Suborder Mesitornithini inc. sedis
Eurypyga helias SUNBITTERN. Wooded swamps, humid forest along streams. Lowlands to 1800 m on the Gulf-Caribbean slope of Tabasco, n Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua; both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas s, w of the Andes to nw Peru and e of the Andes through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Brazil, s to Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Goiás. The Sunbittern seems to have no close living relatives.
Tetrax tetrax LITTLE BUSTARD.
Arid grassland, heath, hills, farms. From the Iberian Peninsula,
France, s Italy, Sardinia, Balkans, n Greece and n Morocco, e through Turkey
and from Ukraine and Black Sea area e to Caspian Sea and s to Caucasus,
Kazakhstan, Altai, Kirghiz steppes and Turkestan; sw Transcaspia, and n
Iran to w,ne China, Mongolia and cs Siberia in Transbaicalia.
Otis tarda GREAT BUSTARD. Arid steppe, dry heath, farms. From Iberian Pen., Germany, Poland Czechoslovakia and Balkans and nw Africa in n Morocco, e through Turkey, nw Iran, Ukraine to Black Sea e to Caspian Sea and s to n Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Altai, Kirghiz steppes
and Turkestan; sw Transcaspia, to Mongolia and w China in nw Sinkiang.
Neotis denhami STANLEY BUSTARD. Grassland, savanna, open woods. Senegambia, s Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to w Ethiopia, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,sw Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, s to s Angola, n Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and c Mozambique; S. Africa in e,s Transvaal, e Orange Free State, Natal, e,s Cape Province. Includes burchellii known only from the unique type specimen. The specific name "cafra" (now suppressed) formerly was applied to this species, but belongs to a subspecies of Eupodotis senegalensis.
Neotis ludwigii LUDWIG'S BUSTARD.
Stony veld with scattered vegetation, open grassy plains, coastal desert,
farms. Sw Angola, w,s Namibia, sw Botswana and S. Africa s to s Cape
Prov., sw Transvaal and w Orange Free State.
Neotis nuba NUBIAN BUSTARD. Desert scrub, arid savanna. Mauritania e through Mali, Niger, c Chad and c Sudan to the Red Sea coast.
Neotis heuglinii HEUGLIN'S BUSTARD. Sparse dry scrub, open woods, desert savanna. E Ethiopia exc. nw, Djibouti, n Somalia and nw Kenya.
Ardeotis arabs ARABIAN BUSTARD. Dry savanna, desert scrub. Probably in Morocco; from sw Mauritania and Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, s Niger, s Chad in Lake Chad region, and s Sudan to nw,nc Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and sw Arabia, incl. Yemen.
Ardeotis kori KORI BUSTARD.
Arid grassland. Two disjunct populations: Ne Africa in extreme
se Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Kenya and n Tanzania. Southern
Africa from s Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and s Mozambique s to
S. Africa, exc. Lesotho, Natal and e Cape Prov.
Ardeotis nigriceps INDIAN BUSTARD. Grassland, wasteland. Lowlands, at least formerly, in Pakistan in Sind and Punjab, and w,c India e to W. Bengal and Orissa, s to Tamil Nadu. Range now much reduced, occurs mostly in parts of sw India.
Ardeotis australis AUSTRALIAN BUSTARD. Grassland, savanna, light scrub, fields. Lowlands in s New Guinea locally between Digul River and Fly R.; n,c,sc,ne Australia s to cs,se W. Australia, n S. Australia, nw New S. Wales and sw,ce Queensland. Now rare and local in s half of breeding range. Ranges to sw,se Australia.
Chlamydotis undulata HOUBARA BUSTARD.
Arid plains, steppes, semi-desert. Canary Is. of Fuerteventura and
Lanzarote; n Africa from n Mauritania, Spanish Sahara and Morocco e to
n Libya, n Sudan and w,n Egypt, incl. Sinai Pen., formerly c Egypt; s Israel,
s Syria and locally from extreme e Turkey, Near East, Arabia, Iran, Transcaucasus
and from Kazakhstan e to Altai and Turkestan, s to Transcaspia, e to Mongolia,
w China and w Pakistan in sw Baluchistan.
Eupodotis savilei SAVILE'S BUSTARD. Sparsely-wooded savanna. In sw Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, e through s Niger, n Nigeria and s Chad to c Sudan. Sometimes included in E. ruficrista, but is vocally distinct and allopatric. E. savilei and E. gindiana occur within a few hundred kilometers of each other in s Sudan, but details are lacking and it is not known if they are in contact and interbreed. Both are completely isolated from ruficrista.
Eupodotis gindiana BUFF-CRESTED BUSTARD.
Sparsely-wooded savanna. From extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia (exc. nw)
and Somalia s through Uganda and Kenya to c, ne Tanzania. Sometimes
included in E. ruficrista, but is vocally distinct and allopatric.
Closely related to savilei.
Eupodotis ruficrista RED-CRESTED BUSTARD. Sparsely-wooded and arid savanna.
S Angola, s Zambia, Zimbabwe, s Mozambique, Namibia (exc. sw), Botswana, and n,e S. Africa in cn Cape Prov., Transvaal, Swaziland, w,n Orange Free State and n Natal.
The East African List Committee consider gindiana and savilei conspecific with ruficrista (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) agree, but note that "further investigation is clearly needed". It seems premature to lump these three species when so many questions remain.
Eupodotis afraoides WHITE-QUILLED BUSTARD or WHITE-WINGED KORHAAN. Slightly scrubby grassland and savanna. Sw Angola, Botswana (exc. extreme n,e), n,c,e Namibia and S. Africa in n,c Cape Prov., w Transvaal and Orange Free State.
Has been treated as a subspecies of afra, but their ranges meet in c and e Cape Province with little evidence of interbreeding, although a few hybrids, or apparent hybrids, are known. Crowe, et al. (1994. Ibis 136:166-175) showed that differences in their habitats, plumages, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and, possibly, social systems, "strongly suggest that they are distinct species."
Eupodotis afra BLACK BUSTARD or
BLACK KORHAAN. Lowlands with shrubs up to 3 m high, interspersed
with tall sedges; grasses not common. S and sw S. Africa in sw,s,se
Eupodotis rueppellii RUEPPELL'S BUSTARD. Dry scrub, sparse stony grassland. Coastal cw,sw Angola and w Namibia, exc. extreme s. May be conspecific with vigorsii.
Eupodotis vigorsii KAROO BUSTARD. Dry scrub, sparse stony grassland. S Namibia and w,c S. Africa in Cape Prov., sw Orange Free State and Lesotho.
Eupodotis humilis LITTLE BROWN BUSTARD. Dry open parklike country, esp. acacia bush adjacent to grassland. E Ethiopia and n,e Somalia.
Eupodotis senegalensis WHITE-BELLIED BUSTARD. Grassland, acacia veld, scrub, open woods, dry plains. Has been called Neotis cafra and Otis cafra - the name Otis cafra has been suppressed. See Neotis denhami.
E. s. senegalensis. Extreme sw Mauritania,
Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, n C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and c,se
Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, n Uganda, Kenya and sc Tanzania.
E. s. barrowii. From Gabon, s Congo Rep. and sw,se Zaire s through c,sc Angola, w,n Zambia and se Botswana to e S. Africa in ne,e Cape Prov., Orange Free State, Lesotho, Transvaal and w Natal.
Eupodotis caerulescens BLUE BUSTARD.
Grassveld. Highlands, usually above 1500 m, from s Transvaal, Orange
Free State and w Natal w to e,cs Cape Province.
Eupodotis melanogaster BLACK-BELLIED BUSTARD. Open bushveld, scrub, open woods. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, s (exc. forested w,c) to w Angola, ne Namibia, s,e Botswana, Zimbabwe and e S. Africa in e Transvaal, Natal and extreme e Cape Province.
