of Andean lakes.  Andes in the Lake Titicaca basin of s Peru and w Bolivia.
Tachybaptus ruficollis  LITTLE GREBE.  Marshes, ponds, lakes.  From British Isles, s Sweden, c,s Russia n to a line from Lithuania s to Caucasus and n Caspian Sea, s Russia n to Caspian and Aral seas, and e to Lake Balkash, China incl. Hainan I., Tibet, Taiwan, Japan and Kuril Is., s to n Africa locally from Morocco e to lower Nile River; Mediterranean area incl. most islands; Near and Middle East, Arabia incl. Yemen, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, se Asia, Indonesia in the Greater and Lesser Sunda islands, Moluccas, Kai Is., Philippines incl. Palawan; n New Guinea; Admiralty Is., Bougainville Island in the n Solomon Is.  Africa s of the Sahara from sw Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Cameroon, Central Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan e to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Somalia, s locally through Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia and Botswana  to s S. Africa; Madagascar; Comoro Islands.

Tachybaptus novaehollandiae  AUSTRALASIAN GREBE.  Marshes, ponds, lakes, quiet streams.  Lowlands in Java, Timor, Sangi I. in the Sangihe Is., Ternate I. in the Moluccas; New Guinea on the s coast and locally on n coast; Rennell I. in the s Solomon Is.; Vanuatu on Santa Maria, Espíritu Santo and Aoba; New Caledonia; Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand.  Sympatric with ruficollis in New Guinea, possibly in Java and the Lesser Sunda Is.
Tachybaptus rufolavatus  ALAOTRA GREBE.  Lakes, marshes.  Lake Alaotra in ec Madagascar.  Population estimated as ca. 20 pairs.  Confined to Lake Alaotra where it hybridizes with, and is being swamped by, T. ruficollis, a recent colonizer; rufolavatus may be a race of ruficollis.

Tachybaptus pelzelnii  MADAGASCAR GREBE.  Lakes, marshes.  Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar.
Tachybaptus dominicus  LEAST GREBE.  Marshes, lakes, ponds.  Lowlands and mts. to 2700 m from s Baja Calif., Sinaloa and ec,s Texas s (incl. Cozumel I.) to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Curaçao and Bonaire is., Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of the Andes to nw Peru, and e of the Andes to e Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina s to Entre Ríos; Bahamas (exc. Grand Bahama) and Greater Antilles e to the Virgin Islands.
Podilymbus podiceps  PIED-BILLED GREBE.  Marshes, ponds, lakes.  Lowlands and mts. to 4100 m from s coastal Alaska in the Copper R. region (one record), and from c British Columbia, sc Mackenzie, n Alberta, n Saskatchewan, n Manitoba, c Ontario, sw Quebec, c Maine, s New Brunswick, Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia s through U.S., Mexico, C. America and W. Indies s to Tobago and Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s (mostly absent from Amazonia) to c Chile on Isla Chiloé, and s Argentina in Chubut.  Recently on Hawaii.  See P. gigas.

*Podilymbus gigas  ATITLAN GREBE. Probably extinct, not recorded since 1984.  Formerly only on Lake Atitlán, c Guatemala.  P. podiceps has replaced gigas on Lake Atitlán.
Poliocephalus poliocephalus  HOARY-HEADED GREBE.  Swamps, lakes, estuaries, lagoons.  Australia, Tasmania and s New Zealand on the South Island.  Ranges to Snares Islands.
Poliocephalus rufopectus  NEW ZEALAND GREBE.  Swamps, lakes, estuaries, lagoons.  New Zealand.  Now reduced in numbers and confined to North Island.
Podiceps major  GREAT GREBE.  Lakes, rivers, estuaries.  Coastal Peru from Piura s to Ica, Chile n to Coquimbo, Argentina e of the Andes n to Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, Paraguay, Uruguay and extreme s Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul.

