.
  Order STRIGIFORMES
  Suborder Aegotheli
          Family Aegothelidae: Owlet-Nightjars
  Suborder Caprimulgi
    Infraorder Podargides
          Family Podargidae: Australian Frogmouths
          Family Batrachostomidae: Asian Frogmouths
    Infraorder Caprimulgides
      Parvorder Steatornithida
        Superfamily Steatornithoidea
          Family Steatornithidae: Oilbird
        Superfamily Nyctibioidea
          Family Nyctibiidae: Potoos
      Parvorder Caprimulgida
        Superfamily Eurostopodoidea
          Family Eurostopodidae: Eared-Nightjars
        Superfamily Caprimulgoidea
          Family Caprimulgidae

            Subfamily Chordeilinae: Nighthawks
            Subfamily Caprimulginae: Nightjars, Whip-poor-wills

Order STRIGIFORMES:
Suborders AEGOTHELI and CAPRIMULGI:
Suborder AEGOTHELI:  Owlet-Nightjars.
Family AEGOTHELIDAE:

Aegotheles crinifrons  LONG-WHISKERED OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  N. Moluccas on Halmahera and Bacan.
Aegotheles insignis  FELINE OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, open woodland.  Mts., 1200-2700 m, of New Guinea from Arfak Mts. to se ranges, incl. lowlands in the upper Fly River region.
Aegotheles cristatus  AUSTRALIAN OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest, riparian woodland, scrub, mallee.  Lowlands to 1000 m in cs,se New Guinea and Australia, incl. Tasmania.
Aegotheles savesi  NEW CALEDONIAN OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Presumably forest.
Known only from type taken near Noumea, s New Caledonia.  Extinct ?

Aegotheles bennettii  BARRED OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Lowlands to 850 m in Aru Is., New Guinea and D'Entrecasteaux Arch. on Goodenough and Fergusson islands.
Aegotheles wallacii  WALLACE'S OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m in Aru Is. and w,s New Guinea, absent from Huon Peninsula and se New Guinea.
Aegotheles archboldi  ARCHBOLD'S OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Mts., 2100-3500 m, of c New Guinea in the Weyland, Snow and Victor Emanuel mts.  Originally described as a race of A. albertisi, but apparently sympatric with albertisi at Wissel Lakes in the Weyland Mts.

Aegotheles albertisi  MOUNTAIN OWLET-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-3700 m, of New Guinea.

Suborder CAPRIMULGI:
Infraorder PODARGIDES:
Family PODARGIDAE:
Podargus strigoides  TAWNY FROGMOUTH.  Forest, open woodland, towns.  Australia, incl. coastal islands and Tasmania.
Podargus papuensis  PAPUAN FROGMOUTH.  Woodland, riparian jungle, mangroves.  Lowlands to 2100 m in Aru and w Papuan is.(Waigeo, Salawati, Batanta, Misool, New Guinea (incl. islands in Geelvink Bay) and ne Australia from n,e Queensland s to Staaten River and Townsville.
Podargus ocellatus  MARBLED FROGMOUTH.  Humid forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m in Aru and w Papuan is. (Waigeo, Salawati, Misool), New Guinea (incl. Yapen and Meos Num is.), Trobriand Is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch. (Goodenough and Fergusson is.), Louisiade Arch.(Tagula I.), Solomon Is.(Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel); ne Australia from extreme n Queensland on Cape York Peninsula s to Lockhart River area, s to extreme se coastal Queensland and ne New S. Wales s to Grafton.
Family BATRACHOSTOMIDAE:

Batrachostomus auritus  LARGE FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Lowlands of peninsular Thailand and Malaya; Sumatra and Borneo, incl. Natuna Is.
Batrachostomus harterti  DULIT FROGMOUTH.  Forest, secondary jungle.  Mts. of c Borneo.
Batrachostomus septimus  PHILIPPINE FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Philippine islands of n,c Luzon, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Bohol, Mindanao, Basilan.
Batrachostomus stellatus  GOULD'S FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Lowlands of peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra incl. Riau and Lingga arch., and Borneo, incl. Natuna Besar I.
Batrachostomus moniliger  CEYLON FROGMOUTH.  Dense humid forest, secondary jungle, canebrakes.  Lowlands to 1800 m of sw India in the western Ghats in w Mysore and Kerala; Sri Lanka.
Batrachostomus hodgsoni  HODGSON'S FROGMOUTH.  Humid forest.  Highlands, 300-1800 m, from ne India, sw China, w,ne,e Burma, nw Thailand, nw,s Laos and c Vietnam.
Batrachostomus poliolophus  SHORT-TAILED FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Mts., 600-1400 m, of Sumatra.
Batrachostomus mixtus  BORNEAN FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Highlands of n,c Borneo.  Often included in poliolophus.
Batrachostomus affinis  BLYTH'S FROGMOUTH.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1600 m in Thailand (exc. c), s Burma in s Tenasserim, s Thailand and c Vietnam (=continentalis); s peninsular Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo and cw Philippine islands of Palawan and the Calamian Is. (=affinis).
Batrachostomus javensis  JAVAN FROGMOUTH.  Second growth.  Lowlands of w,c Java.  Has been included in B. affinis, and this may be correct.
Batrachostomus cornutus  SUNDA FROGMOUTH.  Riparian second growth, bushes.  Lowlands in Sumatra incl. Bangka and Belitung; Borneo, incl. Banggi.  Formerly treated as a race of B. javensis, but the differ in vocalizations.
Infraorder CAPRIMULGIDES:
Family STEATORNITHIDAE:
Steatornis caripensis  OILBIRD.  Forest, woods, scrub.  Locally in lowlands and mts. to 3000 m in e Panama, and from Colombia, w,n,se Venezuela and Trinidad s through the Andes of Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.
Family NYCTIBIIDAE:
Nyctibius grandis  GREAT POTOO.  Humid forest, edge, woodland.  Locally in lowlands in e Guatemala, e Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and from n,e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian,e,se Brazil.
Nyctibius aethereus  LONG-TAILED POTOO.  Humid forest.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m from Colombia, se Venezuela and Guyana s through e Ecuador and e Peru to w Amazonian Brazil n of Rio Solimões and e to Pará (=longicaudatus); e Brazil from e Pará and Bahia s to Paraná and Paraguay (=aethereus).  The two subspecies  have been found together in e Brazil (e Pará), but it is unknown whether they breed sympatrically.
Nyctibius jamaicensis  COMMON POTOO.  Forest, woodland.  Lowlands from s Sinaloa, s San Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s on Pacific slope to nw Costa Rica and on Gulf-Caribbean slope to Honduras; Jamaica and Hispaniola, incl. Gonâve I.
Nyctibius griseus  GREY POTOO.  Forest, open woodland, cerrado.  Lowlands to 1900 m in e Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of Andes to w Ecuador and e of Andes through e Ecuador to e,se Peru, Brazil, n,e,se Bolivia, n Argentina and n Uruguay.
Nyctibius maculosus  ANDEAN POTOO.  Humid forest.  Locally in mts., 1800-2800 m, in e Colombia, w Venezuela, e Ecuador, e Peru and n Bolivia.
Nyctibius leucopterus  WHITE-WINGED POTOO.  Humid forest.  Foothills ca. 900 m of c coastal Brazil in Bahia.
Nyctibius bracteatus  RUFOUS POTOO.  Forest.  Locally e of Andes in Guyana, e Colombia, e Ecuador and e Peru.