Eupodotis hartlaubii HARTLAUB'S BUSTARD. Dry acacia veld, short-grass savanna. In ce,se Sudan, Ethiopia and nw,sw Somalia s through ne Uganda and sc Kenya to c,ne Tanzania.
Eupodotis bengalensis BENGAL FLORICAN.
Tall grassland with scattered bushes and trees. Himalayan foothills
in n India from Kumaon e to Arunachal Pradesh and n Assam; Cambodia, s
Vietnam in nw Cochinchina.
Eupodotis indica LESSER FLORICAN. Tall grassland with scattered bushes, grainfields. Lowlands to 1000 m in se Pakistan (Sind) and India from Gujarat, Rajasthan and Punjab s to Mysore and Tamil Nadu. Ranges e to Bhutan, W. Bengal and Orissa.
Balearica pavonina BLACK CROWNED-CRANE. Marshes, swamps, wet grassland. S Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan and Ethiopia, rarely to n Kenya.
Balearica regulorum GREY CROWNED-CRANE. Marshes, wet grassland. Angola, Zambia, ne,ce,se Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, n Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe and e S. Africa in se Transvaal, e Orange Free State, Natal and e Cape Province.
Subfamily GRUINAE: Cranes.
Grus leucogeranus SIBERIAN CRANE. Shallow swamps in forest, steppes on lake shores, tundra. Siberia in two isolated locations: Lowlands of the Ob River. Yakutia between the Yana R. and Alazeya River.
Grus antigone SARUS CRANE. Marshes, flooded fields, swamps. From Pakistan in Sind and Punjab, and n India w to Kashmir, e to sw China and plains of Burma, s in c India to Gujarat, Maharashtra and n Andhra Pradesh; nw,c, peninsular Thailand, s,c Laos and s Vietnam in s Annam and Cochinchina; n Philippines formerly on n,c Luzon; coastal n Australia from W. Australia at the Ord River e to Queensland from lower Cape York Peninsula s to Atherton Tableland.
Grus rubicunda BROLGA. Swamps, marshes, flooded fields. S New Guinea from Frederik Hendrik I. e to Fly River; from n W. Australia w to Onslow, e to Queensland and s through the eastern third of Australia to se S. Australia; absent from extreme se Australia.
Grus vipio WHITE-NAPED CRANE.
Swamps, marshes, lakes, esp. along river valleys. Se Siberia from
steppes of e Tranbaicalia e to s Ussuriland and n Manchuria.
Grus canadensis SANDHILL CRANE. Open grassland, marshes, swampy lake edges, ponds, rivers, occsionally pine savanna. E Siberia w to Kolyma R. and s to Anadyrland. N. America from w,c Alaska e across n Canada to n Keewatin and s Devon and Baffin islands, s (locally or formerly) to s Alaska, Oregon, ne Calif., ne Nevada, nc Utah, s Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, S. Dakota, Nebraska, n Illinois, n Ohio, w,s Ontario and w Quebec; se U.S. from s Mississippi, s Alabama and s Georgia s to s Florida; formerly se Texas. Cuba and the Isle of Pines.
Grus virgo DEMOISELLE CRANE.
(Anthropoides) Plains, steppes, desert, fields. Nw Africa locally
in n Morocco, formerly Algeria and Tunisia; Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Yemen;
s Spain and from se Europe e through ne Turkey to n Caspian Sea and Aral
Sea, w Kazakhstan, Kirghiz steppes and Altai to se Siberia from s Transbaicalia
to Ussuriland and n China from nw Sinkiang e through Inner Mongolia to
Grus paradisea BLUE CRANE. Grassland, veld, savanna. Locally in s Africa in n Namibia and S. Africa. Probably in Botswana. Often placed in Anthropoides.
Grus carunculatus WATTLED CRANE. Swamps, marshes, reedbeds. Ethiopia; from cw,sc,se Zaire, Zambia, Malawi and sw Tanzania s through se Angola, ne Namibia, n Botswana, c,e Zimbabwe and Mozambique to S. Africa in se Transvaal, e Orange Free State, w Natal and e Cape Province. Often placed in Bugeranus.
Grus grus COMMON CRANE. Tundra,
open forest, steppes, deserts, wooded swamps, marshes and wet meadows,
always in or near wet or moist habitats. From Scandinavia e across
n Russia and c Siberia to Kolyma R. and s to n Germany, Turkey, n Caspian
and Aral seas, Kirghiz steppes and nw Manchuria. Winters to nw, ne
Africa, Middle East, s India and se Asia.
Grus monacha HOODED CRANE. Mossy taiga bogs with stunted larches and bushes. C Siberia in Yakutia from upper Tunguska R. e to upper Lena R. and upper Amur R., probably e to Sakhalin, and nw Manchuria in Heilungkiang. Hybridizes with G. nigricollis and G. grus where ranges meet.
Grus americana WHOOPING CRANE. Freshwater marshes and wet prairies. Sc Mackenzie in Wood Buffalo National Park and adj. n Alberta. Formerly bred locally from s Mackenzie, ne Alberta, n Saskatchewan and n Manitoba s to N. Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa, and se Texas and s Louisiana. Intro. on Gray's Lake in Idaho, these birds now wintering in c New Mexico, rarely in se Arizona.
Grus nigricollis BLACK-NECKED CRANE.
Grassy shores, reedbeds and islands in lakes. Tibetan Plateau, 3950-4300
m in extreme n India in Ladakh, Tibet and w China from nw Kansu e to e
Grus japonensis RED-CROWNED CRANE. River valleys, lakeshores, marshes, wooded swamps. Ne Mongolia, ne China, se Siberia and n Japan on ne Hokkaido.
Aramus guarauna LIMPKIN. Swamp, marsh. Swampy forest in W. Indies. Se Georgia and Florida (exc. Panhandle w of Wakulla Co. and Florida Keys, where it is only a vagrant); lowlands to 500 m on Eleuthera I. in the Bahamas, Cuba and Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Hispaniola incl.Gonâve and Tortue islands, and Puerto Rico; from Oaxaca, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche and Quintana Roo, incl. Cozumel I., s to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of the Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay to Uruguay and n Argentina s to Buenos Aires.
Podica senegalensis AFRICAN FINFOOT. Locally along wooded rivers. Senegambia, s Mali, s Niger, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Gulf of Guinea Is., Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., s Chad, n,ne Zaire Ethiopia, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, s Angola, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana, n,e Zimbabwe and e,s S. Africa in Transvaal, Natal and e,s Cape Province.
Heliopais personata MASKED FINFOOT. Swamps, ponds, mangroves. Lowlands of e India in Bangladesh, e Assam, ne Manipur; Burma, nw,c,se Thailand, Cambodia, s Vietnam in s Annam and Malaya.
Heliornis fulica SUNGREBE. Forest streams. Lowlands to 2600 m on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s to Nicaragua, both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, w of the Andes, to nw Peru and e of the Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Brazil s to Mato Grosso, Bahia, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, Paraguay and ne Argentina in Misiones and s Corrientes I.
Psophia crepitans GREY-WINGED TRUMPETER.
Humid forest. Lowlands to 750 m e of the Andes from se Colombia n
to Meta, s,ne Venezuela in se Sucre, ne Monagas, Bolívar and Amazonas;
Guianas s to e Ecuador, ne Peru and Brazil n of Amazon from Roraima e to
Amapá and along Rio Solimões and Rio Negro.
Psophia leucoptera PALE-WINGED TRUMPETER. Humid forest. Lowlands in e Peru s of the Amazon R., n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil n of the Amazon along Rio Solimões and s of the Amazon e to Rio Madeira. May be conspecific with crepitans, but they seem to be sympatric in Amazonian Brazil.