Podiceps grisegena  RED-NECKED GREBE.  Reedy lakes, large ponds, quiet rivers.  From Sweden and s Finland se across nw,c Russia n to Ural Mts. and Ob R. drainage and se to Caspian and Aral sea areas and n Kirghiz steppes, to w China in nw Sinkiang, s to the Balkans, Turkey, nw Iran, Caucasus, Transcaucasus; c,e Siberia to Kamchatka and Sakhalin, Manchuria and n Japan on Hokkaido.  N. America from w,c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, nw Saskatchewan, c Manitoba and w,sc Ontario s to St. Lawrence I. (formerly ?), Alaska Peninsula, c Washington, sw Oregon, n Montana, nw Wyoming, ne S. Dakota, sc Minnesota, n Michigan, s Quebec and n New England.
Podiceps cristatus  GREAT CRESTED GREBE.  Reed-bordered lakes, sluggish rivers.  From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across c,se Russia and sw,se Siberia to Mongolia, w,n China, probably s Korea and Japan, s to nw,ne Africa from Morocco to Tunisia; Nile delta; n Mediterranean region on Corsica and Sardinia, to Turkey, Iran, Transcaucasus, Transcaspia, Turkestan and n India in Kashmir and Ladakh.  E,s Africa from highlands of Ethiopia, Zaire, s through rift valley lakes of nw Rwanda, w Uganda and c Kenya to n Tanzania, occurring elsewhere in Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Botswana, s Mozambique and S. Africa.  In sw,e,se Australia from extreme sw W. Australia and ne Queensland s to Victoria and w to se S. Australia, Tasmania; S. Island of New Zealand.  Range expanded since 1950.

Podiceps auritus  HORNED GREBE.  Marshes, ponds, lakes, streams.  From Iceland, n British Isles and Scandinavia e across c Russia and c Siberia to Kamchatka, s to Kirghiz steppes, w China in w Sinkiang and s Siberia from Altai to Amurland, Sakhalin.  N. America from c Alaska, n Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie, s Keewatin and n Manitoba s to e Washington, n Utah, nw Nebraska, ne Iowa, n Illinois, n Indiana, s Ontario, s Quebec and s New England.  Has recently disappeared from most of U.S. breeding range.
Podiceps nigricollis  BLACK-NECKED GREBE.  Large reedy lakes, ponds, saltmarsh, lagoons.  From British Isles, s Sweden, n Norway and continental Europe e across c Russia to w,ne China and sw,se Siberia; s to n Tunisia, Spain, c France, Balkans, Turkey, Iraq, e Iran, Trancaucasus and Kazakhstan.  E,s Africa in c Ethiopia, Uganda and rift valley lakes of c Kenya and n Tanzania; w Namibia, se Botswana, w Zimbabwe and S. Africa.  From sc British Columbia, s Yukon, c Alberta, c Saskatchewan, sw Manitoba, w Minnesota and ne Illinois s to n Baja Calif., c Arizona, c,ne New Mexico, sc Texas and c Oklahoma, and Mexico s to Jalisco and Puebla.

*Podiceps andinus  COLOMBIAN GREBE. Probably extinct.  Formerly on lakes and ponds in the Andes, 2500-3100 m of ec Colombia.  Often included in nigricollis.

Podiceps occipitalis  SILVERY GREBE.  Marshy ponds, lakes, rarely bays.
The two subspecies are sometimes treated as separate species.
 P. o. juninensis.  Andes, 2500-5000 m from sw Colombia s through Ecuador, Peru and c,sw Bolivia to n Chile s to Antofagasta and nw Argentina in Jujuy and Salta.  Possibly a separate species.
 P. o. occipitalis.  Lowlands and mts. to 2800 m from nc Chile n to Atacama and w,s Argentina n to San Juan, Córdoba and Santa Fe, s to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands.

Podiceps taczanowskii  PUNA GREBE.  Lakes, ponds.  High Andes, 4050-4100 m on Lake Junín in c Peru.  Closely related to occipitalis, but they are sympatric on Lake Junín.  Population ca. 50 birds in 1993, due to habitat degradation of Lake Junin (Valqui, T. 1994. Cotinga, vol. 1).
Podiceps gallardoi  HOODED GREBE.  Lakes in windswept uplands.  S Argentina, known only from several lakes in c Santa Cruz Province.
Aechmophorus occidentalis  WESTERN GREBE.  Lakes, bays, rarely saltmarsh.  From sc British Columbia, c Alberta, c Saskatchewan and sw Manitoba s to s Calif., nc Utah, sw Colorado, sw,ne New Mexico, w Nebraska, nw Iowa and w Minnesota and ec Wisconsin; n Mexico from Chihuahua and Durango s to n Guerrero, Puebla and San Luis Potosí.

