Family Thinocoridae: Seedsnipe
Family Pedionomidae: Plains-wanderer
Subfamily Scolopacinae: Woodcock, Snipe
Subfamily Tringinae: Sandpipers, Godwits, Curlews, Phalaropes
Family Rostratulidae: Painted-snipe
Family Jacanidae: Jacanas, Lily-trotters
Family Chionidae: Sheathbills
Family Pluvianellidae: Magellanic Plover
Family Burhinidae: Thick-knees, Stone-curlews
Tribe Haematopodini: Oystercatchers
Tribe Recurvirostrini: Avocets, Stilts
Subfamily Charadriinae: Plovers, Lapwings
Subfamily Dromadinae: Crab Plover
Subfamily Glareolinae: Pratincoles and Coursers
Tribe Stercorariini: Skuas, Jaegers
Tribe Rynchopini: Skimmers
Tribe Larini: Gulls
Tribe Sternini: Terns
Subfamily Alcinae: Auks, Murres, Puffins, Guillemots
Syrrhaptes tibetanus TIBETAN SANDGROUSE. Bleak
plateaus, rocky wasteland, stony
river valleys. Deserts of c Asia from Tadshikistan and w China s to n India in Himachal Pradesh; Sikkim and Tibet.
Syrrhaptes paradoxus PALLAS'S SANDGROUSE. Arid sandy steppes with Artemisia absinthium. From the ne shore of the Caspian Sea e across Aral Sea area, Turkestan and Kazakhstan to sw Siberia, s Mongolia and n China, s to n Tibet and s China in Tsinghai.
Breeds irregularly w to British Isles and w Europe.
Pterocles alchata PIN-TAILED SANDGROUSE. Arid plains, bleak plateaus, dry mud flats. Locally in Portugal, Spain (exc. n), se coastal France, nw Africa from Morocco e to s Tunisia and
nc Libya; sw Asia from se Turkey and Near East e to s Transcaucasus, Transcaspia, Aral Sea area, Turkestan, sw Iran and Iraq, possibly Pakistan.
Pterocles namaqua NAMAQUA SANDGROUSE. Sparse dry
grassland. W,cs Angola, Namibia, Botswana, sw Zimbabwe and S. Africa
e to w Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal and
e Cape Prov.
Pterocles exustus CHESTNUT-BELLIED SANDGROUSE. Sparse bushy arid land.
In s Mauritania, Senegambia, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, c,se Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Lake Chad area, Egypt in the Nile Valley and c,e Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya and n Tanzania. Near East and coastal Arabia. S Asia in Pakistan and India s of the Himalayas exc. from Assam and Bangladesh e,s. Intro. on Hawaii.
Pterocles senegallus SPOTTED SANDGROUSE. Bare desert, dry mud flats. From Spanish Sahara, s Algeria and Morocco (exc. e) to Egypt incl. Sinai Pen., s to Mauritania, n Mali, n Niger, n Chad, n Sudan, c Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and n Somalia; sw Asia from Arabia, Near East, s Iraq and s Iran to Afghanistan.
Pterocles gutturalis YELLOW-THROATED SANDGROUSE.
Open plains, sandveld, recently-burned grassland. Locally from w,c
Ethiopia s through Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, extreme se Angola, n,ne Namibia,
sw Zimbabwe and Botswana to n S. Africa in n Cape Prov. and w Transvaal.
Pterocles orientalis BLACK-BELLIED SANDGROUSE. Arid stony areas, fields. Iberian Peninsula; e Canary Is.; n Africa from Morocco e to s Tunisia and nw Libya, possibly to Egypt;
from Israel and Turkey incl. Cyprus e through Kasakhstan, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Iran and Afghanistan to w China and sw Pakistan.
Pterocles coronatus CROWNED SANDGROUSE. Bleak deserts, sand dunes, lava flows. N Africa in the Sahara e to Egypt incl. Sinai Pen., s to Mauritania, Niger, n Chad, w Sudan, Socotra I.; s Asia from Israel and Arabia e across s Iraq, Iran exc. nw and Afghanistan to w Pakistan.
Pterocles personatus MADAGASCAR SANDGROUSE. Arid
plains, sand dunes.
Lowlands of Madagascar except e.
Pterocles decoratus BLACK-FACED SANDGROUSE. Dry bush country. S Ethiopia, s Somalia s through Uganda and Kenya to s Tanzania.
Pterocles bicinctus DOUBLE-BANDED SANDGROUSE. Dry savanna, bushveld. W,s Angola, s,e Zambia, s Malawi and w,s Mozambique s through Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to n S. Africa in n Cape Prov. and Transvaal.
Pterocles quadricinctus FOUR-BANDED SANDGROUSE. Open plains, thrornscrub. S Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, ne Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Lake Chad area and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and s to ne Uganda and nw Kenya.
Pterocles indicus PAINTED SANDGROUSE. Rocky scrub-clad
hillsides. Lowlands in ne Pakistan in Punjab and India s of the Himalayas
exc. for areas in s W. Bengal, Bangaldesh and Assam.
Pterocles lichtensteinii LICHTENSTEIN'S SANDGROUSE. Acacia veld, arid scrub.
P. l. lichtensteinii. Locally in nc Africa mostly along
the s edge of the Sahara from s Morocco and Mauritania e through Mali,
Niger, c Chad, c,ne Sudan and se Egypt to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and
Somalia, s through se Sudan to Uganda and c Kenya. Socotra Island.
P. l. arabicus. Sw Asia in sw,s,se Arabia, s Iran, s Afghanistan and Pakistan s to Baluchistan and Sind. Sometimes associated with P. indicus.
Pterocles burchelli BURCHELL'S SANDGROUSE. Dry sparsely-wooded savanna. S Angola, Namibia, Botswana, extreme w Zimbabwe and cn S. Africa in cn Cape Prov., nw Orange Free State and w,n Transvaal.
Family THINOCORIDAE: Seedsnipe.
Attagis gayi RUFOUS-BELLIED SEEDSNIPE. Paramo, puna. Andes in Ecuador, s Peru, w Bolivia, Chile s to Magallanes and w Argentina from Salta and Jujuy s to the Straits of Magellan.
Attagis malouinus WHITE-BELLIED SEEDSNIPE. Grassland. S Chile in Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego and s Argentina from w Río Negro s to Tierra del Fuego, Cape Horn and Staten I.
Thinocorus orbignyianus GREY-BREASTED SEEDSNIPE. Grassy slopes, puna valleys, marshes, plains. Andes from Peru s through c,sw Bolivia to Chile s to s Magallanes, and w Argentina from Jujuy and Salta to Tierra del Fuego and Staten I.
Thinocorus rumicivorus LEAST SEEDSNIPE. Arid areas with low ground cover. Along coasts from sw Ecuador s through Peru to nw Chile; puna zone of the Andes in w Bolivia, Chile from Atacama s to Magallanes and nw,s Argentina in Jujuy and Tucumán and from Río Negro s to Tierra del Fuego and Staten Island.
Scolopax rusticola EURASIAN WOODCOCK. Moist woods, bogs, heath, moors. From British Isles, Scandinavia, n Russia and c Siberia e to Sakhalin, s to e Atlantic Islands (Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde Is.), s Europe s to n Spain, s France, n Italy and the Balkans, sw Russia, Crimea, Caucasus, Transcausas, ne Turkey, c Russia, ec Turkestan, n India in the Himalayas at 2000-3800 m from Kashmir e to Arunachal Pradesh, n,c China, se Siberia, Japan, Izu Is., and probably n Ryukyu Is.
All Old World species of Scolopax are sometimes treated as races of S. rusticola, or the Asian species are combined in various ways. S. mira apparently differs in courtship behavior; the others are poorly known in the field.
Scolopax mira AMAMI WOODCOCK. Wooded hills, fields.
N Ryukyu Is. on Amami-o-Shima and probably on Tokuno Shima.
Scolopax saturata RUFOUS WOODCOCK. Swampy forest, edge.
The New Guinea race, rosenbergi, may be a separate species.
S. s. saturata. Mts., 1500-3700 m in Sumatra and Java.
S. s. rosenbergi. New Guinea from the Arfak Mts. to se ranges and the Huon Peninsula.
Scolopax celebensis SULAWESI WOODCOCK. Moist woods,
wet grassy areas. Lowlands of n,c Sulawesi.
Scolopax rochussenii MOLUCCAN WOODCOCK. Moist woods, wet grassy areas. N Molucca islands of Obi and Bacan, possibly Halmahera.
Scolopax minor AMERICAN WOODCOCK. Moist forest and woods, riparian thickets, wet meadows, flooded fields. From s Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, s to c Iowa, e Kansas, e Oklahoma, ec Texas, Gulf states and s Florida.
Gallinago solitaria SOLITARY SNIPE. Grassy slopes, open areas near springs, open moist forest. Mts., 1800-4600 m from se Russia, Turkestan, Altai e through s Siberia through Transbaicalia to Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, and Mongolia to n Manchuria and s through w China to the Himalayas of n India in Sikkim.
Gallinago hardwickii LATHAM'S SNIPE. Moist woods,
pastures, wet grassland, grassy slopes. Japan from Hokkaido to c
Gallinago nemoricola WOOD SNIPE. Marshy areas, wet grassland. Himalayas, 600-4300 m in s,e Tibet, possibly sw China, ne India and Burma.