Psophia viridis DARK-WINGED TRUMPETER. Humid forest. Lowlands of w Amazonian Brazil from Rio Madeira e to w Pará.
Cariama cristata RED-LEGGED SERIEMA.
Shrubby plains. Lowlands in c,e,se Brazil, Paraguay, e,se Bolivia,
Uruguay and n Argentina s to San Luis, La Pampa, n Santa Fe and Entre Ríos.
Chunga burmeisteri BLACK-LEGGED SERIEMA. Shrubby plains. Lowlands in e,se Bolivia, Paraguay and nw Argentina from Jujuy, Salta, w Chaco, w Formosa and Santiago del Estero s to San Luis and Córdoba.
Rhynochetos jubatus KAGU. Dense forest, brush. Mts. and lowlands from sea level to 1400 m, of se New Caledonia. Close to extinction; many are killed by dogs. The minimum total population in 1991 was estimated as 654 individuals. A subfossil species related to the Kagu is known from New Caledonia.
Himantornis haematopus NKULENGU RAIL.
Forest streams with dense vegetation, mangroves. Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon,
Congo, Cabinda, s C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and extreme cw Uganda, s
to sw,c,ce Zaire.
Canirallus oculeus GREY-THROATED RAIL. Dense riparian forest undergrowth. Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guines, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep. and n,ce Zaire.
Canirallus kioloides KIOLOIDES RAIL or MADAGASCAR FOREST-RAIL. Deep humid forest. Lowlands to 1000 m of nw,e Madagascar.
Sarothrura pulchra WHITE-SPOTTED FLUFFTAIL. Forest, riparian thickets. Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire and extreme s Sudan to Uganda and w Kenya, s to wc,ne Angola, cs,se,ce Zaire, extreme nw Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi and extreme nw Tanzania.
Sarothrura elegans BUFF-SPOTTED FLUFFTAIL.
Second growth, forest borders, tangled thickets. Guinea, Sierra Leone,
Liberia, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Cameroon, Fernando Po I., Equatorial Guinea,
Gabon, Congo Rep., wc,ne Zaire, extreme se Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Tanzania,
(incl. Pemba I. and Zanzibar), s to n Angola, sc,se,ce Zaire, Zambia, Malawi,
Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa in e Transvaal, Natal and e Cape Province.
Sarothrura rufa RED-CHESTED FLUFFTAIL. Riparian marsh. Sierra Leone, Liberia, Togo, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, s C. African Rep., sc,ce,ne Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,se Kenya and Tanzania, Pemba I. and Zanzibar, s (exc. forested w,c and desert sw) to Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, ne Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and S. Africa in Transvaal, e Orange Free State, Natal and e,s Cape Province.
Sarothrura lugens CHESTNUT-HEADED FLUFFTAIL. Rank swamp growth. Cameroon, Gabon, cw,nw,ne Zaire, Rwanda, w Tanzania; c Angola, se Zaire, ne Zambia and e Zimbabwe.
Sarothrura boehmi STREAKY-BREASTED
FLUFFTAIL. Lowlying wet grassland. Locally in s Mali, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Gabon, cw,sc,ne,ce,se Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w,sc Kenya,
Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and e Zimbabwe.
Sarothrura affinis STRIPED FLUFFTAIL. Arid savanna, forest edge, rarely bogs. Locally in mts. in se Sudan, w,c Kenya, extreme n Tanzania, Malawi, extreme ne Zambia, e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa in w Natal and s,e Cape Province.
Sarothrura insularis MADAGASCAR FLUFFTAIL. Forest edge, clearings, marsh. Lowlands to 1800 m of e Madagascar.
Sarothrura ayresi WHITE-WINGED FLUFFTAIL. Marsh grass, swamps. Three disjunct populations: Highlands of c Ethiopia, not recorded since 1948. Rwanda. High veld of e S. Africa in s Transvaal, Orange Free State, Natal, e Cape Province. Recent sight records from Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Sarothrura watersi SLENDER-BILLED
FLUFFTAIL. Moist grass. Seldom reported and status unclear.
Known from at least two localities in mts., 1250-1800 m in e Madagascar.
Coturnicops exquisitus SWINHOE'S RAIL. Probably wet meadows, marshes. Se Siberia in se Transbaicalia and s Ussuriland and n Manchuria in e Heilungkiang.
Coturnicops noveboracensis YELLOW RAIL. Swampy meadows, cut-over hayfields. Two disjunct populations: Locally fron nw Alberta, s Mackenzie, c Saskatchewan, n Manitoba, n Ontario, s Quebec, New Brunswick and probably Nova Scotia s to s Alberta, s Saskatchewan, N. Dakota, c Minnesota, s Wisconsin, n Michigan, s Ontario and s New England; formerly in Mono County, ec Calif., and to n Illinois and s Ohio and Connecticut. The Río Lerma marshes in Mexico. Between 1950 and 1980, Yellow Rails were not recorded at historic breeding grounds in California or Oregon and it was thought that they had been extirpated in the western U.S.
Coturnicops notatus SPECKLED RAIL.
Open savanna, rice paddies, farms, marshes. Lowlands to 1500 m e
of the Andes from se Colombia in s Meta, w Venezuela, Guyana, s Brazil,
Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina in Córdoba, Río Negro and
Micropygia schomburgkii OCELLATED CRAKE. Tall grass near water, marshes, savanna. Locally in lowlands to 1400 m e of the Andes in se Colombia (Meta), Venezuela, Guianas, extreme se Peru (Pampas de Heath), n,e Bolivia and c,se Brazil from Mato Grosso and Goiás and Bahia to São Paulo.
Rallina rubra CHESTNUT FOREST-RAIL. Forest floor. Mts., 1500-3000 m of w,c New Guinea from the Arfak Mts. e to Hindenburg and Victor Emanuel mts.
Rallina leucospila WHITE-STRIPED
FOREST-RAIL. Forest floor. Mts., 1350-1700 m of w New Guinea
in the Vogelkop in Tamrau, Arfak and Wandammen ranges.
Rallina forbesi FORBES'S FOREST-RAIL. Thick forest undergrowth. Mts., 1150-3000 m of New Guinea from the Weyland Mts. e to Huon Peninsula and the se ranges.
Rallina mayri MAYR'S FOREST-RAIL. Forest. Known from highlands, 1150-2100 m of cn New Guinea in the Cyclops Mts. and adjacent ranges.
Rallina tricolor RED-NECKED CRAKE. Sago swamps, dense riparian scrub. Damar I. in the Lesser Sundas, Tanimbar and Aru islands, Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool is. in the w Papuan Is., New Guinea, Yapen and Karkar islands, Fergusson I. in the D'Entrecasteaux Arch., St. Matthias Is., New Hanover and New Ireland in the Bismarck Arch., and ne Australia in n Queensland s to Townsville and inlant to the Atherton Tableland.
Rallina canningi ANDAMAN CRAKE.
Marshy jungle. Andaman Islands.
Rallina fasciata RED-LEGGED CRAKE. Rice paddies, riparian thickets. Lowlands in Burma (exc. ne), nw, peninsular Thailand, s Vietnam in Cochinchina, Malaya, Sumatra incl. Belitung, Borneo and the Philippine islands of Luzon, Culion, Palawan, Balabac, Mindoro and Mindanao.
Rallina eurizonoides SLATY-LEGGED CRAKE. Dense evergreen forest. Lowlands from n Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka e locally to s China, Hainan I., Taiwan and Lan Yü I, and Ryukyu Is. s through s,e Burma, nw,sw, peninsular Thailand and c Vietnam in c Annam, to Sumatra (possibly as a migrant), Java, Sulawesi, Peleng and Sula Is., Philippines and Palau.