The two "color morphs"  -- light phase and dark phase -- in populations of Aechmophorus are now considered to be two species, A. occidentalis and A. clarkii.  They are widely sympatric, but clarkii is rare
in the north and dominant in the south.  DNA hybridization data indicate a difference comparable to congeneric species.

Aechmophorus clarkii  CLARK'S GREBE.  Lakes, bays, rarely saltmarsh.  W North America, rare is parts of same breeding range as the Western Grebe, s to Nayarit and Guanajuato.

  Suborder Ciconii
    Infraorder Ciconiides
      Parvorder Phaethontida
        *Family Phaethontidae: Tropicbirds
      Parvorder Sulida
        Superfamily Suloidea
        *Family Sulidae: Boobies, Gannets
        *Family Anhingidae: Anhingas
        Superfamily Phalacrocoracoidea
        *Family Phalacrocoracidae: Cormorants
        Superfamily Ardeoidea; Family Ardeidae: Herons, Egrets, Bitterns
        Superfamily Scopoidea; Family Scopidae: Hamerkop or Hammerhead Stork
        Superfamily Phoenicopteroidea; Family Phoenicopteridae: Flamingos
        Superfamily Threskiornithidae; Family Threskiornithidae: Ibises, Spoonbills
        Superfamily Pelecanoidea
          Family Pelecanidae
            Subfamily Balaenicipitinae: Shoebill
          *Subfamily Pelecaninae: Pelicans
        Superfamily Ciconioidea:  New World Vultures, Storks
        Superfamily Procellarioidea
        *Family Fregatidae: Frigatebirds
          Family Spheniscidae: Penguins
          Family Gaviidae: Loons or Divers
          Family Procellariidae: Petrels, Albatrosses, Shearwaters, Fulmars, etc.

The groups preceded by an asterisk (*) are members of the traditional Order Pelecaniformes

Phaethon aethereus  RED-BILLED TROPICBIRD.  Pelagic, breeding on islands on cliff ledges or seaside caves.  Islands in Gulf of California and on Consag Rock and San Pedro Mártir and San Jorge islands; Revillagigedo, Tres Marías and Isabela islands and Alijos Rocks off w Mexico, and islands off S. America incl. Galapagos Is. and islands from Colombia s to c Peru.  Caribbean on Culebra and Vieques is. off Puerto Rico; small islets in the Virgin Is. and Lesser Antilles s to Grenada and Tobago; on Swan Key in Almirante Bay, nw Panama; and off n Venezuela on Los Hermanos and Los Roques.  Islands off Africa incl. Cape Verde Is., Ascension, St. Helena and Socotra, and small islands off Senegal, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Yemen.  Islands off Brazil; islands in the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf.  Ranges at sea in the Atlantic n to New York and s to Brazil; in w Pacific to the Paracel Islands in the s China Sea; e Pacific n to Washington, w to Hawaiian Is., and s to Chile; in tropical Indian Ocean.

Phaethon rubricauda  RED-TAILED TROPICBIRD.  Pelagic, breeds on islands on cliffs, in craters and on sand.  Tropical islands from the Bonin and Volcano islands off s Japan, e to w Hawaiian Is. e to Kauai, Lanai, Kahoolawe; Manana I. off Oahu; s to Raine I. off ne Australia, and from Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec is., e to Easter I. and probably Sala-y-Gómez.  Indian Ocean on islands off sw Madagascar, near Mauritius, in Aldabra, Seychelles and Cocos Is. on Keeling I.; Gunungapi in the Lesser Sundas, and on islands off nw Australia.  Ranges in Pacific n to Japan and s to New Zealand; in Indian Ocean n to Red Sea and Persian Gulf and s to S. African and Australian waters.