Gallinago stenura PINTAIL SNIPE. Bogs, marshes, taiga, flooded fields. Siberia from Ural Mts. and Altai e through Transbaicalia to Amurland and Sea of Okhotsk and Mongolia.
Gallinago megala SWINHOE'S SNIPE. Forest clearings, wet meadows, river valleys; marshes and flooded fields in migration. S Siberia from Altai e to Transbaicalia; s Ussuriland and Mongolia.
Gallinago media GREAT SNIPE. Marshes, wet grassland,
meadows, moist scrub. From Scandinavia e across n Russia to w Siberia
and s to the Baltic countries, n Poland, sw,c Russia, Ukraine and sw Siberia
in the Altai.
Gallinago gallinago COMMON SNIPE. Moist grassy areas, tundra; wet areas during migration.
The subspecies groups differ in courtship behavior and morphology and
may be separate species.
G. g. gallinago. From Iceland, Faroe, Orkney and Shetland islands, British Isles and Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Kamchatka, s to Azores, s Europe, sw,c Russia, Kirghiz steppes, Turkestan, w China, s Siberia from Transbaicalia to Sakhalin and Manchuria; sw Alaska on the Aleutian is. of Attu and Shemya.
G. g. delicata. From n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,c Mackenzie and s Keewatin e across n Canada to c Labrador, s to s Alaska w to Unalaska and Aleutians, s to c Calif., ec Arizona, n New Mexico, n Colorado, w Nebraska, and from c Iowa e across c,n U.S. to nw Pennsylvania, n New Jersey and New England.
Gallinago nigripennis AFRICAN SNIPE. Marshes, wet
grassland. Locally in s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, e Zaire, Rwanda,
Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana,
Zimbabwe, Angola, ne Namibia and S. Africa. Sometimes treated as
a subspecies of G. gallinago.
Gallinago macrodactyla MADAGASCAR SNIPE. Marshes. Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar. Sometimes treated as a subspecies of G. gallinago.
Gallinago paraguaiae SOUTH AMERICAN SNIPE. Wet grassland, swamps, marshes. Sometimes treated as subspecies of G. gallinago.
G. p. paraguaiae. Lowlands of S. America e of the Andes
from e Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s to e Peru, n,e Bolivia,
Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay and n Argentina to Mendoza, Córdoba and
G. p. magellanica. S S. America in Chile w of the Andes from Atacama s to Cape Horn, and s Argentina from Neuquén and Río Negro s to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands.
Gallinago andina PUNA SNIPE. Rivers flowing through
bogs. Puna zone in the Andes from n Peru s through w,c Bolivia to
n Chile and nw Argentina. Sometimes included in G. gallinago or in
G. paraguaiae, but differs in habitat and courtship behavior.
Gallinago nobilis NOBLE SNIPE. Grassy bogs, wet savanna. Andes, 2000-3900 m in Colombia, sw Venezuela in Táchira and Ecuador.
Gallinago undulata GIANT SNIPE. Marshy pasture, savanna. Lowlands to 1500 m from nc,se Colombia, n,s Venezuela and Guianas s to n Brazil; se Brazil, Paraguay and probably Uruguay.
Gallinago jamesoni ANDEAN SNIPE. Grassy bogs, wet meadows, swampy woods. Mts., 2100-4200 m from Colombia and w Venezuela s through the Andes of Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia. Sometimes included in G. stricklandi, but differs in courtship behavior.
Gallinago stricklandii FUEGIAN SNIPE. Grassy bogs,
wet meadows, swampy woods. Mostly in the mts. in s Chile n to Cautín
and Concepción and s Argentina in Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego;
Gallinago imperialis IMPERIAL SNIPE. Bogs, tall grass in elfin forest. Locally in the Andes, 2700-3550 m in Colombia and e Peru in Piura, La Libertad, Amazonas and Cuzco.
Lymnocryptes minimus JACK SNIPE. Swamps, bogs, wet grass; marshes and flooded fields in migration. From n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Kolyma River, s to Latvia, c Russia and c Siberia.
Coenocorypha pusilla CHATHAM ISLANDS SNIPE. Forest floor, scrub. South-east I. in the Chatham Islands. Sometimes lumped with aucklandica, but differs enough, plus geographic isolation, to be considered to be an allospecies.
Coenocorypha aucklandica SUBANTARCTIC SNIPE. Bush, scrub. New Zealand region in the Auckland, Antipodes and Snares islands, and small islands off Stewart Island, s of the South Island of New Zealand.
Limosa limosa BLACK-TAILED GODWIT. Marshy grassland, wet meadows, steppe and moorland; marshes to mudflats in migration. From Iceland, Faroe Is., s Scandinavia, Baltic states, c Russia, c Siberia to Ussuriland and probably Kamchatka, s to s Europe, sc Russia, n,e Kazakhstan, nw China, Mongolia and Manchuria from w Heilungkiang s to w Liaoning.
Limosa haemastica HUDSONIAN GODWIT. Grassy tundra near water; wet areas in migration. Locally in sc,w Alaska in the Cook Inlet area, probably Kotzebue Sound and Norton Bay; Fort Anderson at the mouth of the Mackenzie River in Mackenzie; Chilcat Pass in nw British Columbia, ne Manitoba and nw Ontario.
Limosa lapponica BAR-TAILED GODWIT. Coastal and sedge-shrub tundra; wet area in migration. From n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia mostly n of the Arctic Circle to n Anadyrland; w,n Alaska from Wales e to Point Barrow and s to the Yukon delta.
Limosa fedoa MARBLED GODWIT. Marshes, flooded plains;
mudflats and beaches in migration. From c Alberta, c Saskatchewan,
s Manitoba and n Ontario s to c Montana, ne Colorado, c N. Dakota, ne S.
Dakota and nw Minnesota. Formerly to Iowa and s Wisconsin.
Numenius minutus LITTLE CURLEW. Bushy mt. tundra, open forest. C Siberia in n,c Yakutia in the Verkhoyansk and Cherski mts., possibly elsewhere s to n Mongolia, Lake Baikal and Amurland. Sometimes included in N. borealis, but morphologically distinct.
Numenius borealis ESKIMO CURLEW. Open tundra; grassland, fields, marshes, mudflats in migration. Nearly extinct; last specimen 1962 from Barbados, several more recent sight records. Formerly in nw Mackenzie, possibly w to w Alaska at Norton Sound.
Numenius phaeopus WHIMBREL. Sedge-shrub tundra, moors, heath; other wet areas in migration.
Old World and New World races differ slightly in vocalizations and are
sometimes treated as separate species.
N. p. phaeopus. From Iceland, Faroe Is., n British Isles, n Scandinavia, n Russia and locally in n Siberia e to Anadyrland, s to Orkney and Shetland is., s Scandinavia, c Russia and c Siberia, mostly n of Arctic Circle.
N. p. hudsonicus. From n Alaska, n Yukon and nw Mackenzie s to w,c Alaska at Norton Sound, Alaska Range and Susitna River highlands, sw Yukon and along w Hudson Bay to nw Ontario on nw James Bay.
Numenius tahitiensis BRISTLE-THIGHED CURLEW. Montane
tundra; fields, mudflats, beaches on migration. W Alaska near mouth
of the Yukon River and Seward Peninsula.
Numenius tenuirostris SLENDER-BILLED CURLEW. Bogs, swampy steppe, marshy forest edge; beaches and mudflats in migration. E Iran and sw Siberia in n Kazakhstan and w Altai. May be nearing extinction.
Numenius arquata EURASIAN CURLEW. Grasslands, marshes; mudflats and wet meadows in migration. From Iceland, British Isles and Scandinavia e across c Russia and nw,c Siberia to Transbaicalia, n Mongolia and Manchuria, s to w,s Europe, Crimea, Ukraine and sw Siberia in the Altai.
Numenius americanus LONG-BILLED CURLEW. Prairies,
grassy meadows; beaches, farms, mudflats in migration. From sc British
Columbia, s Alberta, s Saskatchewan and s Manitoba s to e Washington, ec
Calif., c Nevada, c Utah, s Colorado, c New Mexico, n Texas and sw Kansas.
Numenius madagascariensis FAR EASTERN CURLEW. Moors, wet meadows; mudflats, beaches, marshes in migration. E,se Siberia in e Transbaicalia, Amurland, Ussuriland and Kamchatka, n Mongolia and n Manchuria incl. Inner Mongolia.
Bartramia longicauda UPLAND SANDPIPER. Grassland, prairie, dry meadows, pastures, open woods. From nc Alaska, n Yukon, nw British Columbia, extreme sw Mackenzie, n Alberta and wc,s Saskatchewan e across s Canada to s New Brunswick and c Maine, s to e Washington, ne Oregon, Idaho, c Colorado, nw Oklahoma, nc Texas, and from c Missouri e across ec U.S. to c Virginia and Maryland.
Tringa erythropus SPOTTED REDSHANK. Marshy tundra,
taiga edge; marshes, ponds, etc. on migration. From Scandinavia e
across n Russia and n Siberia to the Chukotski Peninsula, s in c Siberia
to limits of taiga.
Tringa totanus COMMON REDSHANK. Marshes, wet meadows, moors, rivers, lakes, ponds; mudflats and estuaries in migration. From Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles and n Scandinavia e across c Russia and c,s Siberia to Transbaicalia, Amurland, Ussuriland and Anadyrland, s to s Europe, Tunisia, Turkey, Transcaucasus, Turkestan, n India in n Kashmir, Tibet, w,n China and Inner Mongolia and Mongolia.