Anurolimnas castaneiceps CHESTNUT-HEADED
CRAKE. Tall second growth, damp thickets. Lowlands to 1500
m e of the Andes in se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and n Bolivia in Pando.
Anurolimnas viridis RUSSET-CROWNED CRAKE. Grassy swamps, wet marshy meadows, second growth, towns, dry grassland. Lowlands to 1200 m e of the Andes from n,e Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s to e Ecuador, e Peru, n Bolivia (Beni) and Brazil s to Amazonas, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro.
Anurolimnas fasciatus BLACK-BANDED CRAKE. Marshes, tall wet grass. Lowlands to 500 m e of the Andes in se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and w Amazonian Brazil from Rio Solimões e to Rio Purús. Formerly listed as Laterallus hauxwelli.
Laterallus melanophaius RUFOUS-SIDED
CRAKE. Swamps, forest, boggy meadows, grassland. Lowlands to
1000 m e of the Andes from se Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Surinam s
through e Peru, n,e Bolivia and w,e,s Brazil to Paraguay, Uruaguay and
n Argentina s to La Roja and Buenos Aires.
Laterallus levraudi RUSTY-FLANKED CRAKE. Lakes, lagoons, swamps, boggy meadows. Lowlands to 600 m of n Venezuela from Yaracuy and Carabobo e to ne Miranda.
Laterallus ruber RUDDY CRAKE. Marshes, flooded fields, wet meadows. Lowlands from Guerrero, Oaxaca and Tamaulipas s along both slopes incl. Cozumel I., to Honduras, n Nicaragua and nw Costa Rica.
Laterallus albigularis WHITE-THROATED CRAKE. Damp grassy pastures, thickets, wet fields, marshes. Lowlands to 1600 m from se Honduras and Caribbean slope of Nicaragua s through Costa Rica to Panama, w Colombia on the Pacific coast n to Río San Juan, and w Ecuador.
Laterallus exilis GREY-BREASTED CRAKE.
Marshes, wet grassy areas. Locally up to 1700 m on the Caribbean
slope of Belize, e Guatemala, se Honduras on Río Coco, Nicaragua
and Costa Rica incl. Golfo Dulce region, Panama, n,e Colombia, Venezuela,
Trinidad, w Ecuador, e Peru, n,c Bolivia, Paraguay and Amazonian and e
Brazil. May be conspecific with L. jamaicensis.
Laterallus jamaicensis BLACK RAIL. Marshes, swamps, wet meadows. Locally in coastal Calif. n to San Francisco Bay area; probably nw Baja Calif., c Kansas; Atlantic coast from New York to Florida; Gulf coast in w Florida and e Texas; Cuba, Jamaica, formerly Puerto Rico; Veracruz; Belize; coastal Peru; up to 4100 m in s Peru, c Chile and adj. w Argentina. Probably other localities but difficult to observe or collect.
Laterallus spilonotus GALAPAGOS RAIL.
Deep thickets, dense grass. Galapagos Islands. Sometimes treated
as a subspecies of L. jamaicensis.
Laterallus leucopyrrhus RED-AND-WHITE CRAKE. Open marsh. Se Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and n Argentina in Misiones, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires.
Laterallus xenopterus RUFOUS-FACED CRAKE. Marsh, wet bunch grass. Se Paraguay and se Brazil.
Nesoclopeus woodfordi WOODFORD'S RAIL. Second growth, old fields. Probably close to extinction; known from the Solomon Islands of Bougainville, Santa Isabel and Guadalcanal.
Nesoclopeus poecilopterus BAR-WINGED
RAIL. Second growth, old taro fields. Fiji on Viti Levu and
Ovalau islands. Thought to be extinct, but supposedly rediscovered
Gallirallus australis WEKA. Scrub, forest borders, gardens. New Zealand incl. Stewart I. and Kapiti I. Intro. Macquarie I. Incl. G. troglodytes
which is now believed to be a color morph of australis.
*Gallirallus lafresnayanus NEW CALEDONIAN RAIL. Probably extinct; last reported in 1904. Forest. New Caledonia.
Gallirallus sylvestris LORD HOWE ISLAND RAIL. Moss forest. Lord Howe I., apparently restricted to steep summits of Gower and Lidgbird mts. Close to extinction.
Gallirallus conditicius GILBERT RAIL. Olson (1992. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 112:174-179) showed that the "Gilbert Rail", previously said to be "Probably extinct. Known only from type specimen from sw Marshall Is. and probably Ebon islands in the Gilbert Is. Erroneously reported from Apiang I." is based on a specimen of G. sylvestris which was mislabeled in the collection of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. Thus, conditicius is a synonym of sylvestris.
Gallirallus okinawae OKINAWA RAIL.
Swamp. Discovered in 1981 in mts. of n Okinawa in the s Ryukyu Is.
Gallirallus torquatus BARRED RAIL. Woods, marshes, grassland. Lowlands of Sulawesi incl. Peleng and Sula and Tukangbesi islands; Philippines; Salawati in the w Papuan Is. and adj. coast of nw New Guinea in the Vogelkop.
Gallirallus insignis NEW BRITAIN RAIL. Damp forest. New Britain I. in the cs Bismarck Arch.
Gallirallus philippensis BUFF-BANDED RAIL. Marsh, swamp, mangroves, scrub, woods, grass. Lowlands and mts. to 3600 m in the Cocos Is., Sulawesi; Flores, Alor, Sawu and Timor in the Lesser Sundas; Philippines on Batan Is., Luzon, Samar, Mindoro, Cebu and Mindanao; s Moluccas; Kai Is.; New Guinea; Bismarck Arch. on New Ireland, New Britain and Witu Is.; Palau; Vanuatu; Solomon Is. on Bougainville, Choiseul, Ysabel and Guadalcanal; Fiji; Wallis and Futuna; Samoa; Tonga; Niue; Norfolk I.; Australia in coastal areas and islands; Tasmania; New Zealand; Auckland and Macquarie islands.
Gallirallus rovianae ROVIANA RAIL.
Woodland. Lowlands of Kulambangra, New Georgia, Rendova and small
adj. islands in the central Solomon Is. Described in 1991 as distinct
Gallirallus owstoni GUAM RAIL. Forest, grassland. Guam I. in the s Mariana Is.
*Gallirallus wakensis WAKE ISLAND RAIL. Shrubs, low woods. Extinct. Formerly on Wake I. in ne Micronesia. Apparently exterminated by the starving Japanese garrison during World War II.
*Gallirallus pacificus TAHITI RAIL. Extinct. Formerly Tahiti, incl. Mehetia islet e of Tahiti. Known only from original description and illustration. No known specimens; last observed in 1774. Sometimes listed as G. ecaudata, but that name applies to a race of G. philippensis.
*Gallirallus dieffenbachii DIEFFENBACH'S
RAIL. Extinct. Chatham
Is. Known from two specimens. Last observed in 1852.
Often treated as a subspecies of G. philippensis.
*Gallirallus modestus CHATHAM ISLANDS RAIL. Extinct. Tussock grass. Formerly on Chatham Is. Apparently survived until ca. 1900 on Mangare islet.
*Gallirallus sharpei SHARPE'S RAIL. Extinct. Known only from type specimen of unknown origin, possibly from the Sunda region of Indonesia.
Gallirallus striatus SLATY-BREASTED RAIL. Swamps, marsh, mangroves, flooded fields, scrub, grass. Lowlands to 1100 m from India (exc. extreme w,n), Sri Lanka, s, coastal China incl. Hainan, Taiwan and s through se Asia to Andaman and Nicobar is., Sumatra incl. Simeulue, Riau Arch. and Belitung; Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Bali and Timor (vagrants?), and Philippines.
Rallus longirostris CLAPPER RAIL.
Salt and brackish marshes, locally freshwater marshes.