Phaethon lepturus  WHITE-TAILED TROPICBIRD.  Pelagic, breeds on islands on cliff ledges, caverns and trees.  Islands in the Pacific from Bonin and Volcano is. off s Japan e to Hawaiian Is. on the main islands w to Kauai, rarely on Midway, s to New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga on Eau I., Marquesas and Tuamotu.  Atlantic-Caribbean region from Bermuda and W. Indies s to islets off Tobago, Fernando de Noronha off Brazil, Ascension I., and islands in Gulf of Guinea.  Indian Ocean from Seychelles and Andaman Is. s to Mascarenes and Christmas I.  Ranges at sea through tropical oceans n to Japan and Nova Scotia, and s to Australia, New Zealand, n S. America and S. Africa.

Papasula abbotti  ABBOTT'S BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds in trees on islands.  Christmas I. in the e Indian Ocean; formerly Assumption I., Mascarenes on Mauritius and Rodrigues, and Chagos Arch. on Gloriosa I.  Ranges at sea in the Indian Ocean.  Subfossils from the Solomon Is. and Marquesas Is. represent populations that may have survived past 1700 (Schubel and Pahlavan. 1988. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 101:487).
Morus bassanus  NORTHERN GANNET.  Pelagic.  Breeds on open islands and coastal cliffs.  Islands in the n Atlantic in Gulf of St. Lawrence on Bonaventure, Anticosti and Magdalen is., formerly off Quebec; Newfoundland, formerly Nova Scotia; and New Brunswick; islands around Iceland, Faroes, British Isles, n France and coastal Norway.  Ranges at sea in n Atlantic s to Gulf coast, Cape Verde Is., nw Africa and Mediterranean Sea, and nw to n Russia and the Baltic Sea.

Morus capensis  CAPE GANNET.  Pelagic.  Breeds on cliffs.  Islands off s Africa from Hollandsbird I. off Namibia, s and e to e S. Africa at Algoa Bay.  Ranges at sea n to Gulf of Guinea and Kenya.  May be a subspecies of bassanus.
Morus serrator  AUSTRALIAN GANNET.  Pelagic.  Breeds on open ground on islands.  Islands off se Australia in s Victoria incl. Lawrence Rock and Wedge Light; off ne,s Tasmania on Black Pyramid, Cat I., Pedra Blanca, Eddystone Rock; New Zealand on islets off n N. Island, at Cape Kidnappers on se North I., and off se S. Island.  Ranges at sea along coasts of s Australia n to c W. Australia and se Queensland, and in New Zealand waters.  May be a race of bassanus.

Sula nebouxii  BLUE-FOOTED BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds on open ground on islands.  Islands off Pacific coast in Gulf of California n to Consag Rock and Tres Marietas Is., off Pacific Honduras on Los Farollones, on Pearl Is. and small islets in Gulf of Panama; Galapagos Islands; islands along coast from Colombia to Peru.  Ranges at sea in e Pacific from Baja Calif. s to s Peru.
Sula variegata  PERUVIAN BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds on cliffs.  Islands off Pacific coast from nw Peru s to c Chile to Concepción.  Ranges at sea from sw Colombia to s Chile and north to Bay of Panama in El Niño years.
Sula dactylatra  MASKED BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds on open ground on oceanic islands.  Is. off Mexico on Alijos Rocks, Revillagigedo, Clipperton; through tropical Pacific from Ryukyu and Hawaiian is. on Kure e to Kaula, and on Moku Manu off Oahu; s to is. in the Sulu Sea (Tubbataha Reef), off se Queensland; Kermadec Is., Tuamotu and Sala-y-Gómez; Galapagos and islands from Malpelo I. off Colombia s to San Ambrosio and San Félix off Chile.  Atlantic-Caribbean region on islands off Yucatán Peninsula; Florida Keys on the Dry Tortugas; s Bahamas, sw of Jamaica, off Puerto Rico, Virgin Is. and Lesser Antilles off Anguilla and in the Grenadines; Isla Los Monjes off n Colombia and Islas Aves e to Los Hermanos off Venezuela; from off Brazil to Ascension I.  Is. off w Africa in Gulf of Guinea, off Cameroon.  Indian Ocean from Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, coast of Eritrea, Somalia, Socotra Is., se Arabia off s Oman, Keeling I. in the Cocos Is., and Christmas Is. s to islands off Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar, Seychelles, Comoro and Mascarene is.  Islands off nw Australia and Gunungapi I. in the Lesser Sundas.  Ranges widely in tropical oceans, rarely n to Gulf coast of se U.S. and N. Carolina, and s to w Mexico, se Australia and S. Africa.