Tringa stagnatilis MARSH SANDPIPER. Marshes, wet meadows; mudflats in migration. From se Europe w to Bulgaria and Romania, e across sc Russia s to Crimea and Ukraine and n Kazakhstan to s Siberia and Manchuria.
Tringa nebularia COMMON GREENSHANK. Marshes, bogs,
wet meadows, moors; ponds, lakes and mudflats in migration. From
Scotland and Scandinavia e across c Russia and c Siberia to Kamchatka,
s to Lake Baikal and n Amurland.
Tringa guttifer NORDMANN'S GREENSHANK. Grassy lagoons, swamps, wet meadows; marshes and mudflats in migration. E Siberia in s Sakhalin.
Tringa melanoleuca GREATER YELLOWLEGS. Muskeg, tundra; marshes, ponds, mudflats, etc. in migration. From s Alaska, sw Mackenzie and sc British Columbia e across c Canada to c,s Labrador, Newfoundland, ne Nova Scotia and Anticosti I. in se Quebec.
Tringa flavipes LESSER YELLOWLEGS. Tundra, muskeg; in migration marshes, ponds, lakes, etc. From w,c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,ec Mackenzie, s Keewatin, n Manitoba, n Ontario and wc Quebec s to ec British Columbia, c Alberta, c Saskatchewan and se Manitoba.
Tringa solitaria SOLITARY SANDPIPER. Taiga, nests
in trees. In migration on ponds, streams, mudflats, etc. From
c,sc Alaska, n Yukon, nw,c British Columbia, w,s Mackenzie, n,c Alberta
and n,c Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c,s Labrador and s to s Manitoba
and n Minnesota.
Tringa ochropus GREEN SANDPIPER. Brooks, pools, marshes, swamps; wet fields, mudflats in migration. From n Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia s to c Ukraine and c Siberia to Kolyma River, s to n Europe, Kirghiz steppes, s Siberia in the Altai and e to Amurland, nw China, Mongolia and n Manchura along the Amur River.
Tringa glareola WOOD SANDPIPER. Pond edges in taiga; lakes, streams, meadows, bogs, etc. in migration. From British Isles and Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Chukotski Peninsula and s to Denmark, Germany, c Russia, extreme e Turkestan, n Mongolia, n Manchuria, Kamchatka and Kuril and Commander islands; sw Alaska in the w,c Aleutian Is. on Amchitka, Attu and probably Adak.
Tringa cinerea TEREK SANDPIPER. River meadows, marshes,
stream banks, ponds, lakes; mudflats, bays, etc. in migration. From
Finland e through n Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland, s to c Russia and
Lake Baikal. Placed in the genus Xenus by Cramp, et al. (1983. Vol.
3, p. 587) and accepted by the East African and South African List Committees
(D. A. Turner, pers. comm.). The genus Tringa has been enlarged in
other recent publications to include Actitis and Heteroscelus.
Tringa hypoleucos COMMON SANDPIPER. Streams, ponds, lakes; coasts, marshes in migration. From British Isles and Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland and Kamchatka, s to Mediterranean region, Turkey, w,n Iran, Afghanistan, Himalayas above 1500 m, Mongolia, w,c,n China, Ussuriland, Kuril Is. and Japan; Uganda. Often placed in Actitis.
Tringa macularia SPOTTED SANDPIPER. Lakes, ponds,
streams; coasts and marshes in migration. From c Alaska, c Yukon,
nw,c Mackenzie, s Keewatin, ne Manitoba, n Ontario, n Quebec, Labrador
and Newfoundland s to s Alaska w to base of Alaskan Peninsula, to s Calif.in
interior mts., c Arizona, s New Mexico, c Texas, n portions of Gulf states
(exc. Louisiana), N. Carolina, Virginia and e Maryland. Vagrant in
w Europe; has nested in Scotland.
Often placed in Actitis.
Tringa brevipes GREY-TAILED TATTLER. Streams, lakes, mossy and scrubby hills; coasts, beaches in migration. Locally in mts. of Siberia on the s Taimyr Peninsula, Lake Baikal area, Verkhoyansk Mts., Anadyrland and possibly Kamchatka and Kuril Is. Sometimes treated as a race of T. incana, but morphologically and vocally distinct. Often placed in Heteroscelus.
Tringa incana WANDERING TATTLER. Streams, lakes,
mossy and scrubby hills, damp meadows, forest clearings; rocky coasts,
beaches in migration. Ne Siberia in Anadyrland and Chukotski Peninsula;
mts. of w,c,se Alaska, c,s Yukon and nw British Columbia. Often placed
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus WILLET. Marshes, lakes; mudflats, beaches, shores in migration. From e Oregon, Idaho, c Alberta, s Saskatchewan and sw Manitoba s to ne,ec Calif., w Nevada, c Utah, n Colorado, w,n Nebraska and e S. Dakota; formerly to w,se Minnesota and Iowa. Along Atlantic coast from s New Brunswick, Prince Edward I., w Newfoundland and Nova Scotia s to s Florida and w to s Texas. N W. Indies in Bahamas, Cuba, Beata I. off Hispaniola, Virgin Is. of Anegada and St. Croix, Grand Cayman I., Los Roques Is. off n Venezuela, possibly n Lesser Antilles.
Prosobonia cancellata TUAMOTU SANDPIPER. Beaches,
shores. Tuamotu Archipelago in the s,c Pacific Ocean.
*Prosobonia leucoptera TAHITIAN SANDPIPER. Extinct. Last observed in 1777. Formerly on Moorea and Tahiti in the e Society Islands, sc Pacific Ocean.
Arenaria interpres RUDDY TURNSTONE. Tundra; seacoasts, mudflats, lakes, etc. in migration. From n Greenland, Iceland, n Scandinavia, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, New Siberian Is. and n Siberia e to Chukotski Pen., s to c Greenland, w Norway, islands in the Baltic Sea and Anadyrland; from n Alaska and Canadian Arctic islands from Banks I. e to Ellesmere and sw Baffin I., s to w Alaska on St. Lawrence I. and the Yukon River delta and Southampton, Coats and Mansel islands, probably n Mackenzie and n Keewatin.
Arenaria melanocephala BLACK TURNSTONE. Coastal salt-grass
tundra; rocky coasts in migration. From Kotzebue Sound in w
Alaska s to Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, rarely to n Alaska Peninsula.
Limnodromus griseus SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER. Grassy or mossy tundra; rocky coasts, beaches, mudflats in migration. S Alaska from Bristol Bay e to Stikine River; from s Yukon, s Mackenzie and ne Manitoba s to ec British Columbia, c Alberta and c Saskatchewan; from interior Ungava Pen. s to n Ontario.
Limnodromus scolopaceus LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER. Grassy tundra, wet meadows; marshes, ponds, lakes, mudflats in migration. Ne Siberia from lower Yana R. e to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland; nw N. America in coastal w,n Alaska at Hooper Bay and from Point Barrow e, n Yukon and nw Mackenzie. Formerly treated as a race of L. griseus, but now known to be vocally, morphologically, ecologically and genetically distinct.
Limnodromus semipalmatus ASIAN DOWITCHER. Open boggy
steppe, wet meadows; mudflats, marshes, beaches in migration. Locally
in c Asia in s Siberia on the upper Ob and Yenisei rivers, s Lake Baikal,
Transbaicalia, s Ussuriland, Mongolia and n Manchuria.
Aphriza virgata SURFBIRD. Open rocky ground above treeline; rocky coasts in migration. Mts. in c Alaska in theAlaska Range, Fortymile River system and Yukon, exc. se.
Calidris tenuirostris GREAT KNOT. Barren or stony tundra; rocky coasts, beaches, mudflats in migration. Mts. of ne Siberia from the lower Kolyma R. e to Anadyrland, probably from Verkhoyansk Mts. e to Sea of Okhotsk.
Calidris canutus RED KNOT. Barren or stony tundra; coasts, mudflats, beaches, etc. in migration. From n Greenland and Spitsbergen e to New Siberian and Wrangel islands; nw,n Alaska from Seward Pen. and Delong Mts. e to Point Barrow and probably farther e, and Canadian Arctic islands e to Ellesmere and s to s Victoria and Southampton islands.
Calidris alba SANDERLING. Dry sedge, barren or stony
tundra; beaches, mudflats in migration. N Greenland, Spitsbergen,
n Siberia; n Alaska at Barrow; from Banks, Prince Patrick, Lougheed and
n Ellesmere islands s to n Mackenzie, w Victoria I., n Keewatin on the
Melville Pen., nw coast of Hudson Bay at Cape Fullerton, and Southampton
and n Baffin islands.
Calidris pusilla SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. Open tundra; mudflats, ponds, wet areas in migration. E. Siberia on the Chukotski Peninsula and from Arctic coast of w,n Alaska s to Norton Bay, n Yukon, n Mackenzie, Canadian Arctic islands of Banks, Victoria, King William, c Baffin and probably others, and n Labrador s to w Alaska at the mouth of the Yukon Rl, ec Mackenzie, se Keewatin, ne Manitoba, Southampton I., n Ontario, n Quebec and coastal Labrador.
Calidris mauri WESTERN SANDPIPER. Coastal sedge tundra;
mudflats, beaches, etc. in migration. Ne Siberia on e Chukotski Pen.;
nw Alaska on St. Lawrence and Nunivak is., coasts from Bristol Bay and
Kashunuk R. to Seward Pen., Point Barrow and Camden Bay.