Family EUROSTOPODIDAE:
Eurostopodus argus  SPOTTED EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Dry woodland, mallee, mulga, scrub.  Australia except e,se coastal areas from c Queensland s to se S. Australia.  This species was formerly listed as E. guttatus, a name that is a synonym of E. mystacalis.
Eurostopodus mystacalis  WHITE-THROATED EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Coastal e Australia from Cape York Peninsula s through e New S. Wales to e Victoria; Solomon Is. of Bougainville, Shortland Is., Rendova, Kulambangra and Santa Isabel.  The Solomon Islands race, nigripennis, is reported to differ vocally and may be a separate species.
Eurostopodus diabolicus  SATANIC EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Presumably forest.  Known only from a single specimen from the Kalabat volcano in n Sulawesi.
Eurostopodus papuensis  PAPUAN EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Open forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 400 m on the w Papuan island of Salawati and on New Guinea.
Eurostopodus archboldi  MOUNTAIN EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Mts., 2200-3250 m, of c,se New Guinea from the Snow Mts. to the se ranges.
Eurostopodus temminckii  MALAYSIAN EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, open country, riparian woodland.  Lowlands to 1000 m in Malaya; Sumatra incl. Nias, Bangka, Belitung; Borneo.
Eurostopodus macrotis  GREAT EARED-NIGHTJAR.  Forest, second growth, scrub.  Locally in lowlands to 1000 m in s,e India, s China, Burma, Indochina (exc. n Vietnam), Malaya (exc. s), Simeulue off w Sumatra, Sulawesi and the Philippine is. of Luzon, Mindoro, Catanduanes, Marinduque, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Siargao, Mindanao and Basilan.

FamilyCAPRIMULGIDAE:
Lencioni-Neto, F. (1994. Alauda 62(4)) described a "new species" of nighthawk, Chordeiles viellardi, from the state of Bahia, Brazil.  It inhabits the São Francisco river basin and occurs in caatinga habitat.

Subfamily CHORDEILINAE:
Lurocalis semitorquatus  SHORT-TAILED NIGHTHAWK.  Forest, edge.  The two subspecies may be separate species.

L. s. semitorquatus.  Lowlands in e Chiapas, e Guatemala, n Honduras, ne Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama (incl. I. Cébaco), n,ne Colombia, nw,c,s Venezuela, Trinidad, Guianas and extreme nw Brazil.
 L. s. nattereri.  Lowlands e of Andes in e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia, Amazonian,e,s Brazil and n Argentina in e Formosa and Misiones.

Lurocalis rufiventris  RUFOUS-BELLIED NIGHTHAWK.  Forest, edge.  Mts. from Colombia and w Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador and Peru to c Bolivia. Formerly included in L. semitorquatus, but differences in vocalizations, morphology and ecology indicate that rufiventris is a separate species.
Chordeiles pusillus  LEAST NIGHTHAWK.  Savanna, forest edge.  Lowlands to 500 m e of Andes in ce Colombia, s Venezuela, Guyana and n,e,se Brazil and n,e Bolivia.
Chordeiles rupestris  SAND-COLORED NIGHTHAWK.  Forest, river bars, marshes, thickets, second growth.  Lowlands to 500 m e of Andes from e Colombia and s Venezuela s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Chordeiles acutipennis  LESSER NIGHTHAWK.  Open country, desert, scrub, savanna, farmlands, mangroves, humid woodland.  Locally in lowlands to 1200 m from c int. Calif., s Nevada, extreme sw Utah, c Arizona, c New Mexico and c,se Texas s to s Baja Calif. and both slopes (incl. Yucatán Peninsula and Cosumel I.) to Belize and Guatemala; locally Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and from Colombia, Venezuela (incl. Margarita I.), Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas (absent from most of Amazonia) s to s Peru, n Bolivia, Paraguay and s Brazil.

Chordeiles minor  COMMON NIGHTHAWK.  Open country, savanna, grasslands, farmlands, towns.  From s Yukon, s Mackenzie, and from n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to s Labrador and Newfoundland, and s to s Calif., s Arizona, ne Sonora, Chihuahua, Texas, Tamaulipas, Gulf coast and s Florida, locally to s Mexico (incl. Yucatán Peninsula); pine savanna of Belize, e Honduras and n Nicaragua; Costa Rica, Panama.
Chordeiles gundlachii  ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK.  Open country.  Florida Keys in the Key West area; n,w W. Indies in Bahamas, Greater Antilles e to Virgin Is., including Gonâve and Tortue islands, and Cayman Is.
Nyctiprogne leucopyga  BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK.  Forest, savanna, usually near water.  Lowlands to 500 m in extreme e Colombia, s,ne Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil and n,e Bolivia.