Sula sula  RED-FOOTED BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds in bushes and trees on islands.  Islands in Pacific on the Paracel Is. in the s China Sea; from Bonin Is. and Hawaiian Is. from Kure e to Kauai, Oahu and Moku Manu, s to Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea, and to ne Australia on Raine I., New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga on Kalau I., Tuamotu and Sala-y-Gómez; Revillagigedo and Tres Marías off Mexico; Cocos I. off Costa Rica; Isla La Plata off Ecuador; Galapagos Is.  Atlantic-Caribbean region on Glover's Reef off Yucatán; Half Moon Cay off Belize; Swan Is. off Puerto Rico; Virgin Is. and Grenadines, off Tobago and islands off Venezuela from Los Roques e to Los Hermanos and off Brazil on Fernando de Noronha and Trindade.  Indian Ocean from Socotra Is., Aldabra Is., Cosmoledo, Europa, Farquhar and Tromelin is. off Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles, e to Keeling in Cocos Is., and Gunungapi in the Lesser Sundas.  Ranges at sea from Sinaloa to Panama, from Gulf coast (rarely) s along Middle and S. America to e Brazil and in Indian Ocean n to Bay of Bengal.

Sula leucogaster  BROWN BOOBY.  Pelagic.  Breeds on open ground and cliffs on islands.  Pacific islands from Izu, Bonin, Volcano and Hawaiian is., from Kure e to Kauai and Moku Manu, s to islands in S. China Sea; Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea; off n Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga and Tuamotu; islands in Gulf of California; off w Mexico on the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Tres Marías and Isabela is., probably on Los Farallones off Honduras; islets off Costa Rica; Pearl Is. and islets in Bay of Panama and Gorgona I. off Colombia.  Atlantic-Caribbean region from islands off Yucatán Pen., formerly Florida Keys; and Bahamas s through Antilles and along coast of e Middle and n S. America e to Trinidad; from Cape Verde Is., islands off w Africa and Gulf of Guinea s to coast of c Brazil and Ascension I.; islands in the Indian Ocean from Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Malay Peninsula, s to Seychelles, Mitsio I. off Madagascar; Keeling I., and Christmas Is.; and Gunungapi in the Lesser Sundas.  Ranges at sea n, rarely,to Japan, Calif. and Nova Scotia, s, rarely, to Ecuador, S. Africa and se Australia.

Anhinga anhinga  ANHINGA.  Swamps, lakes, sluggish streams, lagoons, mangroves.  Lowlands to 500 m from c,e Texas, se Oklahoma, s,e Arkansas, s Missouri (formerly), s Illinois (formerly), w Tennessee, c Gulf states and coastal N. Carolina s to Florida; from Sinaloa and s Texas s through lowlands on both slopes to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay to Uruguay and n Argentina; locally in Cuba, Isle of Pines and Grenada in the s Lesser Antilles.
Anhinga rufa  AFRICAN DARTER.  Swamps, lakes, sluggish streams, marshes.  From sw Mauritania and Senegambia e through s Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone to Ghana, s Niger, Nigeria, s Chad and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia and Somalia, s to Gabon and Zaire and to Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa; Madagascar.  Breeds in most African countries and occurs in virtually all in suitable habitats, possibly breeding in others in addition to those listed above.

Anhinga melanogaster  ORIENTAL DARTER.  Swamps, marshes, lakes, flooded fields.  Lowlands to 300 m in s Turkey (formerly), se Iraq, and from India, Sri Lanka e to Burma, Thailand, Indochina and Malaya (vagrant?); Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and Philippines on Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Negros and Mindanao.