Calidris minuta LITTLE STINT. Tundra; in migration mudflats, ponds, coasts, etc. From n Scandinavia e through n Russia and Novaya Zemlya to New Siberian Is. and n Siberia e to Yana R. delta.
Calidris ruficollis RUFOUS-NECKED STINT. Swampy or grassy tundra; in migration mudflats, beaches. Ne Siberia from Chukotski Pen. s to Anadyrland and Koryakland; n,w Alaska at Point Barrow, Seward Pen. and probably other areas.
Calidris temminckii TEMMINCK'S STINT. Tundra, grassy
meadows; in migration mudflats, coast, ponds, etc. From British Isles
and n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen. and
Calidris subminuta LONG-TOED STINT. Mossy or wet tundra; in migration beaches, mudflats, etc. Locally in Siberia in w Transbaicalia, Verkhoyansk Mts., Koryakland, Chukotski Pen., Anadyrland and near Magadan; Commander and Kuril islands.
Calidris minutilla LEAST SANDPIPER. Mossy or grassy tundra; in migration meadows, mudflats, ponds, etc. From w Alaska at the Kobuk River, n Yukon, n Mackenzie, s Keewatin, Southampton I., n Quebec and n Labrador s to Unalaska I. in the e Aleutians, sc,se Alaska w to Alaskan Pen., nw British Columbia and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to Anticosti and Magdalen is., New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia; Monomoy I. off Massachusetts.
Calidris fuscicollis WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER. Mossy
or grassy tundra; in migration mudflats, marshes, ponds, etc. From
n Alaska, n Yukon, nw Mackenzie and Banks, Melville, Bathurst and n Bylot
islands s to coasts of Mackenzie and Keewatin, nw Hudson Bay at Chesterfield
Inlet and Southampton and Baffin islands.
Calidris bairdii BAIRD'S SANDPIPER. Dry coastal and alpine tundra; in migration mudflats, marshes, lakes, pastures, etc. Ne Siberia on the Chukotski Peninsula; Arctic N. America from w,n Alaska from Wales and Point Barrow e to n Yukon and Banks, Melville, Ellef Ringnes and Ellesmere islands, and nw Greenland s to c Alaska in the Askinuk Mts. and Susitna River highlands, n Mackenzie, n Keewatin, s Melville Pen., and Southampton and sc Baffin islands.
Calidris melanotos PECTORAL SANDPIPER. Wet coastal tundra; in migration wet meadows, ponds, mudflats, etc. Arctic coast of c,e Siberia w to Taimyr Peninsula. N N. America from w,n Alaska from Wales and Point Barrow e to n Yukon, n Mackenzie and Banks, Victoria, Bathurst, Devon, n Baffin and Southampton islands, and nw Greenland, s to w Alaska at Goodnews Bay,c Mackenzie, se Keewatin and s coast of Hudson Bay to Cape Henrietta Maria.
Includes C. paramelanotos (Cox's Sandpiper) which is now treated as a hybrid between melanotos and ferruginea, although parents other than ferruginea are possible, including proposals for C. fuscicollis and Philomachus pugnax.
Calidris acuminata SHARP-TAILED SANDPIPER. Grassy
tundra; in migration marshes, wet fields, mudflats, ponds, etc. Ne
Siberia from Yana R. to Kolyma R. and probably Chukotski Peninsula.
A specimen from Long Island, New York, described as Calidris cooperi (Cooper's
Sandpiper) may have been a hybrid between C. acuminata and C. ferruginea.
Calidris maritima PURPLE SANDPIPER. Mossy tundra, moors, heath, coastal barren flats; in migration rocky coasts and lake shores. From w,se Greenland, Iceland, Faroes, Spitsbergen, Bear I., Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya and New Siberian I. s to Arctic coast of Scandinavia and nc Siberia on the Taimyr Pen. Ne N America from Melville, Bathurst, Devon, Bylot and Baffin is. s to Southampton and Belcher islands and nc James Bay at N. Twin Island.
Calidris ptilocnemis ROCK SANDPIPER. Grassy or mossy
tundra; in migration rocky coasts and breakwaters. Ne Siberia on
the Chukotski Pen. and Commander Is. W Alaska from Wales s to Hooper
Bay, St. Lawrence, St. Matthew, Nunivak and Pribilof is., and Aleutian
and Shumagin is. e to Sanak. Sometimes treated as a race of C. maritima;
its breeding biology is poorly known.
Calidris alpina DUNLIN. Wet coastal tundra; in migration mudflats, wet fields, beaches, ponds, etc. From e Greenland, Iceland, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya and Arctic coast of Russia and Siberia e to Chukotski Pen., Anadyrland and Koryakland, s to British Isles and Baltic region. N N. America from n Alaska, n Mackenzie on Baillie I., ne Keewatin and s Somerset and Baffin is., s to wc Alaska on Nunivak I. and Hooper Bay; Southampton I., ne Manitoba and n Ontario at Cape Henrietta Maria.
Wenink, et al. (J. für Orn. 135:337) compared mtDNA control regions of 155 Dunlins from 15 breeding populations and defined five major phylogeographic groups. This fragmentation is attibuted to the isolation of the five groups in tundra refugia during the late Pleistocene. The five groups occur in central Siberia, eastern Siberia, Alaska, Europe and Canada. The mtDNA differences are probably being maintained by the strong tendency of birds to return to the area where they were hatched (natal philopatry). Each group can be defined morphometrically as separate subspecies, but other recognized subspecies are not supported by the mtDNA evidence. C. a. hudsonia of central arctic Canada is supported, but merging of Canadian and southern Alaskan populations is not recommended because the mtDNA data show them to be the results of an ancient divergence. C. a. centralis of central Siberia is supported by a different moult pattern and by the mtDNA data. C. a. arcticola, arctica and schinzii are not corroborated by separate major mtDNA lineages. Birds from northern and western Alaska can be assigned to C. a. pacifica. The genetic structure of the European group probably began with the last retreat of the ice sheets ca. 10,000 years ago.
Calidris ferruginea CURLEW SANDPIPER. Dry tundra;
in migration mudflats, marshes, beaches. N Siberia from Yenisei R.
delta e along Arctic coast and New Siberian I. to Chukotski Pen., s to
Anadyrland and Koryakland; n Alaska at Barrow. See note about "C.
cooperi" above under C. acuminata.
Micropalama himantopus STILT SANDPIPER. Sedge tundra; in migration mudflats, wet fields, ponds, marshes. From n Alaska w to Prudhoe Bay, n Yukon, n Mackenzie and s Victoria I., se to se Keewatin, ne Manitoba and n Ontario at Cape Henrietta Maria.
Tryngites subruficollis BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER. Dry grassy tundra; in migration short grassland, fields, mudflats. From n Alaska w to Barrow area, n Yukon, nw Mackenzie and Banks, Melville, Bathurst and Devon islands s to s Victoria, Jenny Lind and King William islands.
Eurynorhynchus pygmeus SPOONBILL SANDPIPER. Stone
or shell banks; in migration mudflats and beaches. Ne Siberia from
Chukotski Pen. s to Anadyrland and Koryakland.
Limicola falcinellus BROAD-BILLED SANDPIPER. Tundra; in migration marshes, mudflats, beaches. Locally in n Scandinavia, n Russia on the Kola Pen., and n Siberia from the Yenisei R. e to Kolyma R.
Philomachus pugnax RUFF. Grassy tundra, lakes, ponds, swampy meadows, farmland; in migration also mudflats and wet fields. From s British Isles and n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia incl. New Siberian Is., to Anadyrland, and s locally to nc Europe and c Russia, Kirghiz steppes and sw Siberia in Altai and Lake Shira. Nw Alaska at Point Lay.
Phalaropus tricolor WILSON'S PHALAROPE. Marshes and
wet meadows; in migration ponds, lakes, mudflats. Coastal British
Columbia on Vancouver I.; from s Yukon, n Alberta, c Saskatchewan and s,ne
Manitoba e across s Canada to s Ontario, s Quebec and New Brunswick, and
s in the interior to ec Calif., c Nevada, c Utah, ec Arizona, wc New Mexico,
n Texas, c Kansas, w Nebraska, e S. Dakota, and from n Iowa e to n Ohio;
Plum I. off Massachusetts.
Phalaropus lobatus RED-NECKED PHALAROPE. Grassy ponds, lakes and marshes; in migration ponds, lakes, marshes; mostly pelagic in winter. From Greenland, Iceland, n British Isles, Faroe and Shetland islands, and Spitsbergen e across Scandinavia, n Russia and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen., Anadyrland, Kamchatka and Commander Is. From n Alaska, n Mackenzie, s Victoria I., c Keewatin, and Southampton and s Baffin islands s to Pribilof and Aleutian islands, s Alaska, nw British Columbia, s Yukon, s Mackenzie and n Alberta e across n Canada to n Quebec and Labrador.
Phalaropus fulicaria RED PHALAROPE or GREY PHALAROPE. Coastal tundra. Pelagic in winter; in migration bays, lakes, marshes, etc. From Greenland and Iceland e through Spitsbergen, Bear I., Novaya Zemlya, New Siberian I. and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland. From w,n Alaska s to Yukon R. delta and St. Lawrence I., e across n Yukon and n Mackenzie to Banks, Melville, Ellesmere, Bylot and n Baffin islands, s to e Keewatin, Southampton and Mansel is., n Quebec and n Labrador. Six vagrant records in New Zealand since 1883 - sight only with photos (Chance, G. 1994. Orn. Soc. New Zealand News, No. 73, p. 1-2).
