9.  ORIGIN OF THE SPECIES

The species of birds comes from a subspecies or from geographic races and they all are passages through a period in which races remained insulated from other populations of the same species. In this insulation they have been able to develop themselves separately and in various atmospheres so different from the rest of the original population. If, as time went by, this insulated race came newly to contact, extending its distribution area, with the original species and from this remained distinguished for matters which deal with reproduction and with its habitat, we could say to be in front of one new species whose differentiating characteristics will be ulteriorly emphasized from natural selection.

If, on the other side, the secondary contact with the original species leads to a hybrid and fecund population, we must state that the formerly geographically insulated shape has still the degree of subspecies and isn't over the boundaries of the specifications.

The base building block of evolution is the Species: an aggregate of self-intercrossing natural populations. That doesn't mean that two birds which can intercross necessarily belong to the same species because, in nature, a "true species" can intercross with the others, however it can have a smaller or greater series of mechanisms that prevent it to reproduce with others. Those mechanisms of insulation are really a lot (different habitat, different voice, different age in which they are ready for the brooding).

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10.  HOW IT IS WRITTEN

KIND = word at the singular nominative case which begins in capitals (e.g. Caprimulgus)

SPECIES = simple or composed word in lower case, used  as:

adjective of the same kind of the generic name (e.g. nubicus)
... or
singular nominative case in addition to the generic name (Phylloscopus nitidus) ; (lapponica Limosa)
... or
name to the genitive case: (Otus brucei) ; (Aquila verreauxii).
SUBGENUS =  word written between round brackets () between the Kind and the Species with the graphical character of species and in lower case:
Malurus (grayi) campbelli      (Shodde-Weatherly, 1982)
Chlamydera (maculata) maculata    (Gould, 1837)


The EUROPEAN classification, rather than the AMERICAN, mantains the subfamilies pertaining to the Family of the Muscicapidi to the Rank of Families.

FAMILY

The name of the family is formes from the -IDAE suffix added to the root of the name of the genus which the family belongs to. For a subfamily, the suffix to add is -INAE. The root doesn't have necessarily to be that one used in its literal classic Latin meaning, however it should be practically applicable to scientific Latin, with respect to the simplicity of the term and the way it sounds.

The root of a name is obtained removing the suffix from the singular genitive case.

Example:

kind 12#         Homo
genitive 12#     Hominis
root 12#         Homin-
family 12#       Homin + idae; = Hominidae

                              - idae;       italianized  - idi;
                              - inae;           "        - ini;
                              - formes ;         "        - forms;

  ...  their literal meaning is related to the systematic categories.
 

The Latin suffix "-FORMES" and the Greek one "-MORPHA" have the same meaning: "which a shape of ..." e.g. PASSERIFORMES.

A FORMAL classification comprises:

  Reign
     Phylum
        Class
             Order
             Family
             Kind
             Species
             Subspecies

A COMPLETE classification comprises: (*)

    Reign            Order
    Sub-reign        Suborder
    Phylum           Superfamily
    Subphylum        Family
    Subfamily        Branch
    Tribu            Class
    Subclass         Subtribu
    Infraclass       Kind
    Cohors           Subgenus
    Superorder       Species
                     Subspecies

(*) some of the terms are used very rarely.

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11.  AS A CLASSIFICATION IS INSTITUTED
 

Institution of a biological Classification is a process whichi involves more than one phase. Some hypoteses began to be formulated on the classification of Groups (e.g. Alcedinidae and Bucerotidae, thought as members of the same Group, the Coraciiformes Order).
These hypoteses are scientifically compared to the taxonomic qualities of the characters in order to estimate the HOMOLOGY.
The analysis of the characters presupposes the presence and the knowledge ("homologos" = for somewhat matching) of a character who must be present in more organisms, philogenetically descendant from the same present character in the most close common ancestor.
The characters are considered validated with the assessment of the SIMILARITY. Once the paternal similarity is presupposed (because of the common ancestor) it remains unchanged during the evolution of every organism of the descendancies.

That is the acknowledgment of the similarity in the structure of the character in various species of the same Group.

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12. SEQUENCES'S AUTHOR LIST
-
             Carolus Linnaeus, Johann Freidrich Gmelin [1748-1804], Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, nipote di Johann
                 [1743-1774], Richard Owen, Baron Georges Leopold Chretien Frederis Dagobert Cuvier, George Louis
                 Le Clerc Comte de Buffon .-
-
       George Robert Gray,
       Salomon Muller,
       Christian Ludwig Nitzsch,
       Spencer Fullerton Baird,
       Jean Louis Cabanis,
       Ferdinand Heine,
       Alexander Friedrich Michael Nikolaus Arthur Keyserling,
       Johann Heinrich Blasius,
       Huxley,
       Garrod,
       William Alexander Forbes,
       Carl Jacob Sundevall,
       Philip Lutley Sclater,
       Max Furbringer,
       Gadow,
       Seebohm,
       Parker,
       Newton,
       Shufeldt,
       Lucas,
       Beddart,
       Pycraft,
       J.T. Zimmer,
       Robert Ridgway,
       Richard Bowdler Sharpe,
       Alexander Wetmore,
       Lord Lionel Walter Rothschild,
       Erwin Stresemann,
       Ernst Mayr,
       Dean Amadon,
       James C.Greenway,
       Joel Cracraft,
       Urban Olson,
       Bock,
       Farrand
-
     Charles Gald Sibley, Jon E. Ahlquist-

                       -la presente lista non segue alcun ordine
-
      -
      -13. AUTORI DEI NOMI SCIENTIFICI
          Si rammenta che:
             -
           *AUTHOR, è il termine usato per indicare l'autore di un nome scientifico.
                 E' la persona che per prima ha pubblicato la descrizione di una specie .
-
            Elenco "Author data"
 

-

        - FOTO:

 Il Prof. Charles Gald SIBLEY usa il Neornithes:nomina avium-
--
-
V
--

da dx :
-L'autore, il Prof. Walter J.Bock (Segretario Permanente ICZN)
-e il Dr Violani - in piedi il Prof. Mocci De Martis Attilio
-controllano e provano il Neornithes: nomina avium, versione Beta
 IOC '94 Vienna
-
-

                  A.Masi e W.J.Bock


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   © Alberto Masi
       scricciolo@yahoo.com