Relationships among the Old World darters are uncertain.  A. melanogaster is closest to novaehollandiae and they are often considered conspecific and sometimes not even subspecifically distinct.  A. rufa is next closest and the Old World populations may constitute a single species.  A. anhinga is the most distant from the others, but the entire genus may be a single species.  They are treated here as allospecies.

Anhinga novaehollandiae  AUSTRALIAN DARTER.  Rivers, lakes, swamps, lagoons, estuaries.  Lowlands in New Guinea, Fergusson I. in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch., and locally in Australia.  Ranges to the Lesser Sunda Is. and s Moluccas.

Siegel-Causey (1988. Condor 90:885-905) revised the Phalacrocoracidae and placed the following species in two subfamilies: Phalacrocoracine to include the "Cormorants" from P. africanus through P. capillatus and Leucocarboninae to include the "Shags" from P. nigrogularis to P. featherstoni.
The 37 species were divided among nine genera.  DNA hybridization values approximately support the clustering of species proposed by Siegel-Causey.
The recognition of nine genera seems inflated relative to other groups, but this is a matter of opinion.
Phalacrocorax africanus  LONG-TAILED CORMORANT.  Rivers, lakes, swamps.  Coasts and inland waters from sw Mauritania, Senegambia, s Mali, s Niger, São Tomé I., s Chad, c,s Sudan, Ethiopia and w,s Somalia s to s S. Africa; Madagascar.  Occurs and breeds in most African countries with suitable habitat.  Not recorded as breeding in Djibouti, Socotra Is., Yemen, Seychelles, Aldabra, Comores or Mascarene Is.  Wanders widely to offshore islands.
Phalacrocorax coronatus  CROWNED CORMORANT.  Rocky islands, seacoasts.  From c Angola in Benguela s to Namibia and sw S. Africa to Cape Agulhas.  May be conspecific with africanus.
Phalacrocorax pygmeus  PYGMY CORMORANT.  Marshes, reedbeds, lakes, rivers, seacoasts.  From Balkans n to Yugoslavia and Romania, Greece and w Turkey e to shores of Black, Caspian and Aral seas, n,sw Tadshikistan, se Iraq and n Iran.

Phalacrocorax niger  LITTLE CORMORANT.  Lakes, rivers, marshes, mangroves.  Lowlands from India, Sri Lanka and sw China s through se Asia (exc. Malaya); n Java.
Phalacrocorax melanoleucos  LITTLE PIED CORMORANT.  Coasts, islands, reefs, estuaries, lakes, marshes, ponds, swamps, etc.  Lowlands and mts. to 3400 m in the East Indies (exc. Sumatra and Borneo) incl. many small islands; w Papuan Is. of Waigeo, Salawati and Misool; New Guinea incl. Numfor I., Palau, Solomon and Santa Cruz islands; New Caledonia; Australia, Tasmania.  New Zealand, Stewart I., and Campbell I.  P. m. brevirostris (New Zealand) is sometimes treated as a separate species.
*Phalacrocorax perspicillatus  PALLAS'S CORMORANT. Extinct by ca. 1850.  Known from five specimens from Bering I. in the Commander Is.

Phalacrocorax penicillatus  BRANDT'S CORMORANT.  Coasts, bays.  S coastal Alaska in Prince William Sound; from Washington s to Baja Calif. in I. Natividad, San Cristobal Bay, formerly on Guadelupe I.; islands in Gulf of California on San Pedro Mártir, Salsipuedes, Roca Blanca.
Phalacrocorax harrisi  FLIGHTLESS CORMORANT.  Coasts of the Galapagos islands of Fernandina and Isabela (exc. s,sw).
Phalacrocorax neglectus  BANK CORMORANT.  Coasts, weedy banks.  Coastal Namibia n to Walvis Bay and sw S. Africa in sw Cape Province.
Phalacrocorax fuscescens  BLACK-FACED CORMORANT.  Coasts, islands, bays, rocky headlands.  From sw W. Australia w to Arch. Recherche and Hopetoun, e to extreme se New S. Wales; Tasmania and most islands in Bass Strait.