The three following subspecies groups have been listed as separate species, but obsoletus and longirostris are now known to be genetically similar; tenuirostris sometimes is treated as a subspecies of R. elegans.
R. l. obsoletus. Pacific coast from
San Francisco Bay marshes (extirpated in some areas where formerly abundant)
s to c Baja Calif., int. s Calif. and sw Arizona (Salton Sea and lower
Colorado River); Pacific coast from Sonora to Nayarit.
R. l. longirostris. Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Connecticut s to Florida and w to s Texas; Bahamas and Antilles s to Antigua; Guadeloupe; Quintana Roo on Chinchorro Reef, probably Cayo Culebra and Holbox I; Yucután and Belize; coasts of S. America incl. Margarita I. and Trinidad from Colombia s to nw Peru (Tumbes) and se Brazil in Santa Catarina.
R. l. tenuirostris. Interior Mexico from Jalisco, Guanajuato and San Luis Potosí s to Guerrero, Morelos and Puebla.
Rallus elegans KING RAIL. Freshwater
marshes, locally brackish, flooded farmland. From nw,c Kansas, e
Nebraska, Iowa, c Minnesota, s Wisconsin, s Michigan, extreme s Ontario,
c New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts s to c Oklahoma, w,s Texas, Gulf
coast and s Florida; Cuba and Isle of Pines. Sometimes treated as
a freshwater race of R. longirostris, but they intergrade abruptly or hybridize
rarely in Louisiana.
Rallus wetmorei PLAIN-FLANKED RAIL. Mangroves. Coast of nw Venezuela in Falcón, Carabobo and Aragua. Possibly a color morph of R. longirostris, with which it is sympatric.
Rallus limicola VIRGINIA RAIL. Marshes, wet meadows. From s British Columbia, nw Alberta, c Saskatchewan and c Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and sw Newfoundland, s locally to nw Baja Calif., s Arizona, s New Mexico, wc Texas, w Oklahoma, n Alabama, n Georgia and coastal N. Carolina; interior of c,s Mexico in Puebla, Tlaxcala, México, c Veracruz, Chiapas; sw Colombia in Nariño and Peru s to Lima.
Rallus semiplumbeus BOGOTA RAIL.
Lakeside marshes, reedbeds. E Andes, 2250-3300 m, of nc Colombia
in Boyacá and Cundinamarca; and Peru. A Peruvian population
(R. s. peruvianus) known from a single specimen and treated here as a race
of semiplumbeus is sometimes lumped with limicola, as is semiplumbeus itself.
Rallus antarcticus AUSTRAL RAIL. Marshes. Andes, both slopes, of s Colombia and Ecuador; Pacific coast of Peru from La Libertad to Ica; from Chile n to Santiago and Argentina n to Buenos Aires, s to the Straits of Magellan. Sometimes lumped with limicola or semiplumbeus.
Rallus aquaticus WATER RAIL.
Swamps, bogs, fens. From Iceland, British Isles and s Scandinavia
e locally across c Russia and s Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk, Amurland, Sakhalin
and s Kuril Is., s to n Africa from Morocco to ne Egypt, Mediterranean
region, Turkey, sw,n Iran,
probably Iraq, cn Arabia, probably w Afghanistan, n India in Kashmir, n China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan on Hokkaido and probably on n Honshu.
Rallus caerulescens KAFFIR RAIL. Swamps, reedbeds, paddyfields. Cameroon, Gabon, Angola, se,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, w Ethiopia, s Sudan, w,s,se Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, ne Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and s S. Africa exc. arid sw. Recent records from Sierra Leone and São Tomé presumably vagrants.
Rallus madagascariensis MADAGASCAR RAIL. Rank sedges, marshes. Up to 1800 m of e Madagascar.
Lewinia mirificus BROWN-BANDED RAIL
or LUZON RAIL. Wet grassy areas. C Luzon I. in the n Philippines.
Sometimes included in L. pectoralis.
Lewinia pectoralis LEWIN'S RAIL. Swamps, grassland, marshes, irrigated farms. Flores I. in the Lesser Sundas; w,c New Guinea in mts. 1450-2400 m; Adams I. s of New Zealand; coastal e,se Australia from se Queensland n to Cairns, s to Victoria and w to Eyre Pen. and Kangaroo I. in S. Australia; Tasmania.
Lewinia muelleri AUCKLAND ISLANDS RAIL. Grassy tussocks. Auckland Is. Often treated as a subspecies of pectoralis.
Dryolimnas cuvieri WHITE-THROATED
RAIL. Rank forest undergrowth, riparian marsh, mangroves, dry scrub
on coral. Lowlands of Madagascar and Aldabra I. Formerly Assumption
I., possibly Mauritius. Sometimes included in Lewinia.
Crecopsis egregia AFRICAN CRAKE. Open country, marsh, rice paddies. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and wc,s Sudan, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana and e S. Africa in ne,e Cape Prov., Transvaal, Lesotho and Natal.
Crex crex CORN CRAKE. Grassland,
riparian thickets. From Faroe Is., British Isles, coastal w Norway
and s Sweden e across c Russia to w Siberia to w Yakutia and L. Baikal
region, s to Pyrenees Mts. in s France, n Italy, Balkans, n Greece, n Iran,
Transcaucasus, Kazakhstan, Altai and w China in w Sinkiang. Winters
from the Mediterranean region to S. Africa and Madagascar.
Rougetius rougetii ROUGET'S RAIL. Montane marshy grassland, upland swamps, riparian thickets. Highlands, 1500-4100 m of w,c Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Aramidopsis plateni SNORING RAIL. Forest patches. Mts. of Sulawesi.
Atlantisia rogersi INACCESSIBLE ISLAND RAIL. Spartina tussocks. Inaccessible I. in the Tristan da Cunha Is. Atlantisia elpenor, described from subfossil bones from Ascension Island, apparently was extirpated between 1656 and 1704.
Aramides mangle LITTLE WOOD-RAIL.
Mangroves. Coasts, rarely inland, of e Brazil from ne Pará
and Maranhão e to Ceará, Pernambuco and Alagoas, s to São
Aramides axillaris RUFOUS-NECKED WOOD-RAIL. Mangroves, dense forest undergrowth. Locally in Sinaloa, Nayarit, Guerrero, El Salvador, Honduras, w Nicaragua, at the Bay of Fonseca, w Nicaragua; coasts and islands on Gulf-Caribbean slope on I. Mujeres and Las Bocas del Silán in Yucatán, Belize and Honduras on Isla Guanaja and I. Roatán in the Bay Islands; Panama on the Caribbean coast in nw Bocas del Toro and Canal Zone and Pacific coast in s Coclé; from coastal Colombia and locally in Santa Marta Mts., s to w Ecuador, e through coastal Venezuela incl. Patos and Los Roques islands, Trinidad and Guyana to Surinam.
Aramides cajanea GREY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL.
Swampy forest, mangroves, marshes. Lowlands to 2300 m from s Tamaulipas,
and Guerrero s along both slopes incl. Cozumel I., to Panama incl. Pearl
Is., and from Colombia (exc. s on Pacific slope only to s Chocó),
Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, e of the Andes, through e Ecuador, e
Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil to Paraguay, n Argentina s to Santa Fe and Buenos
Aires, and Uruguay.
Aramides wolfi BROWN WOOD-RAIL. Forest, second growth, mangroves, forested rivers. Lowlands from w Colombia s to sw Ecuador and possibly nw Peru.
Aramides ypecaha GIANT WOOD-RAIL. Riparian marshes. In e, se Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and ne Argentina in e Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, n Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and n Buenos Aires.
Aramides saracura SLATY-BREASTED
WOOD-RAIL. Forest. Se Brazil from s Minas Gerais to Rio Grande
do Sul, Paraguay and ne Argentina in Misiones.