Podager nacunda  NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK.  Savanna, grassland, forest edge, seashores.  Lowlands to 1000 m e of Andes from n,c,e Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s through e Peru, nw,e,se Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay to c Argentina.

Subfamily CAPRIMULGINAE:  Poorwills, Pauraque, Whip-poor-wills, Nightjars.

Nyctidromus albicollis  PAURAQUE.  Open woodland, forest edge, second growth, scrub, riparian woodland.  Lowlands and mts. to 2300 m from s Sonora, s Texas, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas s along both slopes to Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, w of Andes to nw Peru and e of Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Brazil to Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Phalaenoptilus nuttallii  COMMON POORWILL.  Dry brushy hills, chaparral, open desert, scrub, prairie, open woodland.  From s int. British Columbia, Montana, se Alberta, sw Saskatchewan, sw N. Dakota, sw S. Dakota, sw Iowa and e Kansas s to s Baja Calif., Jalisco, Durango, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Coahuila, c Texas and nw Oklahoma.
*Siphonorhis americanus  JAMAICAN POORWILL.  Extinct, last observed in 1859.  Formerly Jamaica.

Siphonorhis brewsteri  LEAST POORWILL.  Semi-arid lowlands, scrubby woodland.  Hispaniola including Gonâve Island.  Often considered to be a race of americanus.
Nyctiphrynus mcleodii  EARED POORWILL.  Open dry pine-oak woodland.  Highlands, 600-2000 m, in e Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Jalisco, Colima, Guerrero and Oaxaca.
Nyctiphrynus yucatanicus  YUCATAN POORWILL.  Open arid woodland, scrub.  Lowlands in Yucatán Peninsula, n Guatemala and Belize.
Nyctiphrynus ocellatus  OCELLATED POORWILL.  Humid forest.  Locally in lowlands to 1300 m in Nicaragua and nw Costa Rica; Colombia in Putumayo and e Ecuador, e Peru, n,e Bolivia, Amazonian,c,e,se Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina.

Nyctiphrynus rosenbergi.  CHOCO POORWILL.  Primary forest and old second-growth forest.  Up to 900 m in the chocó of w Colombia and nw Ecuador.  Formerly treated as a race of N. ocellatus, but vocally dissimilar; probably not even a close relative (Robbins and Ridgley, 1992. Condor 94:984-987).
Caprimulgus carolinensis  CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW.  Deciduous forest, pine-oak woodland.  From e Kansas, s Iowa, c Illinois, c Indiana, extreme s Ontario, c,e Ohio, c W. Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, s New York and s Massachusetts s to sc,se Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida incl. Florida Keys.
Caprimulgus rufus  RUFOUS NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, second growth, forest edge, savanna thickets.  Lowlands to 1000 m in se Costa Rica, Panama (incl. I. Coiba); w,n Venezuela, Trinidad; St. Lucia in the sc Lesser Antilles; lowlands to 1800 m e of Andes from ne,se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through Brazil to e,se Bolivia, Paraguay and n Argentina.  Includes  saltarius, minimus and otiosus, but the situation is complex and the nature of the reported overlap of otiosus and minimus in Venezuela is unclear; several species may be involved.

Caprimulgus cubanensis  GREATER ANTILLEAN NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, swamp edge.  Cuba, incl. Isle of Pines; Hispaniola.  Cuban and Hispaniolan populations are reported to differ vocally and may be separate species.
Caprimulgus salvini  TAWNY-COLLARED NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, forest edge.  Lowlands from Nuevo León and s Tamaulipas s through e San Luis Potosí and Veracruz to n Oaxaca and Chiapas.
Caprimulgus badius  YUCATAN NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, forest edge.  Lowlands in Yucatán Peninsula, Cozumel I., Caribbean lowlands of Guatemala and Belize incl. Half Moon Cay.  Formerly treated as a subspecies of C. salvini, but they are vocally distinct.
Caprimulgus sericocaudatus  SILKY-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, second growth.  Locally e of Andes in e Peru, n Bolivia, Brazil, e Paraguay (?) and extreme ne Argentina.  Vocalizations of this poorly-known species may vary geographically, but the significance of the variation is unclear.

Caprimulgus ridgwayi  BUFF-COLLARED NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, second growth, deciduous forest, stony scrubby slopes.  Se Arizona and probably sw New Mexico; from s Sonora, Sinaloa and Durango s along Pacific slope; s portions of C. Plateau to Morelos, Oaxaca, c Veracruz and Chiapas; int. in Guatemala, Honduras and c Nicaragua.
Caprimulgus vociferus  WHIP-POOR-WILL.  Forest, open woodland, pine-oak association.  From s Calif., s Nevada, c Arizona, c New Mexico and extreme w Texas s through highlands to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras (=arizonae); from nc Saskatchewan and s Manitoba e across s Canada to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and s to ne Oklahoma, extreme ne Texas, Arkansas, n portions of Gulf states, nw S. Carolina, ec N. Carolina and e Virginia (=vociferus).  Eastern and western subspecies groups differ vocally and may be separate species, which are not known to be in contact during breeding.

Caprimulgus noctitherus  PUERTO RICAN NIGHTJAR.  Heavy dry woodland.  Sw Puerto Rico.
Caprimulgus saturatus  DUSKY NIGHTJAR.  Open humid forest, edge, woodland.  Mts. above 1500 m in Costa Rica and w Panama (w Chiriquí).
Caprimulgus longirostris  BAND-WINGED NIGHTJAR.  Humid forest edge, open woodland, arid brush, campos, towns.  Mts., 1000-3600 m, from Colombia (rarely to sea level) and w,n,s Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador to Peru; arid coastal littoral of Peru and n Chile; c,e Bolivia, se Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile (s to Valdivia) and Argentina s to Chubut and Santa Cruz.  Vocalizations may vary geographically, but their significance is unclear.

Caprimulgus cayennensis  WHITE-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Open country, grassy hillsides, savanna.  C Lesser Antilles on Martinique; lowlands and mts. to 3200 m in Costa Rica, Panama, wc,n Colombia, n Ecuador, Venezuela (incl. from Netherlands Antilles e to Trinidad and Tobago), Guianas and extreme n Brazil.
Caprimulgus candicans  WHITE-WINGED NIGHTJAR.  Chaco woodland, savanna.  Bolivia, e Paraguay and sw Brazil.  May be conspecific with cayennensis.
Caprimulgus maculicaudus  SPOT-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland edge, savanna, second growth, marshes.  Locally in lowlands to 500 m in s Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco and n Chiapas; pine savanna of e Honduras and ne Nicaragua; from n,e Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, e of Andes, through Brazil to se Peru and n,e Bolivia.

Caprimulgus parvulus  LITTLE NIGHTJAR.  Sparse woodland, adjacent clearings.  Lowlands to 1000 m in ne Colombia and n Venezuela; e of Andes in e Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and n Argentina.  The race hetrurus of the Santa Marta Mts. in ne Colombia is reported to differ slightly in vocalizations and is sometimes treated as a separate species.
Caprimulgus anthonyi  SCRUB NIGHTJAR.  Arid scrub, brushy mesquite woodland, second growth.  Pacific lowlands from nw Ecuador to nw Peru s at least to Las Pampas in Lambayeque;
an isolated population occurs in the Marañón Valley of Peru.  Formerly treated as a subspecies
of C. parvulus, but it is vocally distinct (Robbins, et al. 1994. Condor 96:224-228).
Caprimulgus maculosus  CAYENNE NIGHTJAR.  Dry open country.  French Guiana.  Known only from the type specimen.

Caprimulgus nigrescens  BLACKISH NIGHTJAR.  Woodland rock outcrops, rocky river banks, sandy savanna.  Lowlands to 1100 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador, e Peru and Amazonian Brazil to n Bolivia.
Caprimulgus whitelyi  RORAIMAN NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Pantepui, 1300-1800 m, of se Venezuela in se Bolívar on cerros Ptari-tepui, Jaua and Roraima.
Caprimulgus hirundinaceus  PYGMY NIGHTJAR.  Woodland.  E Brazil from s Piauí and Ceará s to c Bahia.
Caprimulgus binotatus  BROWN NIGHTJAR.  Humid forest.  Liberia, s Ghana, s Cameroon, sw C. African Rep., Gabon and nc Zaire.

Caprimulgus ruficollis  RED-NECKED NIGHTJAR.  Arid open country, dry oak scrub, semi-desert.  Lowlands in Portugal and Spain (Iberian Peninsula), and nw Africa from Morocco to Tunisia.  Ranges to e Atlantic Is. and w Mediterranean region.  Vagrant records w Africa in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Ghana, Nigeria.
Caprimulgus indicus  GREY NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, pine forest, open scrub, farmlands.  Lowlands and mts. to 3300 m from n Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, se Tibet, c,e China, ne Mongolia, se Siberia, Korea and Japan; s to w,ne,e Burma, nw,c,peninsular Thailand and Hong Kong; Palau.
Caprimulgus europaeus  EURASIAN NIGHTJAR.  Open country.  From British Isles and s Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia to sw Siberia, nw Mongolia and nw,nc China, and s to nw Africa, n Mediterranean region, Turkey, Near and Middle East, Pakistan and n India (probably Kashmir).  Winters in tropical and southern Africa.

Caprimulgus fraenatus  SOMBRE NIGHTJAR.  Lightly-wooded savanna, arid scrub.  Extreme
se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, nw,sw Somalia, Kenya and cs,c,ne Tanzania; records for Zaire are open to question. Voice is a long sustained 'churrr', identical to C. rufigena and C. inornatus.  However, the breeding areas are well separated (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).
Caprimulgus rufigena  RUFOUS-CHEEKED NIGHTJAR.  Lightly-wooded savanna, arid scrub, semi-desert.  S Angola, sw Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa, exc. e Natal and s Cape Province.
Caprimulgus aegyptius  EGYPTIAN NIGHTJAR.  Desert, semi-desert.  From Saharan region of n Africa e through Middle East to the Aral Sea and w Turkestan s to Transcaspia and w Tadzhikistan.  Occurs as non-breeding vagrant in n subSaharan Africa, s to Kenya.

Caprimulgus mahrattensis  SYKES'S NIGHTJAR.  Farms, dry stony scrublands.  Se Iran, s Afghanistan and Pakistan in Sind, Baluchistan and Punjab.
Caprimulgus centralasicus  VAURIE'S NIGHTJAR.  Desert edge, sandy foothills, plains.  Known only from a single 1929 specimen from extreme w China in sw Sinkiang.  Recent reports of specimens have been identified as C. europaeus (World Birdwatch 15(4):3).
Caprimulgus nubicus  NUBIAN NIGHTJAR.  Arid scrub, semi-desert.  Lowlands in Israel, sw Arabia, se Egypt, Senegambia, c,e Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia.

Non-breeding migrant in ne,se Kenya.  Call is identical to that of the sedentary C. tristigma, although non-breeding migrants in the territory of tristigma are silent (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).

Caprimulgus eximius  GOLDEN NIGHTJAR.  Dry scrub, especially where there are reddish-yellow gravel patches.  In s Mauritania and n Senegambia e through Mali, s Niger and s Chad to Sudan.
Caprimulgus madagascariensis  MADAGASCAR NIGHTJAR.  Woodland, brush.  Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar and Aldabra Islands.
Caprimulgus macrurus  LARGE-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, woodland, open country, towns.  Lowlands to 2200 m from ne Pakistan, n,c India and s China s through se Asia, Andaman Is., Sumatra (incl. Riau Arch.), Borneo (incl. Banggi I.), Java, Lesser Sunda Is. of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, probably Wetar, Tanahjampea and Salayar is., sw Philippines (Palawan, Calamian Is.), Moluccas (incl. Seram Laut Is.), Tanimbar and Aru is. to w Papuan is. (Waigeo, Batanta), New Guinea (incl. most islands e to D'Entrecasteaux and Louisiade arch.); New Britain.  Coastal ne Australia from N. Territory w to Melville I. and Port Keats, e to n,ce Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to Fraser I.

Caprimulgus atripennis  JERDON'S NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, woodland, open country, towns.  Lowlands to 2000 m of peninsular India from s Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh s, incl. Sri Lanka.  Formerly included in C. macrurus, but vocally distinct.
Caprimulgus manillensis  PHILIPPINE NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, woodland, open country, towns.  Lowlands to 2000 m of the Philippines (except Palawan and Calamian Is.).  Formerly included in C. macrurus, but vocally distinct.
Caprimulgus celebensis  SULAWESI NIGHTJAR.  Forest edge, woodland, open country.  Lowlands of n Sulawesi including Taliabu.  Formerly included in C. manillensis, but differs in morphology and voice.
Caprimulgus donaldsoni  DONALDSON-SMITH'S NIGHTJAR.  Dry thornbrush.  In extreme se Sudan, s,e Ethiopia, Somalia, ne Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania.

Caprimulgus pectoralis  FIERY-NECKED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland.

C. p. nigriscapularis has been treated as a separate species (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990:190), but the East African List Committee consider it to be a race of C. pectoralis (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.).  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) agree.  Most of the evidence for lumping is from vocalizations.
C. p. pectoralis.  Lowlands below 1800 m in Angola, Tanzania, se Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, c Namibia, Botswana and S. Africa exc. arid sw.
C. p. nigriscapularis  BLACK-SHOULDERED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland.  Lowlands below 1800 m in Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, s Nigeria, Bioko I. (Fernando Po), sw Cameroon, Congo, sw C. African Republic, n,ne,ce Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda.

Caprimulgus prigoginei  ITOWMBE NIGHTJAR or PRIGOGENE'S NIGHTJAR.  Woodland.  Extreme ce Zaire nw of Lake Tanganyika. A species of uncertain relationships based on a single female specimen from Itombwe, e Zaire.
Caprimulgus poliocephalus  MONTANE NIGHTJAR.  Grassland, forest edge.
*
D. A. Turner (pers. comm.) reports that the East African List Committee consider all East African, Ethiopian and Arabian montane nightjars to be races of C. poliocephalus.
They have similar whistled songs and the varying amount of white in the tail is clinal.  All forms are allopatric, but the minor vocal differences are viewed as 'dialects', not worthy of specific status.
The relationship between poliocephalus and pectoralis is unclear.  Fry, et al. (1988. Birds of Africa, vol. 3, p. 157) include nigriscapularis, poliocephalus, ruwenzorii and pectoralis in the "Caprimulgus pectoralis, superspecies."  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) describe the "The Caprimulgus pectoralis complex" as including nigriscapularis.  They depend to a large extent on vocalizations to define species limits and lump populations that are widely allopatric as subspecies of a single species.
The present arrangement is an attempt to interpret several opinions and it seems obvious that the situation is complex and not yet resolved.
*
C. p. poliocephalus.  Highlands above 1600 m in extreme se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, extreme e Uganda, Kenya and extreme cn Tanzania.
 C. p. guttifer.  Ne,sc,sw Tanzania n to the Usambara Mts., extreme se, sw Zaire, extreme ne Zambia and extreme ne Malawi.
 C. p. koesteri.  Cw Angola in the Mt. Moco area
 C. p. ruwenzorii  RUWENZORI NIGHTJAR.  Grassland, forest edge.  Highlands above 1850 m in extreme ce,ne Zaire, w Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda.