Phalacrocorax brasilianus  NEOTROPIC CORMORANT.  Rivers, lakes, swamps, coasts.  Lowlands and foothills to 2600 m from s Sonora, New Mexico, nc,e Texas and sw Louisiana s (incl. is. off Yucatán Pen.) to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s to Tierra del Fuego.  Reported breeding in Cuba, Isle of Pines and Bahamas is questionable.  Formerly called P. olivaceus, but brasilianus has priority.
Phalacrocorax auritus  DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT.  Lakes, swamps, rivers, coasts.  From s,se Alaska w to Cape Peirce and e Aleutians, coastal British Columbia, n Alberta and from c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to Gulf of St. Lawrence and Newfoundland, s to Baja Calif., coastal Sonora, sw Arizona, s New Mexico, nc,se Texas, Gulf coast, Florida, n Bahamas s to Cat I., San Salvador and Great Inagua; Cuba and Isle of Pines; formerly on Man-of-War Key off Belize.

Phalacrocorax fuscicollis  INDIAN CORMORANT.  Marshes, lakes, rivers, swamps.  Lowlands in Pakistan in Sind, India n to Himalayan foothills, Sri Lanka, s Burma, c,se Thailand, Cambodia and s Vietnam in Cochinchina.
Phalacrocorax varius  PIED CORMORANT.  Estuaries, bays, coasts, lakes, rivers.  Locally in Australia and New Zealand incl. Stewart I.
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris  LITTLE BLACK CORMORANT.  Coasts, bays, mangroves, rivers, swamps, lakes.  Lowlands to 1200 m in the E. Indies (exc. Sumatra, but incl. many small islands), New Guinea, Fergusson I., Australia, Tasmania and North I. of New Zealand.

Phalacrocorax carbo  GREAT CORMORANT.  Lakes, rivers, coasts, marshes.
P. c. carbo.  From s Greenland, Iceland, Faroes, British Isles, Norway and extreme nw Russia on the Kola Pen., s to France e to Poland; s to n Africa from Mauritania e to Egypt, Sardinia, Corsica, w coast of Italy, Czechoslovakia, Balkans, Greece and Turkey e to Black and Caspian seas, s Russia, Mongolia, China and s Siberia to Korea and Japan on Honshu, s to n Iran, Pakistan, India to 3500 m, Sri Lanka and se Asia (exc. Malaya) (formerly Sumatra); n Philippines on Batan Is., Calayan, Luzon and Ticao.  Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and Chatham Is.  Ne N. America along Atlantic coast from n shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence and sw Newfoundland s to Prince Edward I., Nova Scotia and n Maine.
 P. c. lucidus.  Senegambia, sw Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, L. Chad area, and from Gabon and Congo to s Angola, Namibia, Zambia, ne,ce,se Zaire, Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia s to Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique and s S. Africa.

Phalacrocorax capillatus  JAPANESE CORMORANT.  Rocky coasts and islands.  Se Siberia in Ussuriland, s Kuril Is., Korea, ne China and Japan s to n,e Hokkaido and n Honshu.
Phalacrocorax nigrogularis  SOCOTRA CORMORANT.  Coasts, islands.  Islands in the Persian Gulf, se coast of Arabia and Socotra I.  Ranges to Gulf of Aden and Red Sea.
Phalacrocorax capensis  CAPE CORMORANT.  Coasts, bays.  Namibia n to Walvis Bay and s S. Africa in s Cape Province, possibly off Angola, Gabon and Mozambique.
Phalacrocorax bougainvillii  GUANAY CORMORANT.  Coasts, islands.  Coastal islets from n Peru n to Piura s to c Chile at Santiago (formerly Mocha I.); se Argentina in Chubut.

Phalacrocorax verrucosus  KERGUELEN SHAG.  Islands, coastal cliffs.  Kerguelen Is., s Indian Ocean.
Phalacrocorax atriceps  IMPERIAL SHAG.  Coasts, cliffs, lakes.  S Chile n to Isla Mocha and s Argentina n to Chubut, and on lakes in Neuquén and Río Negro; Falkland Is.  In s Indian Ocean on Heard, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Macquarie islands.