Aramides calopterus RED-WINGED WOOD-RAIL. Forest streams. E Ecuador, ne Peru and extreme w Amazonian Brazil on the upper Rio Juruá.
Amaurolimnas concolor UNIFORM CRAKE. Thickets, second growth, wooded swamps. From s Mexico in Veracruz, Oaxaca, Tabasco and Chiapas, s (exc. El Salvador) to Panama, and from Colombia, n Venezuela, Guyana and French Guiana s, w of Andes to w Ecuador and e of Andes through e Ecuador and e Peru to e Bolivia and Amazonian, e Brazil from R. Solimões, R. Negro and R. Guaporé regions to Pará, Bahia, Alagoas, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Formerly on Jamaica.
Gymnocrex rosenbergii BALD-FACED
RAIL. Forest, abandoned rice paddies. Lowlands and hills of
Gymnocrex plumbeiventris BARE-EYED RAIL. Marshy forest, riparian grassland. Lowlands to 1200 m in n Moluccas, Aru Is. and Misool I. in w Papuan islands; New Guinea incl. Karkar I.; New Ireland.
Amaurornis akool BROWN CRAKE. Dense swamp, Pandanus brakes, riparian reedbeds. Lowlands to 800 m in India (exc. Kerala, Tamil Nadu, s Andhra Pradesh), Bangladesh, w Burma, n Vietnam in ne Tonkin, and se China, incl. Hong Kong.
Amaurornis olivaceus BUSH-HEN. Waterside grass clumps, flooded scrub, swampy grassland. Philippine Is., exc. Palawan and Sulu Arch.
Amaurornis isabellinus ISABELLINE
WATERHEN. Riparian scrub, rice paddies. Lowlands of Sulawesi.
Amaurornis moluccanus RUFOUS-TAILED WATERHEN. Waterside grass clumps, flooded scrub, swampy grassland. Lowlands to 1500 m on Sangi and Siau is. in the Sangihe Is., Moluccas, Misool I. in the w Papuan Is., n,cs New Guinea incl. Biak I., Bismarck Arch., Solomon Is., and ne Australia in Queensland incl. coastal Gulf of Carpenteria, and extreme nw New S. Wales; doubtfully N. Territory. Sometimes included in A. phoenicurus.
Amaurornis phoenicurus WHITE-BREASTED WATERHEN. Swamp, bamboo stands, rice paddies, lake shores, scrub, streams, marshes. Lowlands to 1500 m from Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, c,e China, Hainan, Taiwan, s through se Asia to Maldive, Laccadive (probably), Andaman and Nicobar islands; Sumatra incl. most adj. islands; Java and Kangean Is., Borneo incl. Natuna Is., Sulawesi incl. Tukangbesi, Tanahdjampea, Butung, and Sangihe and Talaud is., Philippines, Buru I. in s Moluccas, Lesser Sundas from Bali e to Damar and Romang incl. Sumba and Timor.
Amaurornis flavirostra BLACK CRAKE.
Rush-bordered lily-ponds, lily-mantled streams. S Mauritania, s Mali,
Senegambia, s Niger, s Chad, c,s Sudan, Ethiopia and s Somalia s to s S.
Africa. Recorded in every subSaharan mainland African country except
Amaurornis olivieri SAKALAVA RAIL. Rush-bordered lily-ponds, lily-mantled streams. Locally in wc Madagascar in Antsalova and Ambararatabe.
Amaurornis bicolor BLACK-TAILED CRAKE. Wet forest, marshy forest edge. Lowlands to 1800 m in ne India from Nepal e to Assam, Khasi and Cachar hills, and Manipur; sc China, w,n,ne Burma, nw Thailand, n Laos and n,c Vietnam in Tonkin and c Annam.
Porzana parva LITTLE CRAKE. Marshes, riparian reedbeds, lily-pads. From continental Europe s to s Spain, s France, n Italy, Balkans and Greece, e across c,s Russia to Kazakhstan, s to Transcaucasus, se Transcaspia and Tadzhikistan. Formerly in Algeria and Egypt. Winters from the Mediterranean region and n Africa e to n India.
Porzana pusilla BAILLON'S CRAKE. Marshes, shallow swamps, riparian thickets. From continental Europe n to n France, Netherlands, s Germany and s Czechoslovakia, Morocco and possibly n Algeria, and Sardinia e across Balkans, c,s Russia and s Siberia to L. Baikal, Transbaicalia, s Amurland and Ussuriland, s to Jordan, Transcaucasus, cs Iran, e Kazakhstan, n Kirghiz steppes, Mongolia, n China, n India in Kashmir, and Japan on Hokkaido and Honshu. Africa in cw Angola, Zambia, e Zaire, w Uganda, c Ethiopia, Sudan, Rwanda, w Kenya, Tanzania, s (exc. arid sw) in Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, ne Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa; Madagascar. W Indonesia on Belitung off Sumatra and e Borneo (single specimen) and Sulawesi. Lowlands to 2450 m in c New Guinea in Port Moresby area, c highlands, and Wissel L. area in Weyland Mts. Australia, locally, breeding certain only in se and extreme sw, but including Tasmania. New Zealand, incl. Stewart I. and Chatham Is.
*Porzana palmeri LAYSAN CRAKE. Extinct.
Formerly on Laysan I. in the w Hawaiian Is. Survived until sometime
between 1923 and 1936. Intro. on Easter I. in the Midway Group in
late 1800's and later on Sand I., survived on these two islands until World
War II, ca. 1943-44.
Porzana porzana SPOTTED CRAKE. Riparian rushes, bogs, shallow swamps. From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across c Russia to sw Sibera at Tuva, and extreme w China in w Sinkiang, s to n Mediterranean region, Balkans, probably n Greece, Transcaucasus, e Kazakhstan, possibly e Transcaspia and w,n Iran. Winters from Mediterranean region s to s Africa and e to India, Burma and Thailand.
Porzana fluminea AUSTRALIAN CRAKE. Dense rushes. Sw W. Australia; from se Queensland n to Cairns area, s to Victoria and w to Eyre Peninsula in S. Australia; Tasmania.
Porzana carolina SORA. Marsh.
From se Alaska on the Stikine River, nw British Columbia, s Yukon, wc,sw
Mackenzie, n Saskatchewan, n Manitoba, n Ontario, wc,s Quebec, New Brunswick,
Prince Edward I., Nova Scotia and sw Newfoundland s locally to n Baja Calif.,
c Nevada, c Arizona, s New Mexico, e Colorado, c Oklahoma, s Missouri,
c Illinois, sw Tennessee, c Indiana, c Ohio, W. Virginia and Maryland.
Porzana spiloptera DOT-WINGED CRAKE. Riparian scrub, towns. S Uruguay and c,ne Argentina from La Roja, San Juan and San Luis e to Buenos Aires.
Porzana albicollis ASH-THROATED CRAKE. Savanna, marshes, second growth,pastures. Locally in lowlands to 1200 m from Colombia, n,s Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e,s Brazil to extreme se Peru, n,e Bolivia, Paraguan and n Argentina in Tucumán, Misiones, Buenos Aires.
Porzana sandwichensis HAWAIIAN CRAKE.
Extinct. Formerly on Island of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Is. Last
specimen in 1864, last reported 1884. Several additional species
of crakes have been described from subfossil bones, all apparently extirpated
during the early stages of Polynesian colonization.
Porzana fusca RUDDY-BREASTED CRAKE. Reedy swamps, rice paddies, reedbeds. Lowlands to 2000 m from Pakistan, n,sw India, Sri Lanka, c,e China, Taiwan, Japan and Ryukyu Is.
s throughout se Asia to Greater Sunda Is. and Flores in the Lesser Sundas; Philippines on Luzon, Mindoro, Cagayancillo, Negros, Samar, Leyte, Bohol and Mindanao.
Porzana paykullii BAND-BELLIED CRAKE. Marsh, bushy meadows. Lowlands in e Siberia,
ne China and Korea.
Porzana tabuensis SPOTLESS CRAKE.
Swamp, bog, saltmarsh, mangroves, scrub. Philippines on Luzon and
Mindoro; Tioor I. in theWatubela Is.; w,c New Guinea mostly in interior
mts. up to 3100 m, locally in lowlands; Vuatom I. in se Bismarck Arch.;
sw W. Australia n to Geraldton; from Atherton Tableland and Rockhampton
in e Queensland s to Victoria and w to S. Australia; Tasmania; Chatham
Is.; New Zealand incl. Stewart I.; Raoul I. in the Kermadec Is.; and from
Carolines e to Marquesas, Tuamotu, and the Society and Tubuai islands.
*Porzana monasa KOSRAE CRAKE. Extinct. Formerly on Kosrae I. in the e Caroline Is. Last record in 1827.
Porzana atra HENDERSON ISLAND CRAKE.
Dense scrub. Henderson I. in the c Pitcairn Islands.
Porzana flaviventer YELLOW-BREASTED CRAKE. Marshes, rice fields, swamps. Lowlands to 2500 m in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico; from Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz and Chiapas s through Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua and nw Costa Rica to Panama
e to e Panamá Prov. and I. Coiba; from n,e Colombia e across w,n,ec Venezuela and Trinidad to Guianas and n,ec Brazil; e Bolivia, Paraguay and n Argentina in Tucumán, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires.
Porzana cinerea WHITE-BROWED CRAKE. Rush-bordered lily-ponds, streams, swamps. Lowlands from Malay Pen., Philippines, and Volcano, Caroline and Palau islands, s to Sumatra, Java incl. Kangean I.. Borneo, Sulawesi incl. Talaud Is., Lombok, Sumbawa, Sawu, Timor and Wetar in the Lesser Sundas; Moluccas; Kai Is.; New Guinea (rarely to 1700 m), D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Bismarck Arch., Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, and n Australia from ne W. Australia w to Kimberleys and e to n Queensland s to Atherton Tableland and Townsville.
Aenigomatolimnas marginalis STRIPED
CRAKE. Swamps, rice fields, wet grassy areas in savanna. Locally
in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, n Zaire, Uganda, sc Kenya,
Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, s to Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and e S. Africa
in Natal and e Cape Province.
Cyanolimnas cerverai ZAPATA RAIL. Tangled bush swamp. Known only from the Zapata Swamp n of Cochinos Bay in the vicinity of Santo Tomás in Matanzas Province, wc Cuba.
Neocrex colombianus COLOMBIAN CRAKE. Marshes, overgrown forest edge, wet savanna, swamps, wet grassy pastures. Lowlands to 2100 m in c Panama, w,n Colombia and nw Ecuador.
Neocrex erythrops PAINT-BILLED CRAKE. Reedbeds, fields, wet grass, marshes. Lowlands in w Panama; n coastal Peru; e of Andes from e Colombia, w,n,s Venezuela, Guyana and Surinam s through c,e Brazil to n,e Bolivia, Paraguay and nw Argentina; Galapagos Is. on Santa Cruz and Santa Maria is.
Pardirallus maculatus SPOTTED RAIL.
Marshes, rice paddies, wet grassy areas, swamps. Locally in lowlands
to 200 m in Cuba (probably Isle of Pines), Dominican Rep. on Hispaniola
and Jamaica; Nayarit, Michoacán, Guerrero, Puebla, Veracruz, Quintana
Roo, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Belize, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama; nw,se Peru;
from c,e Colombia, w,n Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Surinam and French
Guiana s through e Brazil to e Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina
s to Tucumán, Córdoba and Buenos Aires.
Pardirallus nigricans BLACKISH RAIL. Marshes. Andes, 800-2200 m in sw Colombia; e of Andes in e Ecuador, e Peru, n Bolivia, e Brazil, Paraguay and extreme ne Argentina in Misiones.
Pardirallus sanguinolentus PLUMBEOUS RAIL. Waterside thickets. From n Peru, c,se Bolivia, Paraguay, se Brazil and Uruguay s through Chile and Argentina to Tierra del Fuego, incl. Staten I.
Eulabeornis castaneoventris CHESTNUT
RAIL. Dense mangroves. Lowlands in the Aru Is. and coastal
n Australia from n W. Australia w to Kimberleys, e to nw Queensland on
the w shore of Cape York Pen.
Habroptila wallacii INVISIBLE RAIL. Dense sago swamp thickets, edges of marshes. Halmahera I. in the n Moluccas.
Megacrex inepta NEW GUINEA FLIGHTLESS RAIL. Mangroves, riparian bamboo. Lowlands of nc,sc New Guinea on the Idenburg River, Humboldt Bay and Sepik R. in the north, and the Setekwa, Noord, Digul and Fly rivers in the south.
Gallicrex cinerea WATERCOCK. Reedy swamps, ponds with rushes, rice paddies. Lowlands from Pakistan in Sind and Punjab, India s of the Himalayas, c,e China incl. Hainan I., and s Japan on Kyushu, s through se Asia (exc. nw,sw Thailand and Tonkin in n Vietnam) to Sri Lanka, Maldive, Andaman, Nicobar and Greater Sunda islands; Philippines and Ryukyu Islands.
Porphyrio porphyrio PURPLE SWAMPHEN. Marshes, tussock swamps, lake shores.
P. p. porphyrio. Sw Iberian
Pen., Sardinia, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
P. p. madagascariensis. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, sw Niger, s Ghana, s Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., Lake Chad region, ec Sudan, Ethiopia, n Egypt in the Nile delta, and from Angola, s,e Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa.
P. p. poliocephalus. Cs Turkey, Syria on L. Antioch; w shore of Caspian Sea; Iraq, Iran and Pakistan in n,s Baluchistan; India s of Himalayas; se China, Hainan I., Sri Lanka and se Asia to Andaman, Nicobar and Greater Sunda islands incl. Nias and Belitung off Sumatra, and Kangean Is. off Java; e through Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Is. e to Timor, Kai Is., w Papuan Is., New Guinea mostly in lowlands to 1700 m and incl. most islands, e to Trobriand Is.; from Palau s to Admiralty Is., Bismarck Arch., and Solomon and Santa Cruz is., Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Niue.
P. p. pulverulentus. Philippine Is. on Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Bohol, Mindanao, Basilan and Talaud Is. where possibly only a straggler.
P. p. melanotus. Wc New Guinea at ca. 1500 m in the Weyland Mts.; n,e,se Australia from n W. Australia w to Kimberleys and probably farther west, e and s through e half of Australia to s S. Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand incl. many islands; and Chatham Is.
P. p. bellus. Sw W. Australia.
*Porphyrio albus LORD HOWE ISLAND
SWAMPHEN. Last reported ca. 1834. Formerly on Lord Howe
I. and possibly on Norfolk I. Often included in P.
porphyrio as an albinistic
Porphyrio mantelli TAKAHE. Tussock swamps. Formerly assigned to the genus Notornis, but it is a close, flightless relative of P. porphyrio. Once thought to be extinct, but a small population survives in the Murchison Mts. on the se side of the S. Island of New Zealand, where restricted to a few valleys at 750-1200 m, e of Lake Te Anau.
Porphyrio alleni ALLEN'S GALLINULE. Papyrus swamps, lily-mantled streams. Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Fernando Po and São Tomé is., Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania incl. Pemba and Mafia is., s locally to Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Angola, Namibia, n,e Botswana, Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa in ne Transvaal. Comoro Islands; Madagascar; Mauritius, probably introduced. Some authors place this species in Porphyrula.
Porphyrio martinicus PURPLE GALLINULE.
Rush-bordered lily-ponds, Pontederia-choked rivers, marshes. Locally
in lowlands of interior e U.S. in w Tennessee and c Ohio; lowlands of both
coasts from Nayarit, Gulf coast of U.S., Maryland and Delaware s through
se U.S., Middle America, W. Indies (absent from Lesser Antilles n of Guadeloupe)
and S. America up to 3000 m s to n Chile and n Argentina, s to Tucumán,
Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Recorded as a migrant
in Namibia and South Africa. Sometimes placed in Porphyrula.
Porphyrio flavirostris AZURE GALLINULE. Marshes, rice paddies, swampy streamsides. Up to 500 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through Brazil and e Ecuador, se Peru and n,e Bolivia to Paraguay and n Argentina in Formosa.
*Gallinula pacifica SAMOAN MOORHEN.
Last record 1908. Formerly Savaii I., w Samoa.
Gallinula silvestris SAN CRISTOBAL MOORHEN. Forest. San Cristobal I. in the se Solomon Is. Known only from the type specimen taken in primordial forest.
Gallinula nesiotis TRISTAN MOORHEN. Tussock grass, bushes. Tristan da Cunha I., possibly near extinction; Gough Island. Olson (1973. Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. 152:27-28) treated G. comeri of Gough Island as a species because it represents an independent evolution of flightlessness from G. chloropus. G. nesiotis and G. comeri are sometimes treated as races of G. chloropus.
Gallinula chloropus COMMON MOORHEN.
Marshes, swampy riparian bushes, reedbeds. From British Isles and
s Scandinavia e across c Russia to sw Siberia, n China, se Siberia and
Japan, s locally (incl. e Atlantic islands and São Tomé)
to s S. Africa (recorded in all subSaharan mainland African countries except
Guinea-Bissau, Benin, Sudan, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon); Comoro
Is.; Madagascar; Seychelles and Mascarene islands through s Asia to Sri
Lanka, Greater Sunda Is., w Lesser Sunda Is., Philippines; Taiwan; Ryukyu
Is.; Palau; Mariana Is.; Hawaiian Is.; from c Calif., c Arizona, n New
Mexico, w,nc Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, c Minnesota, s Wisconsin,
nc Michigan, s Ontario, sw Quebec, Vermont and Massachusetts s through
Middle America; Bermuda; W. Indies and most of S. America to 3100 m, incl.
Galapagos Is., s to n Chile and n Argentina s to Buenos Aires. St.
Gallinula tenebrosa DUSKY MOORHEN. Rush-bordered ponds, riparian reedbeds. Lowlands in se Borneo, Sulawesi, s Moluccas on Buru, Ambon and Seram; Lesser Sunda islands of Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and Timor; w,nc,se New Guinea; sw W Australia; e,se third of Australia from c Queensland s to s S. Australia incl. Kangaroo and King islands, and Victoria. Sympatric with chloropus in w Indonesia.
Gallinula angulata LESSER MOORHEN.
Swamps, rice paddies, flooded fields. Senegambia, s Mali, Sierra
Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon,
Gulf of Guinea Is., Gabon, C. Afr. Rep., Zaire, s Chad and s Sudan to w,c
Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique,
Angola, n Namibia, n,e Botswana, Zimbabwe and e S. Africa in Transvaal,
Swaziland, Orange Free State, Natal and e Cape Province.
Gallinula melanops SPOT-FLANKED GALLINULE. Dense riparian reedbeds. From E Andes, 2500-3100 m of Colombia, e Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, e Bolivia and n Argentina, doubtfully e Peru; c Chile from Atacama s to Aisén, and s Argentina in w Río Negro and Chubut.
Gallinula ventralis BLACK-TAILED NATIVE-HEN. Swamp margins, riparian vegetation. Australia, except Arnhem Land, Cape York, and e coast. Ranges to Tasmania.
Gallinula mortierii TASMANIAN NATIVE-HEN.
Swamps, riparian vegetation. Tasmania.
Fulica cristata RED-KNOBBED COOT. Lakes, large rivers. Old World in three areas: S Spain, n Morocco and, formerly, n Algeria. Angola, se,e Zaire, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe to s S. Africa. Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar. Sympatric with atra in Spain and nw Africa.
Fulica atra COMMON COOT. Lakes, ponds, marshes, rivers, bays. From Iceland, British Isles and s Scandinavia e across c Russia and c Siberia to Sakhalin, and Japan from Hokkaido to n Honshu, s to Azores, s to Spanish Sahara, c Algeria, n Tunisia, c Libya and c Egypt, Near and Middle East, Arabia, India to 2500 m in the Himalayas; Sri Lanka; Burma, n China and Korea. Mts. 1800-3650 m of w,c New Guinea in the Vogelkop, Snow Mts., c highlands; Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand.
Fulica alai HAWAIIAN COOT.
Ponds, marshes. Main Hawaiian Islands except Lanai. Sometimes
treated as a subspecies of F. americana; here viewed as an allospecies
Fulica americana AMERICAN COOT. Lakes, ponds, marshes, rivers, bays. From ec Alaska, s Yukon, s Mackenzie, nw,c Saskatchewan, c Manitoba, w,s Ontario, sw Quebec, s New Brunswick, Prince Edward I. and Nova Scotia s to Nicaragua and nw Costa Rica; Cuba incl. Isle of Pines; Jamaica; Hispaniola; Virgin Is. on St. John; Bahamas; E Andes, 2500-3100 m in c Colombia and c Andes, and n Ecuador, at least formerly.
Fulica caribaea CARIBBEAN COOT. Lakes, ponds, brackish lagoons. Greater Antilles, exc. I. of Pines; s Bahamas on N. Caicos, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Virgin Is.; Lesser Antilles s to Grenada and Barbados; Trinidad; Curaçao and nw Venezuela in Zulia and Aragua. May be a morph of americana.
Fulica leucoptera WHITE-WINGED COOT.
Lagoons, backwaters, ponds. From Chile n to Arica, e,se Bolivia,
Paraguay and se Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul, s through Argentina to Tierra
Fulica ardesiaca SLATE-COLORED COOT. Ponds, lakes, rivers. Andes, 2200-3600 m, from sw Colombia s through Ecuador, Peru and c,w Bolivia to n Chile and n Argentina in Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca. It is unclear whether F. ardesiaca is a morph of F. americana or a separate species.
Fulica armillata RED-GARTERED COOT. Lakes, ponds, rivers. From Chile n to Coquimbo, Paraguay, Uruguay and se Brazil from Rio de Janeiro s to Rio Grande do Sul, s through Argentina (exc. the altiplano) to Tierra del Fuego; possibly the Falkland Islands.
Fulica rufifrons RED-FRONTED COOT.
Ponds, lakes, lagoons, marshes. From se Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay
and n Argentina, s to Tierra del Fuego; s Peru, c Chile from Atacama s
Fulica gigantea GIANT COOT. Puna lakes. High Andes, 3600-6450 m, from c Peru and w,sw Bolivia s to n Chile at Tarapaca, and nw Argentina in n Jujuy.
Fulica cornuta HORNED COOT. Altiplano lakes. High Andes above 3000 m in sw Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina.
Mesitornis variegata WHITE-BREASTED
MESITE. Dry deciduous forest or savanna. Lowlands of w,n Madagascar.
Mesitornis unicolor BROWN MESITE. Forest floor in evergreen forest. Lowlands to 900 m of e Madagascar.
Monias benschi SUBDESERT MESITE. Arid thickets, sandy soil, dense Didiera forest floor. Lowlands of sw Madagascar between Mangoky River and Fiherenana River.