Caprimulgus asiaticus  INDIAN NIGHTJAR.  Scrub, farmlands, woodland.  Lowlands to 1500 m in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, c,s Laos and c Vietnam.
Caprimulgus natalensis  SWAMP NIGHTJAR.  Wet meadows, moist grassland, marshes, palm savanna.  Senegambia, cs Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., L. Chad region, se Sudan, Zaire, Uganda, w Kenya, c Tanzania and s to n,e Angola, extreme ne Namibia (Caprivi), extreme n Botswana, w,n Zambia, Zimbabwe, extreme s Mozambique and e S. Africa in n Natal.
Caprimulgus inornatus  PLAIN NIGHTJAR.  Dry thorn scrub.  In extreme sw Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, c,s Chad and Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, w Somalia and sw Arabia, and s to Kenya.
Caprimulgus stellatus  STAR-SPOTTED NIGHTJAR.  Dry scrub.  In Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. Afr. Rep., extreme se Sudan, c,s Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

Caprimulgus affinis  SAVANNA NIGHTJAR.  Open woodland, forest edge, grassy plains, scrub, towns.  Lowlands to 1200 m in n Pakistan, India, s China, Indochina (exc. Malay Peninsula), Taiwan; Sumatra (incl. Nias, Bangka, Belitung, and Riau and Lingga arch.), Borneo, Java (incl. Karimunjawa Is.), cn,s Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Is. from Bali and Sumba e to Alor and Timor, possibly Kisar; Philippines on Luzon, Catanduanes, Mindoro, Sibuyan, Negros, Cebu and Mindanao.  Incl. monticolus which does not differ vocally from typical affinis.
Caprimulgus tristigma  FRECKLED NIGHTJAR.  Riparian woodland, rocky hillsides, city roofs.  In s Mali, Burkina Faso, se Sudan, w,c Ethiopia, locally s through e,s Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,s Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, w Mozambique and Botswana to Namibia and S. Africa exc. Lesotho and s Cape Province.

Caprimulgus concretus  BONAPARTE'S NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Lowlands in Sumatra (incl. Belitung) and Borneo.
Caprimulgus pulchellus  SALVADORI'S NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1300 m in Sumatra and Java.
Caprimulgus enarratus  COLLARED NIGHTJAR.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1800 m of nw,e Madagascar.
Caprimulgus batesi  BATES'S NIGHTJAR.  Humid forest.  Lowlands in s Cameroon, sw C. African Republic, Gabon, Congo, Zaire (exc. s) and sw Uganda.
Caprimulgus climacurus  LONG-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland, savanna, scrub.  In extreme sw Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, n Angola, n,c Zaire, s Chad to cs Sudan, w Ethiopia, Eritrea, w Kenya, nw Tanzania, and nw Uganda.

Caprimulgus clarus  SLENDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland, savanna, scrub.  S Sudan, c,s Uganda, s Ethiopia, s Somalia, Kenya and n Tanzania.
Caprimulgus fossii  SQUARE-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland, savanna, scrub.  In Gabon, Congo, s,e Zaire, s Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, s Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, s Angola, n Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e S. Africa in n,e Cape Prov., c,e Transvaal and Natal.
Macrodipteryx longipennis  STANDARD-WINGED NIGHTJAR.  Heavily wooded savanna.  S Mauritania, Senegambia, Burkina Faso, s Mali, s Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Gabon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea, ne Zaire, Uganda and w Kenya.  Mostly non-breeding in n,e parts of range.

Macrodipteryx vexillarius  PENNANT-WINGED NIGHTJAR.  Brachystegia woodland, savanna.  In Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, s Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, c Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Angola, s Zaire, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana and e S. Africa.
Hydropsalis climacocerca  LADDER-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  River sandbars, riverine forest, open woodland.  Lowlands to 500 m e of Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Hydropsalis brasiliana  SCISSOR-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland, cerrado.  From e Peru and Amazonian,e,se Brazil s through n,e,se Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay to c Argentina.
Uropsalis segmentata  SWALLOW-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Paramo, forest edge.  Andes, 2500-3500 m, from Colombia s through Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.

Uropsalis lyra  LYRE-TAILED NIGHTJAR.  Humid forest edge, open woodland, usually near water.  Andes, 800-3500 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s through Ecuador and Peru to c,se Bolivia.
Macropsalis creagra  LONG-TRAINED NIGHTJAR.  Woodland.  Se Brazil from Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro s to Rio Grande do Sul.

Eleothreptus anomalus  SICKLE-WINGED NIGHTJAR.  Swamps.  Paraguay, se Brazil, Uruguay and ne Argentina.


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© Picchio Verde by Alberto Masi