"P. albiventer" appears to be a morph of P. atriceps.  P. georgianus and P. bransfieldensis are often considered races of P. atriceps, although bransfieldensis may have been or still is sympatric with atriceps in extreme s S. America (Siegel-Causey and Lefevre 1989. Condor 91:408-415).  P. verrucosus and the P. carunculatus-campbelli complex are similar and may also belong to this assemblage.

Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis  ANTARCTIC SHAG.  Coasts, cliffs, lakes.  Subantarctic islands of S. Orkney and S. Shetland; Graham Land on the Antarctic Peninsula.
Phalacrocorax georgianus  SOUTH GEORGIA SHAG.  Coasts, cliffs, lakes.  S. Georgia and S. Sandwich islands.
Phalacrocorax campbelli  CAMPBELL ISLAND SHAG.  Rocky islets, cliffs.  Campbell I.  May be conspecific with carunculatus.  The systematics of the large shags of the New Zealand region remains unclear.  The several forms are variously included in one species or divided into six species, as here, following Siegel-Causey (1988. Condor 90:885-905), who reported minor skeletal differences based on small samples.  P. campbelli may even be a race of P. atriceps.

Phalacrocorax carunculatus  ROUGH-FACED SHAG.  Rocky islets.  Islands in Cook Strait, c New Zealand.
Phalacrocorax chalconotus  BRONZE SHAG.  Rocky islets.  Islands on coastal se South Island of New Zealand in Otago, and Stewart Island.
Phalacrocorax onslowi  CHATHAM ISLANDS SHAG.  Rocky islets.  Chatham Is.
Phalacrocorax colensoi  AUCKLAND ISLANDS SHAG.  Rocky islets, cliffs.  Auckland Is.
Phalacrocorax ranfurlyi  BOUNTY ISLANDS SHAG.  Rocky islets, cliffs.  Bounty Is.

Phalacrocorax magellanicus  ROCK SHAG.  Coasts, rocky shores.  From c Chile n to Valdivia and se Argentina n to Chubut, s to Cape Horn; Falkland Is.
Phalacrocorax urile  RED-FACED CORMORANT.  Coasts, rocky islands, coastal cliffs.  Islets off e Hokkaido in n Japan; Commander, Pribilof and Aleutian islands, and along coast of s Alaska on Cape Peirce, Walrus I. and Prince William Sound.
Phalacrocorax kenyoni  AMCHITKA CORMORANT.  Described from abundant recent and subfossil skeletal material from Amchitka I., Alaska, and from three skeletonized specimens collected in 1958.  The status of kenyoni will be in doubt until it can be identified in life and compared with P. urile, which it closely resembles, and with P. pelagicus.  See Auk 110:680, 1993.

Phalacrocorax pelagicus  PELAGIC CORMORANT.  Coasts, cliffs.  E China s to Kwantung, Korea, Japan off Hokkaido and n Honshu; e Siberia from Wrangel I. and Chukotski Pen., s to Ussuriland and Sakhalin, incl. Kamchatka and Commander Is.; from Alaska n to Cape Lisburne and Aleutians, and British Columbia s to n Baja Calif. on Los Coronados Is.
Phalacrocorax aristotelis  EUROPEAN SHAG.  Coasts.  From w Iceland, British Isles, Norway and the Kola Pen. in nw Russia, s along coasts of w Europe to Mediterranean and Black seas, incl. most islands and the African coast, and Atlantic coast of Morocco.  The African race, riggenbachi, sometimes is treated as a species.
Phalacrocorax gaimardi  RED-LEGGED CORMORANT.  Coasts, cliffs.  From Peru n to Piura, s to s Chile in the Straits of Magellan, and coastal s Argentina in Santa Cruz.

Phalacrocorax punctatus  SPOTTED SHAG.  Coasts, cliffs, rocky islands.  New Zealand on the N. Island, w S. island and Stewart I.
Phalacrocorax featherstoni  PITT ISLAND SHAG.  Coasts, cliffs, rocky islands.  Chatham Islands.  Often treated as a race of P. punctatus.


© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi