Severtzov, Nikolai Alekseevich [Severtzow]
Childhood and the youth of Severtsov were conducted in the ancestral estate and was obtained domestic training. 16 years it entered the natural department of the division of physics and mathematics of Moscow University.
It began the zoological study of its native Voronezh province, which was finished and printed as the magisterial thesis in 1855 for this work of severtsov it obtained Demidov reward and was soon komandirovan into the scientific expedition to the lower reaches of the river of syrdar'i, for investigating the Kirghiz steppes another student.
Its journey continued two years (1857 - 58), during which Severtsov hardly it did not perish, since during the hunting it attacked kokandtsy, which severely it and transported by prisoner into Turkestan. Heavily ranennyy and patient, it spent month in captivity, and it was freed only because of the energetic insistence of General danzas, then chief of Syrdar line.
After being set right from the wounds, it again started scientific studies, which continued to the end of October of 1858 this first journey to Severtsovu it gave the extremely rich scientific material: to the purely zoological and zoogeograficheskim observations were joined geological, and the wide task arose before it: to investigate a question about the retreat of Caspian Sea and the population of Caspian lowland by animals of the adjacent countries.
On the return from the Kirghiz expedition, Severtsov it went to work to West Europe, and after returning then to Russia, it was appointed as the member of committee on the device of Ural Cossack troops (in 1860), moreover much made for the ordering of fish trades and was thoroughly studied the life of cartilaginous fish. In 1864 to it it was proposed to accompany into General chernyaev's march. During this march of Severtsov it accomplished excursions between Chew rivers and By syrdar'ey, then, into 1865 - 67 years, by it were investigated Tien Shan and environments of lake Issyk-Kul', in 1868 were produced additional excursions in The khodzhentskom district.
During these journeys By severtsovym was made the huge number of observations - zoological, geographical and geological, large collections were collected, the detailed maps of the passed localities were comprised, their orthography was studied and many new discoveries are made: in period 1869 - 73 it is annual it studied detailed processing of its results.
In 1871 it returned in the press its study "" the vertical and horizontal proliferation of Turkestan animals "". In 1873 appeared in the press detailed report about journeys 1857 - 58, 1864, 65 - 68 it was annual, under the title: "" journeys on the Turkestan edge and study of the mountain country of Tien Shan "". In the same year was printed in the collector "" nature "" the remarkable topography of argalis (mountain rams).
Moscow University honored Severtsova of the degree of the honorable doctor of zoology, and Parisian international geographical congress awarded large gold medal to it for the geographical discoveries.
In 1877 - 78 years Of severtsov as the chief of Fergan- Pamir scientific expedition investigated the unknown regions of the Pamirs, in 1879 (from May through October) to its own means it completed expeditions in the semirechenskeye region and West Siberia, from which returned at the end of 1879 results obtained by it in this time it it briefly presented in the speech at the general meeting of the VI congress of naturalists and doctors under the title: "" about the orographical formation of high Asia and its value for the propagation of animals "".
In the same period the article about Pamir animals and large article about the ancient journeys to the Pamirs were printed by it.
The remaining part of its life of Severtsov was conducted in Russia, partly in Moscow, partly in its estate (Voronezh province), processing the materials assembled by it. In this time they printed several works:
"" About the transient ways of the birds through Turkestan "", about the cross-breeds in the group of ducks, the monograph of eagles (for which it assembled materials since 1857), and finally "" the distribution of the birds of palearktiskoy region "" (prepared to the press, but it remained in the manuscript).
It died Severtsov suddenly; it went along ice it went along ice river of Don and fell through into the ice-hole: from immersion into the icy water in Severtsov a made the flow of the blood to the head and nervous impact, death began through it bore kol'ko of minutes. In its scientific activity of Severtsov it appears, in the first place, as traveller- researcher, the independently studied huge section of Central Asia and opened here much new, to it unknown, secondly - as the scientist: Severtsov with the large talent and the latitude of view processed very large, personally by it obtained material and drew on the basis of these observations the very general and thoroughly checked conclusions.
The factual material, obtained by severtsovym, is very great: one collection of birds (now locating in the emperor academy of sciences) embraces about 12000 copies (description of this collection, which belongs to Prof. M.A.Menzbier, now it is printed; left one volume under the title " Dr. N.A. Sewertzow Ornithologie Du Turkestan Et Des Pays Adjacents " (1888 - 1893).
Severtsov explained the orographical nature of the countries investigated by it, connected it with their zoological nature; established the dependence of the propagation of Turkestan animals on the height of their residence; the differences between the fauna of the European Alps and Tien Shan and reason for these differences were indicated.
It established the zoological regions of the huge section of Central Asia, from the Altai to the Pamirs inclusively; it composed the lists of birds along the regions and the provisory map of Pamir- Tien' -Wansko1 system in different geological epochs. In its studies about the transient ways of birds it connected the observations of Russian travellers in Siberia with the observations of Englishmen in India, baluchistan, Afghanistan, etc.