Rostratula benghalensis GREATER PAINTED-SNIPE. Marshes with thick cover, swampy areas, rice paddies. Locally in Senegambia e through s Mali, s Niger, s Chad, nw,ne Egypt and s Sudan to Ethiopia and Kenya, s to s S. Africa. Recorded in all mainland subSaharan African countries except Djibouti and Congo. Madagascar exc. s. Lowlands to 1500 m from Pakistan and India n to Kashmir e through e,s China to Japan n to Honshu, s through se Asia to Greater Sumba Islands, Sumbawa, Philippines and Taiwan. In Australia widespread and rare in the east, rare and local in west.
Rostratula semicollaris AMERICAN PAINTED-SNIPE. Open swampy areas. Locally in lowlands in c Chile from Coquimbo to Arauco, Paraguay in the chaco, se Brazil, Uruguay and n,c Argentina s to Río Negro.
Actophilornis africanus AFRICAN JACANA. Lakes, ponds and marshes with much surface vegetation. Senegambia and sw Mauritania e across s Mali, s Niger, s Chad and Sudan to Ethiopia and s Somalia, s to c Namibia, ne Botswana and e S. Africa in Transvaal, Natal and e Cape Province. Occurs in all subSaharan mainland African countries except Eritrea and Djibouti.
Actophilornis albinucha MADAGASCAR JACANA. Lakes, ponds and marshes with ample surface vegetation. Lowlands to 750 m of Madagascar exc. s,se.
Microparra capensis LESSER JACANA. Lakes, ponds, marshes with ample surface vegetation. In Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, s Niger, ne Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, C. African Rep., and s Sudan s in e Africa through extreme ne,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,s Kenya and Tanzania w across Zambia, Malawi, se Zaire and c,s Angola, s to c Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa in n,c Transvaal, e Cape Prov., formerly Natal.
Irediparra gallinacea COMB-CRESTED JACANA. Swamps,
marshes and lagoons with floating vegetation. Lowlands in Borneo,
Sulawesi, sw Mindanao, Lesser Sunda Is., Aru Is. and Misool I. in the w
Papuan islands, New Guinea, Fergusson and Goodenough islands, and n,e Australia
from n W. Australia in the Kimberleys, e to Queensland and s to se New
S. Wales near Sydney.
Hydrophasianus chirurgus PHEASANT-TAILED JACANA. Swamps and marshes with floating or emergent vegetation. Lowlands and mts. to 3650 m from Pakistan and India n to the Himalayas from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh, s China, Hainan, Taiwan, s through se Asia (exc. n Vietnam) to Sri Lanka and the Philippine is. of Calayan, Luzon, Mindoro and Mindanao.
Metopidius indicus BRONZE-WINGED JACANA. Marshes and swamps with floating vegetation. Lowlands from India (exc. w Rajasthan) e through Burma to sw China in sw Yunnan, Thailand (exc. ne,sw), Cambodia, c Laos and s Vietnam; Sumatra and Java. Ranges to Malay Peninsula.
Jacana spinosa NORTHERN JACANA. Marshes with floating
vegetation, wet pastures, meadows, ponds, lakes, rivers. Lowlands
from s Sinaloa, s Texas and Tamaulipas s incl. Yucatán Pen. and
Cozumel I., to w Panama; Cuba incl. Isle of Pines, Jamaica and Hispaniola.
Hybridizes with J. jacana in w Panama and sometimes treated as a race of
Jacana jacana WATTLED JACANA. Marshes, wet grass, ponds, lakes, rivers. Lowlands mostly below 1000 m from Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, west of the Andes to nw Peru and e of the Andes to n Argentina s to San Luis, Córdoba, Santa Fe and n Buenos Aires.
Chionis alba SNOWY SHEATHBILL. Rocky seacoasts, usually near penguin or cormorant colonies. Subantarctic islands of S. Georgia, S. Orkney, S. Shetland; Antarctic Peninsula s to lat. 65°S. Migrant n along e coast of S. America to Uruguay.
Chionis minor BLACK-FACED SHEATHBILL. Rocky seacoasts, moist inland meadows. Southern Indian Ocean on Prince Edward, Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Heard islands.
Pluvianellus socialis MAGELLANIC PLOVER. Beaches and shores of ponds, lagoons, lakes. Lowlands to 1200 m in s Chile in the Straits of Magellan region, n Tierra del Fuego and ce,se Argentina in Santa Cruz Province.
Burhinus oedicnemus EURASIAN THICK-KNEE. Open steppes, sandy or stony areas in heath and scrub, open areas with sparse vegetation. Lowlands to 1000 m from se England, Germany, Poland and w,s Russia e to Kirghiz steppes and Turkestan, s to the Canary Is., n Africa incl. oases in Sahara s to Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, s Tunisia and c Egypt, e to Turkey, Near and Middle East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India n to Himalayan foothills from Kashmir e to Assam; Sri Lanka, Burma, c Thailand, Cambodia and c Vietnam in Annam.
Burhinus senegalensis SENEGAL THICK-KNEE. Lakes, rivers, esp. sandy banks with cover. In extreme sw Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., to Lake Chad, the Nile Valley, c Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, s to cn,ne Zaire, n Uganda and nw Kenya.
Burhinus vermiculatus WATER THICK-KNEE. Lakes, rivers,
esp. with sandy banks with cover, coastal estuaries. Senegambia,
Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon,
Gabon, Congo, n,ne Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda,
Kenya, Tanzania, s (exc. sw deserts) in Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe,
Botswana, ne Namibia and s Angola to s S. Africa w to sw Cape Province.
Burhinus capensis SPOTTED THICK-KNEE. Woodland edge, savanna, thorn scrub. In sw Mauritania, Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, s Niger, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, C. Afr. Rep., L. Chad area and c,s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and sw,e Arabia, s (exc. w,c forests) in Zaire, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa.
Burhinus bistriatus DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE. Arid open country with sparse vegetation, savanna, open woods. I. of Hispaniola; Mexico in Veracruz, Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Pacific lowlands from Guatemala s to nw Costa Rica; lowlands to 500 m from n Colombia e through Venezuela incl. Margarita I., to Guyana and extreme n Brazil in Roraima and Amapá. May include superciliaris.
Burhinus superciliaris PERUVIAN THICK-KNEE. Arid
scrub and grassland, adj. farms. Pacific lowlands in extreme sw Ecuador,
Peru and extreme nw Chile in Arica. Closely related to B. bistriatus
and possibly conspecific.
Burhinus grallarius BUSH THICK-KNEE. Open woods, sandy scrub, golf courses, orchards. Australia incl. coastal islands and Kangaroo I.
Burhinus recurvirostris GREAT THICK-KNEE. Rivers, seacoasts, beaches. Lowlands to 1000 m, mostly along large rivers, seacoasts and islands) in se Iran, Pakistan, India n to Himalayan foothills from Kashmir e to Assam; Sri Lanka; Burma (exc. Tenasserim), sw China, Hainan I., Thailand (exc. peninsular), and Indochina.
Burhinus giganteus BEACH THICK-KNEE. Rivers, seacoasts, beaches. Mostly along large rivers, seacoasts and islands. From the Andaman Is., Malay Peninsula and Philippines s through Indonesia, New Guinea and Bismarck Arch. to the Solomon Is., New Caledonia, and n,ne coastal Australia from n W. Australia w to Point Cloates, e to Queensland and extreme ne New S. Wales at Tweed Heads. May be conspecific with recurvirostris, but differs in bill shape and usually treated as a separate species.
In this classification there are 11 species of Haematopus, but the status of some allopatric populations is uncertain. Allopatric pied forms that differ in soft part colors, display or behavior are here treated as allospecies; relationships of uniformly black forms to pied forms vary locally and are often unclear.
Haematopus ostralegus EURASIAN OYSTERCATCHER. Sandy
and muddy beaches,, rocky seashores. From Iceland, Faroes, British
Isles and coasts of Europe e to n Russia and s to the Iberian Peninsula;
along coasts of nw Mediterranean, Adriatic, Aegean and n Black seas; inland
in c,s Russia n of the Caucasus, Turkey, nw Iran, s Russia (absent from
Transcaspia and higher e parts of Turkestan and Kazakhstan) and w Siberia
e to Ob River; locally in Kamchatka, n coasts of Sea of Okhotsk, e China
and Korea. Birds from n Europe winter from the Mediterranean, Red
Sea, Arabian seas, Persian Gulf s to s Africa, Sri Lanka, Burma and s China.
*Haematopus meadewaldoi CANARY ISLANDS OYSTERCATCHER. Probably extinct. Formerly on the e Canary islands of Graciosa, Lanzatore and Fuerteventura; last reliable report in 1913. Often included in moquini.
Haematopus moquini AFRICAN OYSTERCATCHER. Rocky seacoasts,
beaches. Coastal s Africa in Namibia and S. Africa e to Natal.
Haematopus finschi SOUTH ISLAND OYSTERCATCHER. Lakes. Highlands of the South Island of New Zealand.
Haematopus bachmani BLACK OYSTERCATCHER. Rocky seacoasts and islands, occasionally sandy beaches. Coasts and islands from s Alaska incl. Round I., Aleutian Is. w to Kiska, s to c Baja Calif. to Punta Abreojos and Isla Natividad. Sometimes included in H. palliatus, but assortative mating and limited hybridization occur in central Baja California where their ranges meet.
Haematopus palliatus AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER. Rocky
and sandy coasts and islands. Locally along coasts of the Americas
from c Baja Calif. on San Benito Is., and Gulf of California, s along Pacific
coasts to c Chile, Galapagos Islands and Isla Chiloé, but absent
from Oaxaca to Nicaragua; Atlantic-Gulf coast from Massachusetts s to Florida,
w to Texas and s to Yucatán Pen.; W. Indies in Bahamas, Greater
Antilles and on the Lesser Antillean islands of St. Barthélemy,
Guadeloupe, Grenadines, possibly Tobago; and Caribbean-Atlantic coast of
S. America from Colombia to sc Argentina, incl. most islands n of Venezuela
and e to Trinidad.
Haematopus longirostris PIED OYSTERCATCHER. Sandy beaches, tidal mudflats, estuaries. Coasts and islands in the Watubela, Kai and Aru islands, islands in Torres Strait, locally s coast of New Guinea e to Orangerie Bay (possibly only winter visitant), Louisiade Arch. on Misima, possibly as a vagrant; coasts and islands of Australia and Tasmania.
Haematopus unicolor VARIABLE OYSTERCATCHER. Sandy
beaches, seacoasts, tidal mudflats, estuaries. Coasts and islands
of New Zealand on North, South and Stewart islands and the Chatham Is.
H. unicolor has both black and pied morphs, the latter sometimes considered
to be a separate species, reischeki. The Chatham I. population sometimes
allied with finschi, but is probably closest to the pied form of unicolor.
Haematopus fuliginosus SOOTY OYSTERCATCHER. Tidal rocks on seashores, islands. Coasts and islands of cn,ne Australia in the Gulf of Carpenteria, Cape York Peninsula; Australia and Tasmania. Occasional hybridization with H. longirostris.
Haematopus ater BLACKISH OYSTERCATCHER. Rocky seacoasts and islets, beaches. Coasts and islands from nw Peru and s Argentina in Chubut s to Tierra del Fuego, Juan Fernández and Falkland is.
Haematopus leucopodus MAGELLANIC OYSTERCATCHER. Coastal beaches, inland lagoons, meadows, semi-desert areas. Lowlands to 900 m from c Chile n to Llanquihue and s Argentina n to Chubut, s to Tierra del Fuego and islands of Cape Horn region; Falkland Islands.
Ibidorhyncha struthersii IBISBILL. Pebbly shores or islands in rocky mt. streams and large rivers. Mts. to 4600 m, mostly above 1800 m, in Turkestan, Pamirs, Tibet, n,c China from w Sinkiang e to Inner Mongolia and sw Heilungkiang, s to Szechwan and Hopeh, and n India from Kashmir e to Sikkim and e Arunachal Pradesh.
Himantopus himantopus BLACK-WINGED STILT. Marshes, swamps, weedy lakes, flooded fields, stream banks.
Relationships within Himantopus are unclear; most allopatric populations differ in morphology, behavior or voice and are treated here as allospecies.
H. h. himantopus. Canary and Cape Verde islands; from c,se
Europe n to France and Hungary e across s Russia, s Ukraine, Transcaucasus,
Volga-Ural steppes and e to L. Balkash, Iraq, Oman, Yemen, and Iranian
region to w,c China, India s to Maharashtra and W. Bengal, Bangladesh,
Burma and Indochina (exc. Malay Pen.). Africa in Senegambia, Mali,
Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Cameroon, Gabon, C. Afr. Rep.,
Zaire, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania,
Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and S.
Africa. Madagascar. Formerly nw Egypt.
H. h. ceylonensis. Sri Lanka.
Himantopus leucocephalus WHITE-HEADED STILT. Swamps,
marshes, rivers, lakes, sewage ponds, estuaries, mudflats. Lowlands
in the E. Indies, w Papuan I. of Misool, New Guinea mostly s coast in winter
and one breeding record at Port Moresby. Fergusson I. in D'Entrecasteaux
Arch., Misima I. in Louisiade Arch., Bismarck Arch., Australia exc. Tasmania,
and New Zealand.
Himantopus novaezelandiae BLACK STILT. Marshes, dry shingle beds, swamps, mudflats. New Zealand on N. and S. islands, formerly widespread no restricted to colonies in n Otago and s Canterbury.
Himantopus mexicanus BLACK-NECKED STILT. Marshes, wet savanna, mudflats, ponds, flooded fields.
Following two races often considered to be separate species, and perhaps they are.
H. m. knudseni. Hawaiian Is. Main islands from Niihau
e, except Lanai and Kahoolawe.
H. m. mexicanus. From cs British Columbia, s Alberta, s Saskatchewan, e Montana, s Colorado, c Kansas and Gulf coast from Texas e to Alabama, and Atlantic coast from s New Jersey to s Florida, s locally through Middle America, W. Indies s to Antigua and Montserrat, and n S. America from Colombia on the Caribbean coast, Cauca and Magdalena Valley and e of the Andes; Venezuela incl. most is. off n coast, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, e of the Andes, to Ecuador and ne Brazil; coastal Peru; Andes of s Peru around Lake Junín and Lake Titicaca.
Himantopus melanurus WHITE-BACKED STILT. Mudflats,
marshes, wet savanna, ponds. E of Andes from ec Peru, c,s Bolivia,
Paraguay, Uruguay and se Brazil s to s Argentina in Río Negro; n
Chile from Antofagasta to Llanquihue.
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus BANDED STILT. Inland salt lakes. Sporadic and nomadic in w,s Australia from sw W. Australia w to Rottnest I., e to s Victoria near Melbourne.
Recurvirostra avosetta PIED AVOCET. Mudflats, lagoons, sandy beaches, lakes, estuaries. From s England and s Scandinavia e across s Russia, s Ukraine, Caucasus, Transcausus and from s Transcaspia and the Volga-Ural steppes to s Siberia in Transbaicalia, Mongolia and w,n China, s to Mediterranean region, Turkey, nw,cs Iran, cn Afghanistan, Pakistan and sw India in Gujarat; locally from Tunisia to Morocco; Spanish Sahara, n Egypt (formerly), Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, n Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and S. Africa.
Recurvirostra americana AMERICAN AVOCET. Marshes,
mudflats, ponds, lakes, estuaries. From s British Columbia, c Alberta,
s Saskatchewan, sw Manitoba, sw Ontario and Minnesota s locally to s Calif.,
c Nevada, n Utah, sc Colorado, s New Mexico and ne Mexico in San Luis Potosí;
e to c Kansas and coastal Texas; coastal Virginia and N. Carolina.
Recurvirostra novaehollandiae RED-NECKED AVOCET. Estuaries, tidal mudflats, swamps, lakes. Locally in Australia. Ranges to Tasmania and New Zealand.
Recurvirostra andina ANDEAN AVOCET. Salt lakes and marshes. Andes in the puna zone in s Peru n to Junín, c,sw Bolivia, n Chile s to Atacama and nw Argentina in Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca.
Christian, et al. (1992. Aust. J. Zool. 40:225-233), based on protein variation, propose the following changes from the names given below: 1. Charadrius rubricollis to be placed in Thinornis and called Hooded Dotterel. 2. Peltohyas australis changed to Charadrius australis, Inland Plover.
Pluvialis apricaria EUROPEAN GOLDEN-PLOVER. Moors,
bogs, swampy heath, wet and mossy tundra. From Iceland, Faroe Is.,
British Isles, Scandinavia and n Europe e across n Russia and n Siberia
to Yamal Pen. and region e of lower Yenisei River. Sympatric with
fulva in n Eurasia from the Yamal Pen. to e of the Yenisei River.
Pluvialis fulva PACIFIC GOLDEN-PLOVER. Grassy tundra. N Russia and n Siberia from Yamal Pen. e to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland. Along Bering Sea coast of Alaska from Wales s to Kuskokwim R.; St Lawrence, Nunivak and Nelson islands. Breeds sympatrically with dominica in w Alaska.
Pluvialis dominica AMERICAN GOLDEN-PLOVER. Grassy
tundra. From n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzie and Banks, s Melville,
Bathurst, Devon and n Baffin islands, s to c Alaska in the interior mt.
ranges, s Yukon, nw British Columbia, c Mackenzie, s Keewatin, ne Manitoba,
n Ontario at Cape Henrietta Maria, and Southampton and s Baffin islands.
Pluvialis squatarola GREY PLOVER. (=BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER). Tundra. From nc Russia w to Kanin Pen., e across n Siberia incl. Kolguyev, s Novaya Zemlya, New Siberian and Wrangel islands, to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland. From n Alaska w to Point Barrow s to w Alaska at Hooper Bay and Nelson I.; from nw,nc Mackenzie and Banks, s Melville, Bathurst, Devon, Bylot and w,s Baffin is. s to Yukon R., s Victoria I., n Keewatin and Southampton and Coats islands.
Charadrius obscurus RED-BREASTED PLOVER. Sandy beaches,
estuaries. New Zealand on N. Island from Auckland area e to Bay of
Plenty and on adjacent islands; s S. Island and Stewart I.
Charadrius hiaticula COMMON RINGED PLOVER. Sandy areas with low sparse vegetation, farms, grassy tundra. From Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is., Spitsbergen, Bear I. and Scandinavia e through n Russia (incl. Novaya Zemlya) and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen., Anadyrland and Sea of Okhotsk, and s to British Isles and n Europe, w to n France. W Alaska on St. Lawrence Island.
Charadrius semipalmatus SEMIPALMATED PLOVER. Sandy areas, grassy or mossy tundra. From n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzie, n Keewatin and Banks, Victoria, s Somerset and c Baffin is. e to n Labrador and s to Pribilof and e Aleutian is., w Alaska on the Alaskan Pen. and St. Lawrence I., Queen Charlotte Is., sw,c British Columbia, w Washington, sc Oregon, se Yukon, s Mackenzie, ne Alberta, and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c Quebec, and s along Atlantic coast to Gulf of St. Lawrence and s Nova Scotia.
Charadrius placidus LONG-BILLED PLOVER. Lake shores,
gravelly river banks. Se Siberia in Ussuriland, e China and Japan
on Honshu and Shikoku, perhaps elsewhere.
Charadrius dubius LITTLE RINGED PLOVER. Sandy or rocky shores of lakes and rivers, mudflats. From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and c Siberia to Amurland, Ussuriland and Japan s to Shikoku, s to e Atlantic is. (Canaries, Madeira), Mediterranean region incl. Balearic Is., Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Crete, Cyprus; from n Morocco e to n Tunisia and n Egypt, and from Turkey, Middle East and n Arabia e through s Asia to se Asia and the Philippines, s to Sri Lanka; lowlands to 1500 m in New Guinea and Bismarck Archipelago.
Charadrius wilsonia WILSON'S PLOVER. Sandy beaches,
tidal mudflats, savanna pools. Pacific coast from c Baja Calif. and
n Sonora s through Middle America incl. Pearl Is. off Panama, to nw Peru;
coasts of Atlantic-Gulf-Caribbean from s New Jersey s to Belize and W.
Indies s in n Lesser Antilles to Dominica; Caribbean-Atlantic coast from
Colombia e to ne Brazil (Amapá), incl. Netherland Antilles e to
Trinidad, Grenadines and Grenada.
Charadrius vociferus KILLDEER. Fields, meadows, pastures, mudflats, lakes, ponds and rivers. From ec,se Alaska, s Yukon, w,s Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c Quebec, New Brunswick, Prince Edward I., w Nova Scotia and w Newfoundland, s to s Baja Calif., Guerrero, Guanajuato, Tamaulipas, Gulf coast and s Florida; W. Indies in Greater Antilles e to Virgin Is., s Bahamas; Aruba; Pacific coast of Peru and nw Chile to Arica.
Charadrius thoracicus MADAGASCAR PLOVER. Arid seacoasts.
Coast of sw Madagascar, formerly also se.
Charadrius sanctaehelenae ST. HELENA PLOVER. Beaches, streams, flooded fields. St. Helena I. Sometimes treated as a race of C. pecuarius.
Charadrius pecuarius KITTLITZ'S PLOVER. Lakes, rivers, flooded fields, sandy beaches. In s Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep. e to Lake Chad, ne Egypt, c Sudan, Ethiopia, Djibouti, s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe and S. Africa. Madagascar.
Charadrius tricollaris THREE-BANDED PLOVER. Ponds, mudflats,marshes, sandy river banks. S Mali, c,e Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, sw,sc,ce,ne Zaire, Lake Chad area, s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, nw Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa. Madagascar.
Charadrius forbesi FORBES'S PLOVER. Short grassland,
rocky slopes, flat open country. Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea,
Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, s Sudan, w Uganda,
Tanzania, c Angola, n Zambia and ce,se Zaire.
Charadrius melodus PIPING PLOVER. Sandy and alkaline shores of interior shallow lakes and coastal sandy beaches. From sc Alberta, n Saskatchewan and sc Manitoba s to e Montana, e Colorado, nw N. Dakota, se S. Dakota, c,e Nebraska and w Oklahoma; Great Lakes region from n Michigan and s Ontario s to lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario; coast from n New Brunswick, Prince Edward I., s Nova Scotia, se Quebec and Newfoundland s to N. Carolina. Numbers declining, approaching extirpation in many areas.
Charadrius pallidus CHESTNUT-BANDED PLOVER. Salt
lakes, seacoasts. Locally in e,s Africa on rift valley lakes of sc
Kenya and n,c Tanzania; and from sw Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe
and ec Mozambique to s S. Africa.
Charadrius alexandrinus KENTISH PLOVER. Beaches, mudflats, rivers, lakes, ponds.
The three groups may be separate species although similar in behavior
and voice with only slight morphological differences.
C. a. alexandrinus. KENTISH PLOVER. From se England and s Sweden e across s Russia, Georgia to Turkestan n to Kirghiz steppes, s Siberia, Transbaicalia, s Ussuriland and n China to Japan from Honshu to Kyushu, s to Cape Verde Is., w,n Africa from Morocco e to Egypt, s to sw Mauritania and coastal Senegambia; Red Sea coast in Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Socotra I., Arabia, Iran, Pakistan in Baluchistan and Sind, w,n,s India in Gujarat, n Bihar; Sri Lanka; s China and s Ryukyu Is.; Sumatra, Java and Bali.
C. a. nivosus. SNOWY PLOVER. Locally on Pacific coast from s Washington to s Baja Calif.; int. N. America from s Oregon, ne Calif., w Nevada, Utah, sw Montana, s Saskatchewan, Colorado, c Kansas and nc Oklahoma s to se Calif., s Arizona, s New Mexico and nc Texas; along Gulf coast from Florida w to Texas and ne Tamaulipas; s Bahamas, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles on St. Martin; Pacific coast of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Guatemala; is. off n coast of Venezuela from Curaçao e to Margarita Island.
C. a. occidentalis. PERUVIAN PLOVER. Pacific coast of sw S. America in Peru and Chile.
Charadrius marginatus WHITE-FRONTED PLOVER. Open
shores of lakes, ponds, rivers and seacoasts. Senegambia, s Mali,
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, se Niger, Togo, Benin,
Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African
Rep., Chad, Ethiopia, Somalia, n Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya,
Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe
and S. Africa. Madagascar.
Charadrius ruficapillus RED-CAPPED PLOVER. Sandy or gravelly shores, dry flats near marsh, mudflats, seashores. Coasts and adjacent islands of Australia and Tasmania; locally inland on brackish or saline waters.
Charadrius peronii MALAYSIAN PLOVER. Sandy beaches, mudflats. Coasts and islands of Malay Peninsula in se,sw,peninsular Thailand and coastal Malaya, s Vietnam in Cochinchina; Sumatra incl. Lingga Arch., Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Is. e to Timor; Philippines.
Charadrius javanicus JAVAN PLOVER. Sandy beaches,
mudflats. Coasts and adj. islands of Java.
Charadrius collaris COLLARED PLOVER. Beaches, sandy savanna, rivers, lakes, ponds. Lowlands to 2550 m, mostly coastal, from Sinaloa and Veracruz s to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, w of the Andes, to nw Peru s to Lambayeque, and e of the Andes to c Argentina; c Chile from Valparaíso to Malleco; islands off Venezuela from Netherlands Antilles e to Trinidad and Tobago.
Charadrius bicinctus DOUBLE-BANDED PLOVER. Rivers, lakes, stony fields, coasts. New Zealand on N. and S. islands and adjacent coastal islands; Chatham and Auckland islands.
Charadrius falklandicus TWO-BANDED PLOVER. Sandy beaches, wet savanna, ponds, streams. Lowlands of c,s Chile from Santiago s to Cape Horn; coast and Patagonian lakes of Argentina s to Tierra del Fuego; Falkland Islands.
Charadrius alticola PUNA PLOVER. Ponds and river banks in puna zone. Andes above 3500 m from c Peru s through c,s Bolivia to n Chile s to Antofagasta and nw Argentina in Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán and Catamarca. Sometimes treated as a race of C. falklandicus.
Charadrius mongolus MONGOLIAN PLOVER. Mudflats, beaches, lakes, ponds, barren steppe.
The two groups are allopatric and distinctive; they may be separate
C. m. mongolus. Locally in e Siberia in the Stanovoy and Verkhoyansk mts., Pyagina Pen., Kamchatka and Commander islands. W Alaska from the Brooks Range s to Seward Peninsula.
C. m. atrifrons. Himalayas, 3900-5500 m from the Pamirs, Turkestan, Kirghiz steppes e through n India in Kashmir, Sikkim and Tibet to w China in w,s Sinkiang, w Kansu, Tsinghai and w Szechwan.
Charadrius leschenaultii GREATER SAND PLOVER. Sandy
and gravelly banks of rivers and lakes, barren stony flats, arid steppe,
semi-desert. From Turkey, Near East, Transcaucasus, Transcaspia,
Turkestan, Altai and sw Siberia e to w,n China, c Inner Mongolia and Mongolia,
possibly s to Iran, Arabia and Red Sea coast of Somalia.
Charadrius asiaticus CASPIAN PLOVER. Arid salt steppe with Artemisia, desert flats. Ne Iran, n Caspian Sea area, s Russia n to Volga-Ural steppes and Kirghiz steppes, (absent from Pamirs) and nw China in nw Sinkiang.
Charadrius veredus ORIENTAL PLOVER. Stony flats, lakes, rivers. Sc Siberia in extreme se Transbaicalia, Mongolia and Manchuria from Heilungkiang s to w Liaoning and Inner Mongolia.
Charadrius montanus MOUNTAIN PLOVER. Open plains.
From s Alberta, sw Saskatchewan, n Montana and ne N. Dakota s to nw,c,se
New Mexico, w Texas, w Oklahoma and w Missouri.
Charadrius modestus RUFOUS-CHESTED PLOVER. Coastal beaches, damp meadows, open pampas. S Chile n to Llanquihue and s Argentina in Tierra del Fuego.
Charadrius rubricollis HOODED PLOVER. Beaches, tidal flats. Coastal s Australia in s W. Australia from Israelite Bay to near Geraldton and inland on salt lakes to Balladonia and L. Deborah; coasts and islands of se Australia from S. Australia w to Spencer Gulf and Kangaroo I., e to New S. Wales n to Shoalhaven Heads; Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait. Placed in Thinornis by Christian, et al. (1992, cited above).
Thinornis novaeseelandiae SHORE PLOVER. Coastal salt
pools, flats. Chatham Islands, now confined to South East I., formerly
Erythrogonys cinctus RED-KNEED DOTTEREL. Shallow swamps, flooded fields, marshes. Interior Australia to coastal areas in the dry season. Ranges to s New Guinea and Tasmania.
Eudromias morinellus EURASIAN DOTTEREL. Stony steppe, plains, plowed fields, grassland. Locally from Scotland and Scandinavia e across n Russia incl. Arctic islands, and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen. and Anadyrland; mts of c Europe; from s Siberia in the Altai and L. Baikal region, and n Mongolia s to nw China in nw Sinkiang. W,n Alaska from Barrow s to Seward Pen. and St. Lawrence I.
Females are potentially polyandrous and compete for access to males on mating arenas. Males provide all parental care and are not active in mate choice. Brightly-plumaged females win more fights, do more courting, pair earlier in the season and are more likely to mate with a brightly-colored male. (Owens, et al.1994. Amer. Naturalist 144:76).
Oreopholus ruficollis TAWNY-THROATED DOTTEREL. Grasslands,
semi-arid open country. Locally on coasts of nw,c Peru and s Argentina
n to Chubut; Andes from se Peru s through c,sw Bolivia, Chile and w Argentina
to Tierra del Fuego.
Anarhynchus frontalis WRYBILL. Rivers. Coasts and mts. of c New Zealand on n South Island in the Canterbury district and n Otago.
Phegornis mitchellii DIADEMED SANDPIPER-PLOVER. Mt. streams and lakes, bogs, wet puna. Puna zone of the Andes in Peru n to Lima and Junín, w Bolivia, Chile and w Argentina s to Curicó and Chubut.
Peltohyas australis INLAND DOTTEREL. Bare or stony plains, plowed land. Arid interior Australia and coastal areas in c,se W. Australia and S. Australia. Placed in Charadrius by Christian, et al. 1992, cited above). This species sometimes has been classified as a glareolid, but biochemical evidence shows that it is a plover.
Elseyornis melanops BLACK-FRONTED DOTTEREL. Rivers,
lakes, mudflats, swamps, marshes, seashores. Australia incl. Tasmania;
New Zealand, mostly North I. since 1954, recently S. Island.
Vanellus vanellus NORTHERN LAPWING. Open fields, pastures, wet meadows, bogs, lakes. From Iceland, Faroe Is., British Isles and n Scandinavia se across nw,c Russia to Mongolia, n China and s Siberia to Transbaicalia, L. Baikal and s Ussuriland, s to nw Africa in n Morocco, n Mediterranean region, Turkey, Transcaucasus, n Caspian and Aral sea areas, and nw Iran.
Vanellus crassirostris LONG-TOED LAPWING. Lakes, ponds and marshes with floating vegetation. Lake Chad area and from ce,se Angola, ne,ec,ce,se Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania and se Kenya s to ne Namibia, n Botswana, n Zimbabwe, Malawi, s Mozambique and ne S. Africa in Natal.
Vanellus malabaricus YELLOW-WATTLED LAPWING. Open
dry areas, near marshes, farms. Lowlands of Pakistan in Sind, India
and Sri Lanka.
Vanellus macropterus JAVANESE LAPWING. Marshes, short grassland. Endemic to nw, se Java (possibly extinct), doubtfully recorded from Sumatra. Last observed in 1940.
Vanellus tricolor BANDED LAPWING. Pastures, plains, stony ground, beaches, short grassland. C,s Australia n to c W. Australia at the Ashburton R., s N. Territory at Alice Springs, and sw,c Queensland at Mt. Isa, Atherton Tableland, Cairns. Nomadic.
Vanellus miles MASKED LAPWING. Swamp edges, marshes, beaches, airfields, orchards, towns.
V. m. novaehollandiae is sometimes considered a separate species,
but it intergrades with V. m. miles in c Queensland. Both range widely
to other parts of Australia and to the Moluccas and Aru Is.
V. m. miles. S New Guinea from Merauke to Ramu R. and Sepik R.; n Australia from n W. Australia w to Dampier e through n Australia to Queensland, s at least to Cairns.
V. m. novaehollandiae. Se Australia from se Queensland n to Mackay, s to Victoria and w to S. Australia and Tasmania; New Zealand since the 1940's.
Vanellus armatus BLACKSMITH LAPWING. Lakes, marshes,
flooded fields. In Angola, se Zaire, Tanzania, w,s Kenya, Zambia,
Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe s to s S. Africa.
Vanellus spinosus SPUR-WINGED LAPWING. Lakes, marshes, flooded fields, sandy beaches. Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, ne Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Chad, ne Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and s Arabia, ne,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and n,e Tanzania.
Vanellus duvaucelii RIVER LAPWING. Sandbars and shingle banks in rivers. N,c,e India, sw China, Indochina (exc. sw Thailand and Malay Pen.); Hong Kong. Sometimes treated as a race of V. spinosus.
Vanellus tectus BLACK-HEADED LAPWING. Thorn bush,
arid scrub. Lowlands to 1200 m in Mauritania, Mali, Senegambia, Burkina
Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, n Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger,
n Nigeria, ne Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia,
ne Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.
Vanellus melanocephalus SPOT-BREASTED LAPWING. Grassland. Mts. above 3000 m of Ethiopia.
Vanellus cinereus GREY-HEADED LAPWING. Open plains, marshy areas. Ne China and Japan on Honshu.
Vanellus indicus RED-WATTLED LAPWING. Marshes, rivers, rice stubble, farms, open forest. From se Turkey, Iraq, s,e Iran, ne Arabia in Oman and s Turkmenia e through Afghanistan, Pakistan and India to sw China and Indochina s to n Malaya.
Vanellus albiceps WHITE-HEADED LAPWING. Seasonal
rivers, sandy beaches. Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina
Faso, se Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast,
Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad,
sw Sudan, nw,cn Zaire, and s to nw Angola, sw,sc,se,ce Zaire, e,s Tanzania,
Malawi, Zambia, ne Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, c,s Mozambique and ne
S. Africa in e Transvaal.
Vanellus senegallus WATTLED LAPWING. Swamps, marshes, lakes, farms. Sw Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w Kenya and w Tanzania, s (exc. w,c forests) to Angola, n Namibia, n,e Botswana and e S. Africa in Transvaal, n Orange Free State, Natal.
Vanellus lugubris SENEGAL LAPWING. Savanna woodland. Guinea, Sierra Leone, s Mali, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Gabon, Congo Rep., Zaire, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, c,se Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, s to c Angola, e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa in e Transvaal and n Natal.
Vanellus melanopterus BLACK-WINGED LAPWING. Grassland.
Mts. of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya and nc Tanzania; S. Africa in e Transvaal,
Swaziland, Natal, Orange Free State and e,s Cape Province.
Vanellus coronatus CROWNED LAPWING. Steppe, dry pastures, arid brush, desert. C Angola, cs,se,ce,ne Zaire, Uganda, se Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, (exc. se), Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique (exc. ne), Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to S. Africa.
Vanellus superciliosus BROWN-CHESTED LAPWING. Savanna woodland, grassy lake shores. Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., n Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania; verified breeding only in Nigeria.
Vanellus gregarius SOCIABLE LAPWING. Dry steppe with
Stipa grass or Artemisia.
Cs Russia w to e Ukraine and lower Volga R., s and e to Kirghiz steppes, c Kazakhstan and
Vanellus leucurus WHITE-TAILED LAPWING. Marshes,
flooded fields, lakes, rivers.
Cs Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, s Kazakhstan, Transcaspia, Turkestan and probably w Afghanistan.
Vanellus cayanus PIED LAPWING. Sandy river banks,
sandbars, savanna ponds.
Lowlands to 500 m e of the Andes from e Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas s to e Peru, n,e Bolivia, Paraguay, and s Brazil s to Mato Grosso and Paraná.
Vanellus chilensis SOUTHERN LAPWING. Open country, savanna, fields, marshes.
V. c. cayennensis. From Colombia, locally to 3100 m, (absent
from Nariño), Venezuela and the Guianas s (mostly in lowlands and
Andean foothills, but absent from most of w Amazonia), e of the Andes through
e Ecuador and c,e Brazil to n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina
probably s to Buenos Aires.
V. c. chilensis. Chile from Atacama s, and Argentina from Mendoza and Río Negro s to Tierra del Fuego.
Vanellus resplendens ANDEAN LAPWING. Grassy fields,
open country, puna. Andes, 2500-4000 m from s Colombia s through
Ecuador, Peru and c,s Bolivia to n Chile s to Antofagasta, and nw Argentina
in Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán and Catamarca.
Usually occurs at higher elevations than V. chilensis.